Timelines: Ancient Period - Formative - Historical Ephemeris

The Historical Ephemeris

600 BCE - CE 2200

Astrological Cycles in History

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Timelines: Ancient Period - Formative

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Historical Ephemeris

Astro-historical timeline 1:
Early Ancient Period
Waxing Neptune-Pluto hemicycle 600-334 BCE

Key:
* = a period of change or a general trend
? = an uncertain date


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Run-up list of significant historical events, 700-600 BCE


-700

* N AFRICA: EGYPTIAN LATE PERIOD (715-332); Egypt ruled by Ethiopia 715-663

 

 

-

MIDEAST: Assyrians conquer Judaea, Jerusalem, Phoenicia, destroy Babylon, Memphis & Thebes

 

 

-

* C AMERICA: OLMEC CIVILISATION (BCE 1200-400)

 

 

-

* MIDEAST: building of Assyrian capital at Nineveh (founding of Library at Nineveh)

 

 

-

* INDIA: end of LATE VEDIC PERIOD (1000-700); period of Aryan predomination in N India

 

 

-

* GREECE: Greek culture expanding; Sappho of Lesbos; Ionians adopt a money economy

 

 

-

* GREECE: deities Apollo, Dionysius (Bacchus) and Orphism gain acceptance in Greece.

 

 

-

* MIDEAST: Marduk temple (Babel) in Babylon begun (Nebuchadnezzar sponsors art & architecture)

 

 

-

* CHINA: decline of CHOU DYNASTY (1027-256BCE) (consolidators of Chinese governance & heritage)

 

 

-683

GREECE: monarchy replaced by officialdom (Archons) in Athens

 

 

-680

MIDEAST: Assyria reaches greatest territorial extent under Esarhaddon (680-669)

 

 

-668

MIDEAST: Ashurbanipal, Assyrian king (668-626) presides over cultural zenith at Nineveh

 

 

-663

N AFRICA: Egypt falls to Assyria, freed by Psamtik, Pharoah (663-609) (Egypt opens to Ionians)

 

 

-660

JAPAN: foundation of 1st Japanese state, the Yamato kingdom

 

 

-

PERSIA: approx birth of Zoroaster, prophet, in Media (later active in Bactria)

 

 

-654

* CHINA: gradual introduction of Iron technology into China

 

 

-650

GREECE: TYRANT' RULE IN GREECE (650-510) (Peisistratus to Hippias & Hipparchus)

 

 

-

GREECE: unrest & change in Ionia (power moves from nobility to mercantile classes and people)

 

 

-649

* MED'N: Carthage (Phoenician outpost) has own fleet and armies, exerts influence

 

 

-648

MIDEAST: Assyria conquers Babylon

 

 

-639

MIDEAST: Josiah, King of Judaea (639-09) (spiritual rebirth amongst Jews; prophet Jeremiah)

 

 

-625

PERSIA: Media becomes a major power under Cyaxares (625-585)

 

 

-624

GREECE: Athenian reform under Dracon (expanding trade, rise of middle class, peasant bondage)

 

 

-612

MIDEAST: Sack of Nineveh by Babylonians, Medes & Scythians, COLLAPSE OF ASSYRIAN POWER

 

 

-

MIDEAST: end of kingdom of Urartu (1270-612BCE) (Ararat, Armenia) by the Medes

 

 

-611

IDEAS: Anaximander of Miletus (611-546), philosopher (identifies marine origins of all life)

 

 

-604

MIDEAST: Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562) (Babylon flourishes under Chaldeans, great works built)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Full list starts here


-600

MED'N: Greeks found colony at Massilia (Marseilles, beating Phoenicians); colonies in Ukraine & Crimea

-600 UR -ssq NE Aq Pi

-

* GREECE: introduction of papyrus into Greece (writing down of hitherto oral laws & customs)

 

 

-599

* C AMERICA: earliest Mayan temple-pyramids built

 

 

-

 

 

 

-598

 

-598 Sa CONJ UR Aq Aq

 

-

 

 

 

-597

AFRICA: Phoenician mariners circumnavigate Africa (financed by Egyptians, taking three years)

 

 

-

 

 

 

-596

 

-596 UR -sxt PL Aq Ar

-596 NE Ar

-

 

 

 

-595

 

 

-595 NE Ar

-

 

 

 

-594

* GREECE: Athenian Archon Solon (640-560) (currency & social reform, law code, statesmanship)

-594 Sa CONJ NE Ar Ar

-594 UR Pi

-

 

 

 

-593

 

-593 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

-593 UR Pi

-

 

 

 

-592

 

-592 UR -ssx NE Pi Ar

 

-

 

-592 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

 

-591

 

-591 UR -ssq PL Pi Ar

 

-

 

-591 UR -ssx NE Pi Ar

 

-590

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-589

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-588

MIDEAST: Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar defeats Egyptians (shockwaves in sheltered Egypt)

 

-588 PL Ta

-

N AFRICA: Apries, Pharoah (588-568) weakens Egypt ('a broken reed'; invaded by Persia 525)

 

 

-587

MIDEAST: Babylonian destruction of Judaea and Jerusalem (end of kgdm of Judah, -925-587)

 

-587 PL Ta

-

 

 

-587 UR Ar

-586

MIDEAST: Phoenicia taken by Babylonians (539-332); Tyre besieged 585-573

-586 UR -ssx PL Ar Ta

-586 PL Ta

-

MIDEAST: Babylonian Captivity (586-36) of the Jews (during which Old Testament is compiled)

