Timelines: Ancient Period - Classical - Historical Ephemeris

The Historical Ephemeris

600 BCE - CE 2200

Astrological Cycles in History

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Astro-historical timeline 2:
Later Ancient Period
Waning Neptune-Pluto hemicycle 334-83 BCE


Key:
* = a period of change or a general trend
? = an uncertain date


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-334

GREECE: Alexander's campaign of invasion (334-323) starts (Persia defeated 333, subdued 328)

-334 UR +qcx NE Ar Sc

 

-

-333 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

 

-333

CHINA: expansion of the state of Ch'u, annexing Yueh (Period of Warring States)

-333 UR +qcx NE Ar Sc

 

-

-333 UR -ssx PL Ar Ta

 

-332

MIDEAST: Alexander invades Syria, Babylon, Palestine & Egypt

-332 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

 

-

-332 UR +qcx NE Ar Sc

 

-331

-332 UR -ssx PL Ar Ta

 

-

-331 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

 

-330

MIDEAST: ALEXANDRIAN EMPIRE ESTABLISHED (capital at Babylon; Spartans revolt)

-330 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

-

 

 

-329

-329 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

 

-

 

 

-328

CHINA: CH'IN (QIN) DYNASTY GAIN CONTROL OF NW CHINA (becoming masters of China by 221)

-328 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

-328 UR Ta

-

 

 

-327

INDIA: Alexander invades NW India (327-325) (fuelled by idea of world domination)

-327 Sa CONJ UR Ta Ta

-327 UR Ta

-

 

 

-326

ITALY: second Samnite War (326-04) in Italy (growth of Roman power & territories)

-326 Sa OPPN NE Ta Sc

 

-

-326 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

 

-325

INDIA: Chandragupta Maurya (a young adventurer, later emperor) meets up with Alexander

-325 Sa OPPN NE Ta Sc

-

* S AMERICA: rise of TUMACO CULTURE (mountain Colombia, goldworking, Spanish 'El Dorado')

 

 

-324

MIDEAST: integration of Alexandrian Empire (law, intermarriage, cities, economic growth)

 

 

-

 

 

-323

MIDEAST: Alexander the Great dies (age 33): DIADOCHI WARS (323-301) between his successors

-323 UR CONJ PL Ta Ta

-323 NE Sg

-

 

 

-322

CHINA: Mencius teaches that popular welfare be the condition of royal authority in N China

 

-322 NE Sg

-

 

 

-321

* N AFRICA: Alexandria becomes centre of Greek, Jewish & ancient learning

-321 UR OPPN NE Ge Sg

-321 UR Ge

-

 

 

-320

* MIDEAST: Diadochi kgdms: Seleucid (Syria-Persia), Ptolemaic (Egypt), Antigonid (Greece)

-320 UR OPPN NE Ge Sg

-320 UR Ge

-

 

 

-319

GREECE: autonomy restored to Grecian cities under Macedonian Antigonids

-319 UR OPPN NE Ge Sg

-

 

 

 

-318

INDIA: CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA founds MAURYAN DYNASTY (reconquers N India after Greeks)

-318 UR OPPN NE Ge Sg

 

-

 

 

 

-317

MIDEAST: Ardvates (317-284) creates independent Armenia (previously Alexandrian & Persian)

-317 UR OPPN NE Ge Sg

 

-

 

 

 

-316

GREECE: Thebes rebuilt after destruction in -335 by Alexander (purge of Alexandrian influence)

 

 

-

 

 

 

-315

ITALY: enlightened rule of Agathocles of Syracuse (317-310)

 

-315 PL Ge

-

 

 

 

-314

MIDEAST: Seleucids take over Palestine

-314 UR +ssx PL Cn Ge

-314 PL Ge

-

 

 

-314 UR Cn

-313

 

 

-313 PL Ge

-

 

 

-312

MIDEAST: beginning of Seleucid era (first continuous historical dating system)

 

 

-

 

 

-311

ROME: beginning of great roadbuilding & construction: Appian Way & viaduct

 

 

-

 

 

 

-310

-310 UR +ssq PL Cn Ge

 

-

-310 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge

 

-309

 

 