 

-586 UR Ar

-585

GREECE: GREEK RATIONALISM BEGINS: Thales of Miletus, Greek philosopher predicts an eclipse

 

 

-

 

 

 

-584

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-583

 

 

-583 NE Ta

-

 

 

 

-582

 

 

-582 NE Ta

-

 

 

 

-581

MIDEAST: Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar II burns Jerusalem

 

 

-

 

 

 

-580

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-579

 

-578 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta

-579 UR Ta

-

 

-578 Sa OPPN UR Sc Ta

 

-578

ROME: Servius Tullius (578-34), last king of Rome but one

-578 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

-578 UR Ta

-

 

-578 Sa OPPN NE Sc Ta

 

-577

* INDIA: Aryan cultural dominance in N India (over indigenous Dravidian culture)

-577 UR CONJ PL Ta Ta

 

-

* MED'N: expansion of Phoenician trading cities in Spain and Maghreb

-577 Sa OPPN UR Sc Ta

 

-576

* IDEAS: early writings of Old Testament (in Babylon) & Upanishads (in India)

-577 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

 

-

 

-577 Sa OPPN NE Sc Ta

 

-575

* CHINA: agricultural transformation (iron implements, use of oxen, irrigation, organisation)

-576 UR CONJ PL Ta Ta

 

-

 

-576 UR CONJ NE Ta Ta

 

-574

 

-575 UR CONJ NE Ta Ta

 

-

 

 

 

-573

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-572

 

 

-572 UR Ge

-

 

 

 

-571

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-570

IDEAS: Xenophanes of Colophon founds school of philosophy in S Italy

 

 

-

 

 

 

-569

N AFRICA: Amasis, Pharoah (569-25) ousts Apries (Egyptian decline, cultural diff'n & trade)

 

-569 NE Ge

-

 

 

 

-568

* IDEAS: Lao Tzu (605-520), teacher, founder of Taoism, active in China

-568 UR +ssx PL Ge Ta

-568 NE Ge

-

 

 

 

-567

INDIA: stabilisation of territories & daily life after Aryan expansion & domination

-567 UR +ssx PL Ge Ta

 

-

 

 

 

-566

 

 

-566 UR Cn

-

 

 

 

-565

 

 

-565 UR Cn

-

 

 

 

-564

 

-564 UR +ssq PL Cn Ta

 

-

 

 

 

-563

INDIA: Sakyamuni Gautama Buddha (563-483), teacher (or 550-480)

-563 UR +ssq PL Cn Ta

 

-

 

-563 UR +ssx NE Cn Ge

 

-562

MIDEAST: decline of Chaldean Babylon on death of Nebuchadnezzar (greatest monarch to date)

-562 UR +ssx NE Cn Ge

 

-

 

 

 

-561

GREECE: Croesus (561-46) subjugates Ionia & Greek states of Asia Minor (autonomy of cities kept)

-561 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

 

-

 

 

 

-560

GREECE: Athens advances culturally & politically under Peisistratus (benefits to ordinary people)

-560 UR +sxt PL Cn Ta

 

-

 

 

 

-559

PERSIA: Cyrus revolts against Media, founds a new Persian empire

-559 UR +sxt PL Cn Ta

-559 UR Le

-

 

-559 Sa CONJ NE Ge Ge

-559 PL Ge

-558

PERSIA: Zoroaster (630-553) (founder of Persian fire religion) begins prophetic work

 

-558 PL Ge

-

 

 

 

-557

 

-557 UR +ssq NE Le Ge

-557 PL Ge

-

 

 

 

-556

 

-556 UR +ssq NE Le Ge

-556 NE Cn

-

 

 

 

-555

* MED'N: Greek westward colonisation halted by Carthage & Etruscan pressure

-555 Sa CONJ UR Le Le

-555 NE Cn

-

 

 

 

-554

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-553

PERSIA: Elamite Cyrus the Great (553-29) welds Medes & Persians (Persia becomes great empire)

-553 NE +ssx PL Cn Ge

-553 UR Vi

-

 

 

 

-552

 

-552 UR +SQR PL Vi Ge

-552 UR Vi

-

 

-552 NE +ssx PL Cn Ge

 

-551

* PERSIA: Zoroastrianism becomes official religion of Persia

-551 UR +SQR PL Vi Ge

 

-

? IDEAS: Xenophanes founds a school of philosophy in Greece

-551 UR +sxt NE Vi Cn

 

-550

* GREECE: Age of 'Seven Wise Men of Greece'; height of influence of Delphic Oracle

-550 UR +sxt NE Vi Cn

-

GREECE: Peleponnesian League formed under Spartan military dominance

 

 

-549

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-548

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-547

MIDEAST: Cyrus I of Persia overthrows Croesus of Lydia (exposing Grecian city-states to attack)

 

-547 UR Li

-

 

 

 

-546

MIDEAST: Asia Minor under Persian rule (547-333) (until Alexander the Great)

 

-546 UR Li

-

 

 

 

-545

 

-545 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge

 

-

 

 

 

-544

GREECE: Heraklitus (544-483), Greek philosopher

-544 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge

 

-

 

 

 

-543

 

-543 UR +tri PL Li Ge –

 

-

 

-542 UR +tri PL Li Ge

-542 NE Le

-542

 

 

 

-541

* GREECE: Peisistratus, Tyrant of Athens (social, cultural, economic transformation)

-541 UR +tri PL Li Ge

-541 NE Le

-

 

 

 

-540

IDEAS: Deutero-Isaiah at work on Old Testament books during exile in Babylon

-540 Sa OPPN NE Aq Le

-540 UR Sc

-

* INDIA: Mahavira (d. -528), teacher, founds Jain religion (first rebel against caste system)

 

 

-539

MIDEAST: Phoenicia conquered by Persians

 

-539 UR Sc

-

 

 

 

-538

MIDEAST: FALL OF BABYLON; Mesopotamia under Persian rule (539-332) (until Alexander the Great);

-538 UR +SQR NE Sc Le

 

-

 

-538 NE +ssq PL Le Ge

-537

GREECE: tyranny of Polycrates of Samos (537-22) (Samos flourishes as Aegean power)

-538 UR +sqt PL Sc Ge

 

-

 

-537 UR +SQR NE Sc Le

 

-536

MIDEAST: Jews freed from Babylonian Captivity by Cyrus II of Persia

-537 NE +ssq PL Le Ge

 

-

 

-537 UR +sqt PL Sc Ge

 

-535

 

-536 NE +ssq PL Le Ge

-535 PL Cn

-

 

-535 NE +ssq PL Le Ge

 

-534

 

 

-534 PL Cn

-

 

 

 

-533

 

-533 UR +qcx PL Sg Cn

-533 PL Cn

-

 

 

-533 UR Sg

-532

 

-532 UR +qcx PL Sg Cn

 

-

 

 

 

-531

 

-531 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg

 

-

 

-531 UR +qcx PL Sg Cn

 

-530

* IDEAS: Pythagoras of Samos (581-497), philosopher & mathematician, active in Greece

-530 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg

 

-

 

 

 

-529

MIDEAST: Cambyses II of Persia invades Egypt (529-22, crunch 525) (end of independent Egypt)

-529 Sa CONJ PL Cn Cn

-529 NE Vi

-

 

 

 

-528

 

-528 Sa CONJ PL Cn Cn

-528 NE Vi

-

 

 

 

-527

 

 

-527 NE Vi

-

 

 

 

-526

MIDEAST: Cambyses II conquers Egypt; Egypt under Persian control 526-404 (becoming a backwater)

 

-526 UR Cp

-

 

 

 

-525

 

 

-525 UR Cp

-

 

 

 

-524

 

-524 UR +tri NE Cp Vi

 

-

 

-524 Sa CONJ NE Vi Vi

 

-523

PERSIA: revolt against Cambyses II, who dies; Darius I (523-486) ascends throne

-523 UR +tri NE Cp Vi

 

-

 

 

 

-522

PERSIA: Darius I organises provincial empire from Nile to Indus (taxes, currency, sound govt)

-522 UR +tri NE Cp Vi

 

-

 

 

 

-521

INDIA: Sakyamuni Buddha's first teaching at Deer Park, Benares (Enlightenment shortly before)

-521 UR OPPN PL Cp Cn

 

-

 

-521 UR +tri NE Cp Vi

 

-520

? N AFRICA: Darius I of Persia completes canal connecting Nile and Red Sea

-520 UR OPPN PL Cp Cn

 

-

 

 

 

-519

* CHINA: Chou feudal state declines (growth of pop'n, cities, admin, agriculture)

-519 UR OPPN PL Cp Cn

 

-

 

 

 

-518

* INDIA: Maghada becomes the dominant Hindu kingdom (rajah Bimbisara, 540-490)

-518 UR OPPN PL Cp Cn

-518 UR Aq

-

 

 

 

-517

 

 

-517 PL Le

-

 

 

 

-516

 

-516 UR +sqt NE Aq Vi

-516 PL Le

-

 

 

 

-515

* S ASIA: Sinhalese immigration into Ceylon

-515 UR +sqt NE Aq Vi

-515 PL Le

-

* MIDEAST: ACHAEMENID PERSIAN EMPIRE AT ITS ZENITH

 

-515 NE Li

-514

 

-514 UR +sqt NE Aq Li

-514 NE Li

-

 

 

 

-513

RUSSIA: Darius I of Persia beaten back by Scythians in Ukraine (failing expansionism)

-513 UR +sqt NE Aq Li

 

-

 

 

 

-512

INDIA: Gandhara & Sind incorporated into Persian empire by Darius I

-512 UR +sqt NE Aq Li

 

-

 

 

 

-511

IDEAS: Confucius (Kung Fu-tse, 551-479), Chinese philosopher and reformer, active

 

 

-

IDEAS: Siddhartha Gautama Buddha at peak of his teaching mission, north India

 

 

-510

GREECE: expulsion of last tyrant ruler of Athens (clearing the way for creation of democracy)

-510 Sa OPPN PL Aq Le

-510 UR Pi

-

ROME: FOUNDATION OF ROMAN REPUBLIC (treaty with Carthage over spheres of influence)

 

 

-509

GREECE: TYRANT CLEISTHENES' DEMOCRATIC REFORMS IN ATHENS (Greek democracy starts)

 

 

-

 

 

 

-508

 

-508 Sa CONJ UR Pi Pi

 

-

 

-508 UR +qcx NE Pi Li

 

-507

* INDIA: Ramayana written (classical Hindu religious poem)

-507 UR +qcx NE Pi Li

 

-

 

 

 

-506

GREECE: Athens overcomes Sparta, Boetia and Chalcedon (democracy spreads)

-506 UR +qcx NE Pi Li

 

-

 

-505 UR -qcx PL Pi Le

 