-309 NE Cp

-

 

 

 

-308

-308 UR -qcx NE Le Cp

-308 UR Le

-

 

 

-307

GREECE: democracy restored in Athens

-307 UR -qcx NE Le Cp

-307 UR Le

-

CHINA: military ascendancy of state of Chao (through adoption of Tatar culture & techniques)

-307 Sa CONJ NE Cp Cp

-306

N AFRICA: building of Library & Museum at Alexandria (under Ptolemy Soter, Greek historian/general)

-306 UR -qcx NE Le Cp

-

 

 

-305

-305 UR -qcx NE Le Cp

 

-

-305 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

 

-304

N AFRICA: Greek PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY (304- 30BCE) in Egypt by Ptolemy Soter

-304 Sa OPPN UR Aq Le

-

-304 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

 

-303

INDIA: Chandragupta Maurya beats Seleucus Nicator, gaining NW India from Greeks

-303 Sa OPPN UR Aq Le

-

-303 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

 

-302

-302 UR -sqt NE Le Cp

-302 UR Vi

-

-302 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

 

-301

MIDEAST: Bt of Ipsus (in Phrygia) settles most disputes between Diadochi (Successors)

-301 UR -sqt NE Vi Cp

-301 UR Vi

-

N AFRICA: Ptolemy I founds the Museum of Alexandria

-301 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

 


Neptune opposition Pluto 333-332 BCE
Zenith of Chinese philosophy; founding of Mayan city-states; Alexander the Great takes Greece, dramatic invasion of Near East; coinage used in Rome, Roman expansion; expansion of Ch'u, rise of Qin dynasty, China.


Uranus conjunct Pluto 323 BCE
Uranus opposition Neptune 321-17 BCE

End of Alexander's empire, kgdms of the Diadochi (successors); rise of Mauryan dynasty (India); rise of Tumaco culture (Colombia); Mencius, philosopher; independence of Armenia

-300

? IDEAS: Euclid's works on geometry

-300 UR -sqt NE Vi Cp

-

* S AMERICA: downfall of Chorrera culture (Equador)

 

 

-299

* AMERICAS: Sun Temple at Teotihuacan, Mexico, built

-299 UR -sqt NE Vi Cp

 

-

* C ASIA: Sarmatians (from Siberia) conquer the Ukrainian Scythians

 

-298

-298 UR +SQR PL Vi Ge

 

-

 

 

-297

* CHINA: Meng-Tzu (Mencius, 373-288) at work (philosophical successor to Confucius)

-297 UR +SQR PL Vi Ge

 

-

 

 

-296

-296 UR -tri NE Vi Cp

-296 UR Li

-

 

 

-295

-295 UR -tri NE Vi Cp

-295 UR Li

-

 

-295 NE Aq

-294

-294 UR -tri NE Li Aq

 

-

-294 Sa CONJ PL Ge Ge

 

-293

ITALY: third Samnite war; Etruscans & Samnites subjected to Roman domination

-293 UR -tri NE Li Aq

 

-

 

 

-292

 

 

-

 

 

-291

-291 Sa OPPN NE Le Aq

 

-

 

 

-290

-290 Sa OPPN NE Le Aq

-290 PL Cn

-

 

 

-289

IDEAS: Zeno of Citium (336-263), founder of Stoicism (beginning of humanism & idealism)

-289 NE -sqt PL Aq Ge

-289 PL Cn

-

 

-289 UR Sc

-288

ITALY: Romans defeated by the Celts at Bt of Arretium (turning point for Romans)

-288 UR +tri PL Sc Cn

-288 UR Sc

-

-288 NE -sqt PL Aq Cn

 

-287

ROME: Plebeians granted equality before law with Patricians (cosmopolitan social changes)

-287 UR +tri PL Sc Cn

-

-287 NE -sqt PL Aq Cn

 

-286

-286 NE -sqt PL Aq Cn

 

-

 

 

-285

-285 NE -sqt PL Aq Cn

 

-

 

 

-284

-284 NE -sqt PL Aq Cn

 

-

 

 

-283

MED'N: Corsica taken by Romans (beginning of intentional expansion overseas)