-505

* GREECE: Theatre at Delphi built; musical modes and octaves established by Pythagoras

-505 UR +qcx NE Pi Li

 

-

 

-505 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li

 

-504

* ITALY: high point of Etruscan political power in Central Italy; Etruscans defeat Romans

-504 UR -qcx PL Pi Le

 

-

 

-504 UR +qcx NE Pi Li

 

-503

* IDEAS: beginning of historical writing in Greece (Hecateus & Dionysius of Miletus)

-504 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li

-503 UR Ar

-

 

-503 UR -qcx PL Pi Le

-503 PL Vi

-502

* IDEAS: Aesop's Fables (moral stories)

-502 UR -qcx PL Ar Vi

-502 PL Vi

-

 

 

-502 UR Ar

-501

* C AMERICA: BIRTH OF ZAPOTEC CULTURE (BCE 500- CE 800, Monte Alban, Oaxaca, in Mexico)

-501 UR -qcx PL Ar Vi

-501 NE Sc

-

 

 

 


Uranus-Neptune-Pluto conjunction 578-575 BCE
Expansion of Babylon (Nebuchadnezzar); dominance of Aryans
in N India; Greek rationalism, Greek westward colonisation; expansion of Phoenicians; decline of Egypt; Lao Tzu; rise of Zoroastrianism


Uranus square Pluto 552-551 BCE
Growth of Zoroastrian Persia (Cyrus);
Seven Wise Men of Greece, zenith of Delphic oracle


Uranus square Neptune 538-537 BCE
Old Testament (Babylon); fall of Babylon and growth of Persia; freeing of Jews in Babylon; reforms in Athens (Peisistratus); founding of Jainism; Pythagoras at work


Uranus opposition Pluto 521-520 BCE
Zenith of Persia; decline of Chou (China); teaching of the Buddha; Confucius at work; dominance of Maghada (India); foundation
of Roman republic; democratic reforms in Athens

-500

AFRICA: Nok Culture (500BCE-200CE) in Northern Nigeria

-500 NE Sc

-

* MIDEAST: Aramaic language begins to replace Old Hebrew in Palestine

 

 

-499

GREECE: Ionian Revolt (499-4) (Greeks vs Persia, decline of Persian power)

 

 

-

* MED'N: Sardinia captured; Greek (Messina, Syracuse) & Phoenician (Carthage) move to west

 

 

-498

ROME: first Temple of Saturn in Rome

 

 

-

 

 

 

-497

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-496

 

-496 UR -sqt PL Ar Vi

-496 UR Ta

-

 

 

 

-495

* MIDEAST: Hanging Gardens of Babylon, plus much elegant building in Hellenistic world

-495 UR -sqt PL Ta Vi

-495 UR Ta

-

 

 

 

-494

ROME: Latin League against Etruscans (secession of plebeians, creation of tribunate)

-494 UR -sqt PL Ta Vi

 

-

 

-494 Sa CONJ PL Vi Vi

 

-493

GREECE: destruction of Miletus by Persia (deportation of inhabitants to Mesopotamia)

-493 UR -sqt PL Ta Vi

 

-

 

-493 Sa CONJ PL Vi Vi

 

-492

PERSIA: Darius I demands great tribute from Greece

-492 UR OPPN NE Ta Sc

 

-

 

-492 UR -sqt PL Ta Vi

 

-491

 

-491 UR OPPN NE Ta Sc

-491 PL Li

-

 

 

 

-490

GREECE: Bt of Marathon (Greeks beat Persians, Athens grows in influence)

-490 UR OPPN NE Ta Sc

-490 PL Li

-

 

 

 

-489

* CHINA: Confucian Analects set system of imperial and mandarin conduct (to last 2400 years)

-489 UR OPPN NE Ta Sc

-489 UR Ge

-

 

 

 

-488

 

-488 UR OPPN NE Ta Sc

-488 UR Ge

-

 

-488 UR -tri PL Ge Li

 

-487

? AFRICA: Hanno the Carthaginian explores down the west coast of Africa

-487 UR -tri PL Ge Li

-487 NE Sg

-

 

-487 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

 

-486

 

-487 Sa CONJ NE Sc Sc

-486 NE Sg

-

 

-486 UR -tri PL Ge Li

 

-485

PERSIA: decline increases on death of Darius I; successor Xerxes (485-465)

-486 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

 

-

 

-486 PL Peri 10Li

 

-484

 

-485 UR -tri PL Ge Li

 

-

 

-485 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

 

-483

GREECE: Themistocles builds Athenian navy

-484 UR -tri PL Ge Li

 

-

INDIA: death of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha

 

 

-482

 

 

-482 UR Cn

-

 

 

 

-481

* GREECE: Themistocles (-525-459), Athenian statesman & general (peak of influence)

 

-481 UR Cn

-

 

 

 

-480

GREECE: naval Bt of Salamis (Greeks beat Persians, ending Persian threat & winning independence)

 

-

PERSIA: revolts & uprisings in regions (power battles and repression)

 

 

-

MED'N: Syracuse (Greek) beats Carthage (Phoenician) in competition for Sicily & W Medn trade

 

 

-479

* GREECE: PERIOD OF GREEK CLASSICAL CULTURE (479-338); earthquake & sea wave kills thousands

-479 UR -qcx NE Cn Sg

-479 PL Sc

-

MIDEAST: Persians destroy Babylon after revolt (endpoint of a major ancient period)

 

 

-478

GREECE: Delian League (against Persia): beginning of Athenian domination of Greeks