-283 UR -SQR NE Sc Aq

 

-

-283 UR +sqt PL Sc Cn

 

-282

ITALY: Roman domination of Central Italy secured (after campaigns against Samnites & Celts)

-282 UR -SQR NE Sc Aq

-282 NE Pi

-

-282 UR +sqt PL Sc Cn

-282 UR Sg

-281

IDEAS: Aristarchus of Samos (320-250), astronomer (heliocentric universe, rotation of earth)

-281 UR -SQR NE Sg Pi

-281 NE Pi

-

-281 Sa CONJ UR Sg Sg

-281 UR Sg

-280

MIDEAST: est of kingdom of Pontus (280-047BCE) on Black Sea & Bosporus

-280 UR -SQR NE Sg Pi

 

-

-279

MIDEAST: incursion of Celts in Greece & Asia Minor, est kgdm of Galatia (278-074BCE) in Anatolia

 

 

-

 

 

-278

* GREECE: gradual decline (278-145) of Greece as a world force (loss of purpose)

 

 

-

 

 

-277

-277 UR +qcx PL Sg Cn

 

-

 

 

-276

-276 UR +qcx PL Sg Cn

 

-

-276 Sa OPPN PL Cp Cn

 

-275

MED'N: Colossus (Rhodos) and Pharos (lighthouse at Alexandria) completed

 

 

-

 

 

-274

 

-274 UR Cp

-

 

 

-273

-

 

 

-272

ITALY: ROMAN DOMINATION OF ITALY (after defeat of Tarentum & Pyrrhus in S Italy)

 

 

-

 

 

-271

-271 Sa CONJ NE Pi Pi

-271 PL Le

-

 

 

-270

IDEAS: Aristarchus of Samos proposes a heliocentric universe (Earth orbits the Sun)

 

-270 PL Le

-

 

 

-269

-

 

 

-268

GREECE: Antigonus II takes Athens (frees it in -255)

-268 NE Ar

-

* INDIA: ASOKA, MAURYAN EMPEROR (268-233, at first warlike, later benevolent & exemplary)

 

 

-267

 

-267 NE Ar

-

 

-267 UR Aq

-266

 

-266 UR Aq

-

-265

ROME: Greek prisoners of war convey medical and other knowledge to Romans

-265 UR -sxt NE Aq Ar

 

-

 

 

-264

MED'N: first Punic War (-264-241) Rome v Carthage (struggle to control Mediterranean starts in Sicily)

-264 UR OPPN PL Aq Le

 

-

-264 UR -sxt NE Aq Ar

 

-263

-263 UR OPPN PL Aq Le

 

-

 

 

-262

GREECE: Athens becomes independent from Macedon (cultural centre but not economically great)

-262 UR OPPN PL Aq Le

-

 

 

-261

-261 UR OPPN PL Aq Le

 

-

-261 Sa OPPN UR Le Aq

 

-260

INDIA: Asoka crushes last major opponent (converts to Buddhism shortly afterwards)

-261 Sa CONJ PL Le Le

 

-

-260 Sa OPPN UR Le Aq

 

-259

-260 Sa CONJ PL Le Le

-259 UR Pi

-

-259 Sa OPPN UR Vi Pi

 

-258

 

 

-

 

 

-257

 

-257 PL Vi

-

 

 

-256

-256 UR -ssq NE Pi Ar

-256 PL Vi

-

 

 

-255

-255 Sa OPPN NE Li Ar

-255 NE Ta

-

 

 

-254

-254 Sa OPPN NE Sc Ta

-254 NE Ta

-

 

 

-253

 

 

-

 

 

-252

 

-252 UR Ar

-

 

 

-251

ASIA: Asoka sends Buddhist missions to C Asia, Syria, Egypt, Greece, Burma & Sri Lanka

 

-251 UR Ar

-

 

 

-250

* CHINA: humanitarian Hsun-Tzu encourages education, legalist conduct & conformity in Ch'in

 

 

-

 

 

-249

* INNOVN: parchment produced at Pergamum, Anatolia

 

-

 

 

-248

-248 UR -ssx NE Ar Ta

 

-

 

 