-478 UR -qcx NE Cn Sg

-478 PL Sc

-

 

 

 

-477

 

-477 UR -qcx NE Cn Sg

 

-

 

 

 

-476

 

-476 UR -qcx NE Cn Sg

-476 UR Le

-

 

 

 

-475

 

-475 NE +ssq PL Sg Sc

-475 UR Le

-

 

-474 NE +ssq PL Sg Sc

 

-474

 

-474 Sa OPPN PL Ta Sc

 

-

 

-473 UR -SQR PL Le Sc

 

-473

 

-473 NE +ssq PL Sg Sc

-473 NE Cp

-

 

-473 UR -sqt NE Le Sg

 

-472

 

-472 UR -SQR PL Le Sc

-472 NE Cp

-

 

-472 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

 

-471

ROME: Plebeians in Rome choose their own Tribune

-472 UR -sqt NE Le Cp

 

-

 

-471 UR -SQR PL Le Sc

 

-470

 

-471 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

 

-

 

-471 UR -sqt NE Le Cp

 

-469

IDEAS: Socrates (469-399), Athenian philosopher & teacher

-470 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

-469 UR Vi

-

 

-470 UR -sqt NE Le Cp

 

-468

 

-470 Sa OPPN NE Cn Cp

 

-

 

-469 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

 

-467

 

-469 Sa OPPN NE Cn Cp

 

-

 

-468 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

 

-466

 

-467 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

-466 PL Sg

-

 

-467 UR -tri NE Vi Cp

 

-465

ITALY: democracy established in Syracuse (Greek colony)

-466 UR -tri NE Vi Cp

 

-

GREECE: disastrous earthquakes in Sparta (reducing population sharply, 20,000 dead)

-466 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

-465 PL Sg

-

GREECE: land & naval victories by Greeks against Persia (Greek security & hegemony in E Medn)

-465 UR -tri NE Vi Cp

 

-464

 

-465 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

 

-

 

-464 UR -tri NE Vi Cp

 

-463

 

-464 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

-463 UR Li

-

 

-464 Sa CONJ UR Vi Vi

 

-462

GREECE: rise of Pericles of Athens (500-429) (heralding Periclean Age of thinkers & artists)

-463 Sa CONJ UR Vi Vi

-462 UR Li

-

 

-463 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

 

-461

GREECE: building of long walls from Athens to Piraeus (461-56)

-461 UR -sxt PL Li Sg

 

-

 

 

 

-460

GREECE: war against Athens dominance (460-45) (halfhearted, Athens hegemony in Greece results)

-460 UR -sxt PL Li Sg

 

-

 

 

 

-459

 

 

-459 NE Aq

-

 

 

 

-458

CHINA: partition of the state of Ch'in (amongst the Han, Chao & Wei houses)

 

 

-

 

 

 

-457

MIDEAST: Ezra returns to Jerusalem to restore & record the Laws of Moses

 

 

-

 

 

 

-456

 

-456 Sa CONJ PL Sg Sg

-456 UR Sc

-

 

 

 

-455

 

-455 UR -ssq PL Sc Sg

 

-

 

 

 

-454

N AFRICA: Greek advances in Egypt beaten by Persian satrap Megabyzus

-454 UR -SQR NE Sc Aq

 

-

 

-454 UR -ssq PL Sc Sg

 

-453

* EUROPE: La Tene Celtic culture in ascendancy; first towns in Britain under High King Belinus

-453 UR -SQR NE Sc Aq

 

-

* INDIA: BEGINNING of MAGHADA EMPIRE ('cradle of Buddhism' , start of Mauryan empire

-452 UR -SQR NE Sc Aq

 

-452

BRITAIN: regular direct metal trading between Phoenicians and Britons starts (Cornwall)

 

 

-451

ROME: three Roman senators sent to Greece to study Greek laws

 

 

-

* ITALY: Etruscan power in Italy declining (prelude to Roman ascendancy)

 

 

-450

* MIDEAST: Torah becomes moral foundation of Jewish state (promoted by Ezra)

-450 Sa CONJ NE Aq Aq

-450 PL Cp

-

ROME: Twelve Tables of Roman Law codified by the Decemvirs (the State prevails over nobility)

 

 

-449

GREECE: peace between Delian League and Persia (Sparta seeks to end Athenian dominance)

-449 UR -ssx PL Sc Sg

-449 UR Sg

-

 

 

-449 PL Cp

-448

* EUROPE: rise of Massilia (Marseilles) (as Hellenistic port to W Europe via Rhone valley)

 

-

 

 

 

-447

MIDEAST: revolt of Syria province against Persia (led by Megabyzus)

 

 

-

 

 

 

-446

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-445

GREECE: Thirty Year Truce between Athens and Sparta (after uprisings & failed peace talks)

 

-445 NE Pi

-

 

 

 

-444

ROME: intermarriage permitted between classes in Rome (loosening society for future change)

 

 

-

 

 

 

-443

GREECE: Pericles elected Athenian general (heralds Athenian cultural expansion)

 

 

-

 

 

 

-442

 

 

-442 UR Cp

-

 

 

 

-441

 

-441 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

 

-

 

 

 

-440

MIDEAST: Judaean law forbids intermarriage of Jews with Gentiles (the Torah becomes moral core)

-440 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

 

-

 

-440 Sa OPPN PL Cn Cp

 

-439

ROME: Plebeian revolt in Rome; Lucius Cincinnatus becomes dictator

-439 Sa OPPN PL Cn Cp

 

-

 

 

 

-438

GREECE: consecration of the Parthenon (peak of Athenian grandeur)

-438 UR -sxt NE Cp Pi

 

-

 

-438 NE +sxt PL Pi Cp

 

-437

 

-437 UR CONJ PL Cp Cp

 

-

 

-437 NE +sxt PL Pi Cp

 

-436

 

-437 UR -sxt NE Cp Pi

 

-

 

-436 UR -sxt NE Cp Pi

 

-435

 

-436 NE +sxt PL Pi Cp

 

-

 

-435 NE +sxt PL Pi Cp

 

-434

 

-435 Sa OPPN NE Vi Pi

-434 UR Aq

-

 

-434 NE +sxt PL Pi Cp

 

-433

 

-434 Sa OPPN NE Vi Pi

 

-

 

 

 

-432

ROME: completion of Temple of Apollo

 

-432 NE Ar

-

 

 

 

-431

GREECE: Peloponnesian War (431-404) (Athens v Sparta & Corinth, for Aegean domination)

 

-431 NE Ar

-

GREECE: Pericles' "Shining example" oration about Athens (appraisal of Athenian achievements)

 

 

-430

GREECE: plague in Hellenistic world (430-23), particularly Athens

 

-430 PL Aq

-

 

 

 

-429

 

-429 UR -ssq NE Aq Ar

-429 PL Aq

-

 

 

 

-428

 

-428 UR -ssq NE Aq Ar

 

-

 

 

 

-427

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-426

GREECE: earthquake & three tsunamis kill thousands in C Greece (darkening times in Greece)

 

-426 UR Pi

-

 

 

 

-425

 

-425 UR +ssx PL Pi Aq

 

-

 

 

 

-424

 

-424 UR +ssx PL Pi Aq

 

-

 

 

 

-423

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-422

 

-422 Sa CONJ PL Aq Aq

 

-

 

 

 

-421

GREECE: Peace of Nicias (between Athens & Sparta -- strategic deadlock)

 

 

-

 

 

 

-420

IDEAS: Socrates (469-399) (Athenian philosopher & teacher) at work

-420 UR +ssq PL Pi Aq

 

-

 

-420 UR -ssx NE Pi Ar

 

-419

 

-419 UR +ssq PL Pi Aq

-419 UR Ar

-

 

-419 UR -ssx NE Pi Ar

-419 NE Ta

-418

 

-418 Sa CONJ UR Ar Ar

-418 UR Ar

-

 

 

-418 NE Ta

-417

 

-417 Sa CONJ UR Ar Ar

 

-

 

 

 

-416

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-415

ITALY: Sicilian expedition (415-13) by Athenians (disastrous failure of colonial attempt)

-415 Sa CONJ NE Ta Ta

 

-

 

 

 

-414

GREECE: renewal of war between Sparta & Athens

 

 

-

 

 

 

-413

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-412

CHINA: Ever-Normal Granary (a social security system, by King Wen of Wei)

 

-412 UR Ta

-

 

 

 

-411

GREECE: coup d'etat in Athens (oligarchy takes over from democracy in chaos)

 

-411 UR Ta

-

 

 

 

-410

* IDEAS: Herodotus (-485-424), "Father of History" (writes on Persian Wars & exploration)

 

 

-

 

 

 

-409

* EUROPE: migration of Celts from Upper Rhine & Danube to France, N Italy, Spain, Britain

 

 

-

 

 

 

-408

GREECE: Athenians capture Byzantium

-408 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq

 

-

 

 

 

-407

PERSIA: revolts of Medians against Persia (unsuccessful, Persia struggling)

-407 NE +SQR PL Ta Aq

 

-

 

-407 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq

 

-406

* GREECE: Athens democracy dies 411; surrender to Sparta 404; democracy & ind restored 402

-406 NE +SQR PL Ta Aq

 

-

 

 

 

-405

GREECE: Spartan navy destroys Athenian navy: end Peloponnesian War (Greece fails to unite)

-405 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

-405 PL Pi

-

* S AMERICA: ZENITH of CHAVIN CULTURE and INFLUENCE (400-200 BCE, Equador))

-405 UR +SQR PL Ge Pi

-405 NE Ge

-404

GREECE: surrender of Athens to Sparta (after plague & starvation of city by siege)

-404 UR CONJ NE Ge Ge

-405 UR Ge

-

* GREECE: end of Athenian (or any) dominance in Greece

-404 NE +SQR PL Ta Aq

-404 NE Ge

-403

CHINA: CHAN-KUO, WARRING STATES ERA (403-221) (mandarin-ruled city-states & landscapes)

-404 UR +SQR PL Ge Pi

-404 PL Pi

-

* C AMERICA: decline of Olmec civilisation (Mexico, 1200-400BCE, 1st high culture in Americas)

 

-404 UR Ge

-402

GREECE: Athenian democracy restored (after Spartan subjugation)

 

 

-

* E AFRICA: Iron working spreads into East Africa (Ethiopia)

 

-401

PERSIA: Iranian viceroy recruits The Ten Thousand (Greek mercenaries) against Persia (failure)

 

 

-

* C AMERICA: steep decline of Olmec civilisation (La Venta, Mexico)

 

 


Uranus opposition Neptune 492-488 BCE
Greeks beat Persians (Bt of Marathon); Hanging Gardens
of Babylon; Analects of Confucius; ascendancy of Greece


Uranus square Pluto 473-471 BCE
Socrates at work; rise of plebeians in Rome


Uranus square Neptune 454-452 BCE
Maghada empire (India); La Tene Celtic culture at peak; consolidation of Jewish nation; Twelve Tables of Roman Law


Uranus conjunct Pluto 437 BCE
Jewish intermarriage with gentiles forbidden;
competiton between Greek states for dominance


Neptune square Pluto 407-404 BCE
Uranus square Pluto 405-404 BCE
Uranus conjunct Neptune 404 BCE

Historian Herodotus at work; zenith of Chavin culture (Bolivia); end of Athenian dominance in Greece; Warring States Era starts, China; sudden decline of Olmec civilisation, Mexico; writing of Mahabharata and the Pentateuch

 

-400

* MIDEAST: Pentateuch (Five Books of Moses) takes form in Palestine

 

 

-

* INDIA: approx period of writing of Mahabharata (classical Hindu religious work); popn 25m

 

 

-399

GREECE: Spartans wage war on Persia & Athens; Persia joins Sparta against Athens 394

 

-398 UR Cn

-

* S AMERICA: dawn of MOCHICA CULTURE (coastal Peru, 400BCE-600CE, zenith +50-600CE)

 

 

-397

IDEAS: Plato's independent work begins after Socrates' death 399

-397 UR +tri PL Cn Pi

-397 UR Cn

-

* S AMERICA: decline of Paracas culture (Andean Peru, proto-Nazca, 600-400BCE)

-397 Sa OPPN NE Sg Ge

 

-396

ITALY: Romans capture Etruscan capital of Veii after 10 years siege (Etruscan decline)

-396 UR +tri PL Cn Pi

 

-

 

 

 

-395

 

-395 UR +tri PL Cn Pi

 

-

 

-395 Sa OPPN UR Cp Cn

 

-394

* GREECE: Greece lapses into disunity & calamity (ending with Macedonian conquest -338)

-394 Sa OPPN UR Cp Cn

 

-

 

 

 

-393

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-392

 

-392 UR +sqt PL Cn Pi

-392 UR Le

-

 

-392 UR +ssx NE Le Cn

-392 NE Cn

-391

 

-391 UR +sqt PL Cn Pi

-391 UR Le

-

 

-391 UR +ssx NE Le Cn

-391 NE Cn

-390

ITALY: newly immigrated Celts sack Rome, withdraw with booty (Roman awareness rising)

 

 

-

 

 

 

-389

 

-389 UR +qcx PL Le Pi

 

-

 

-389 Sa CONJ PL Pi Pi

 

-388

IDEAS: Plato, philosopher (427-347) (pupil of Socrates 407-399) founds Academy of Athens

-388 UR +qcx PL Le Pi

 

-

 

 

 

-387

GREECE: peace between Sparta and Athens: Asia Minor cities ceded to Persia

-387 UR +qcx PL Le Pi

 

-

 

 

 

-386

ROME: Rome rebuilt, city walls 377 (after Celtic raids)

-386 UR +ssq NE Le Cn

-386 UR Vi

-

 

 

 

-385

 

-385 UR +ssq NE Vi Cn

-385 UR Vi

-

 

 

 

-384

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-383

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-382

 

-382 NE +tri PL Cn Pi

 

-

 

-381 UR OPPN PL Vi Pi

 

-381

 

-381 NE +tri PL Cn Pi

 

-

 

-380 UR OPPN PL Vi Pi

 

-380

N AFRICA: Egyptian 30th Dynasty (380-343) (last native dynasty)

-380 UR +sxt NE Vi Cn

 

-

 

-380 NE +tri PL Cn Pi

 

-379

GREECE: massacres of Spartan tyrants at Thebes (dissent in Sparta)

-380 Sa CONJ NE Cn Cn

-379 UR Li

-

 

-379 UR OPPN PL Vi Pi

 

-378

 

-379 UR +sxt NE Vi Cn

-378 UR Li

-

 

-379 NE +tri PL Cn Pi

-378 NE Le

-377

 

-378 NE +tri PL Cn Pi

-377 NE Le

-

 

 

 

-376

 

 

-376 PL Ar

-

 

 

 

-375

 

-375 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

-375 PL Ar

-

 

 

 

-374

 

-374 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

-374 PL Ar

-

 

 

 

-373

 

 

-373 UR Sc

-

 

 

 

-372

 

-372 Sa CONJ UR Li Li

-372 UR Sc

-

 

-372 UR -qcx PL Sc Ar

 

-371

GREECE: Sparta hegemony in Greece defeated (Sparta begins to decline in influence)

-371 UR -qcx PL Sc Ar

 

-

 

 

 

-370

* S AMERICA: dawn of NAZCA CULTURE (Andean Peru, 370BCE-450CE)

-370 NE +sqt PL Le Ar

 

-

 

-370 UR -qcx PL Sc Ar

 

-369

* GREECE: Peloponnese Confederation (beginning of end of independent city states)

-369 NE +sqt PL Le Ar

 

-

 

 

 

-368

 

-368 NE +sqt PL Le Ar

 

-

 

-368 UR -sqt PL Sc Ar

 

-367

 

-367 UR +SQR NE Sc Le

 

-

 

-367 NE +sqt PL Le Ar

 

-366

ROME: first plebeian elected to office of consul

-367 UR -sqt PL Sc Ar

-366 UR Sg

-

 

-366 UR +SQR NE Sc Le

 

-365

 

-366 NE +sqt PL Le Ar

-365 UR Sg

-

 

-366 UR -sqt PL Sc Ar

-365 NE Vi

-364

INDIA: rise of Nanda dynasty in Maghada, Ganges valley (prelude to Mauryan dynasty)

-365 UR +SQR NE Sc Le

-364 NE Vi

-

 

 

 

-363

 

-363 UR -tri PL Sg Ar

 

-

 

 

 

-362

ITALY: wars between Rome and surrounding peoples draw them into Roman fold

-362 UR -tri PL Sg Ar

 

-

 

-362 PL Aphn 12Ar

 

-361

 

-361 Sa OPPN NE Pi Vi

 

-

 

 

 

-360

 

-360 Sa OPPN NE Pi Vi

 

-

 

 

 

-359

GREECE: rise of Macedon: Philip II reorganises and expands Macedon, overcomes Greece by 337

 

 

-

 

 

 

-358

CHINA: minister Shang Yang (358-38) organises cent gov't, officialdom, law & agric in Ch'in

-358 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

-358 UR Cp

-

 

 

 

-357

 

-357 NE +qcx PL Vi Ar

 

-

 

 

 

-356

CHINA: building of the first wall against Mongolian nomad incursions

-356 NE +qcx PL Vi Ar

 

-

 

 

 

-355

 

-355 NE +qcx PL Vi Ar

 

-

 

 

 

-354

ITALY: alliance between Rome & Samnites (to resist Celts & dominate local tribes)

-354 NE +qcx PL Vi Ar

 

-

 

 

 

-353

 

-353 UR -SQR PL Cp Ar

 

-

 

 

 

-352

? PERSIA: revolt of Persian Jews against Artaxerxes III

-352 UR -SQR PL Cp Ar

 

-

 

-352 UR +tri NE Cp Vi

 

-351

* EUROPE: movement of Celts from S France to N Italy (decline of Etruscan power)

-351 UR +tri NE Cp Vi

-351 NE Li

-

 

-351 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

 

-350

* CHINA: ZENITH OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY (350-200): Taoist, Legalist, Confucian schools

-350 UR +tri NE Aq Li

-350 UR Aq

-

* C AMERICA: EARLIEST MAYAN CITY-STATES FOUNDED, Peten, S Mexico

-350 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

-350 NE Li

-349

MIDEAST: Phoenician cities Tyre, Sidon, Byblus & Aradus secede from Persia

-349 UR +tri NE Aq Li

 

-

 

 

 

-348

MED'N: 2nd treaty & trade agreement between Rome & Carthage

 

 

-

 

 

 

-347

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-346

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-345

* IDEAS: Aristotle (384-22), philosopher, at work (teacher to Alexander the Great)

-345 Sa CONJ NE Li Li

-345 PL Ta

-

 

-344 UR +sqt NE Aq Li

 

-344

 

-344 Sa CONJ NE Li Li

-344 PL Ta

-

 

-343 UR +sqt NE Pi Li

 

-343

N AFRICA: Persians reconquer Egypt under Artaxerxes III

-343 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

-343 PL Ta

-

 

-343 UR -sxt PL Pi Ta

-343 UR Pi

-342

ITALY: first Samnite war (343-341)

-342 UR +sqt NE Pi Li

-342 UR Pi

-

 

-342 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

 

-341

 

-341 UR +sqt NE Pi Li

 

-

 

 

 

-340

ITALY: Latin war (340-38); Romans & Samnites subdue neighbour tribes (Rome grows in strength)

-340 UR +sqt NE Pi Li

 

-

 

 

 

-339

ROME: first use of coinage in Rome

 

 

-

 

 

 

-338

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-337

GREECE: Philip II of Macedon unites Greece (Corinthian League), (war with Persia; dies 336)

 

-337 NE Sc

-

 

 

 

-336

GREECE: REIGN OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT (336-323) (end of Greek Classical culture)

-336 UR +qcx NE Pi Li

-336 NE Sc

-

GREECE: Alexander suppresses revolt by Thebes, Athens & Peloponnesus; destroys Thebes 335

 

 

-335

GREECE: Aristotle founds Athenian School of Philosophy (first university; dies -322)

-335 UR +qcx NE Ar Sc

-335 UR Ar

-

 

 

 

-334

GREECE: Alexander's campaign of invasion (334-323) starts (Persia defeated 333, subdued 328)

-334 UR +qcx NE Ar Sc

 

-

 

-333 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

 


Uranus opposition Pluto 381-379 BCE
Rome rebuilt after sacking by Celts (formative time for Rome); Plato at work; ascendancy of Maghada (India); birth of Nazca culture (Peru)


Uranus square Neptune 367-365 BCE
Roman expansionism in Italy; decline in Greece, end of independent city-states; Mongol incursions into China (Great Wall begun); change in Mexico


Neptune opposition Pluto 333-332 BCE
Zenith of Chinese philosophy; founding of Mayan city-states; Alexander the Great takes Greece, dramatic invasion of Near East; coinage used in Rome, Roman expansion; expansion of Ch'u, rise of Qin dynasty, China.


Uranus conjunct Pluto 323 BCE
Uranus opposition Neptune 321-17 BCE

End of Alexander's empire, kgdms of the Diadochi (successors); rise of Mauryan dynasty (India); rise of Tumaco culture (Colombia); Mencius, philosopher; independence of Armenia

Next: Later Ancient Period
Back: Introduction to Timelines

The Historical Ephemeris © Copyright Palden Jenkins 1993-99

The Historical Ephemeris
by Palden Jenkins
Astro-historical tables for 2,500 years

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