-247

PERSIA: est of independent feudal kgdm of Parthia in Transoxiania, by Arsaces I

-247 UR -ssx NE Ar Ta

 

-

 

 

-246

CHINA: Shih Huang-Ti takes Ch'in throne (with Legalist minister Li Ssu & general Meng T'ien)

 

 

-

 

 

-245

-245 UR -qcx PL Ar Vi

-245 PL Li

-

 

 

-244

-244 UR -qcx PL Ta Li

-244 PL Li

-

 

-244 UR Ta

-243

GREECE: Agis IV of Sparta attempts to set up early communistic reforms (243-1, see also 227)

-243 UR -qcx PL Ta Li

-243 UR Ta

-

 

 

-242

-242 UR -qcx PL Ta Li

-242 NE Ge

-

 

 

-241

-241 Sa OPPN PL Ar Li

-241 NE Ge

-

-241 UR -qcx PL Ta Li

 

-240

* C ASIA: Bactrian Greeks break away from Seleucids (forming Graeco-Turkic culture in Afghanistan)

-240 HALLEY'S COMET

-

-240 Sa OPPN PL Ar Li

 

-239

INNOVN: first record of Halley's Comet (China)

-239 PL Peri 13Li

 

-

C ASIA: Bactrian Greeks (Afghanistan-NW India) break away from Seleucids (Persia-Syria)

 

 

-238

MED'N: Rome takes Sardinia and Corsica from Carthage; Carthage colonises S Spain

 

 

-

 

 

-237

-237 Sa CONJ UR Ge Ge

-237 UR Ge

-

-237 UR -sqt PL Ge Li

 

-236

GREECE: war between Sparta & Achaean League

-236UR -sqt PL Ge Li

 

-

-236 Sa CONJ NE Ge Ge

 

-235

IDEAS: Eratosthenes calculates the Earth's circumerence

-235 UR -sqt PL Ge Li

 

-

 

 

-234

-234 UR -sqt PL Ge Li

-234 PL Sc

-

 

 

-233

CHINA: end of classical period of philosophy (on death of Hsun-Tsu)

-233 UR CONJ NE Ge Ge

-232 PL Sc

-

-233 UR -sqt PL Ge Li

 

-232

INDIA: Asoka dies (last great Mauryan Emperor, end of a great era in India)

-232 UR CONJ NE Ge Ge

-

 

 

-231

 

-231 UR Cn

-

 

 

-230

* IDEAS: Archimedes of Syracuse (280-212), mathematician, physics, at work

-230 NE -sqt PL Ge Sc

-230 UR Cn

-

 

 

-229

-229 UR -tri PL Cn Sc

 

-

-229 NE -sqt PL Ge Sc

 

-228

-228 UR -tri PL Cn Sc

-228 NE Cn

-

-228 NE -sqt PL Ge Sc

 

-227

GREECE: Cleomenes III (227-22) reactivates communistic reforms in Sparta

-227 UR -tri PL Cn Sc

-227 NE Cn

-

-227 NE -sqt PL Cn Sc

 

-226

-226 UR -tri PL Cn Sc

 

-

-226 NE -sqt PL Cn Sc

 

-225

ITALY: Celts defeated by Rome in Etruria

-225 NE -sqt PL Cn Sc

 

-

 

 

-224

-224 NE -sqt PL Cn Sc

-224 UR Le

-

 

 

-223

MIDEAST: Antiochus III the Great (223-187) (greatest of Seleucid kings)

-223 NE -sqt PL Cn Sc

 

-

-223 Sa CONJ PL Sc Sc

 

-222

ITALY: Rome conquers N Italy

-222 NE -sqt PL Cn Sc

 

-

 

 

-221

* CHINA: UNIFICATION & STANDARDISATION by Ch'in modernist emp SHI HUANG-TI (221-09)

-221 NE -sqt PL Cn Sc

-221 PL Sg

-

-221 UR +ssx NE Le Cn

 

-220

* IDEAS: Eratosthenes of Cyrene, geographer, historian, astronomer, at work at Alexandria

-220 NE -sqt PL Cn Sg

-220 PL Sg

-

-220 UR +ssx NE Le Cn

 

-219

-219 NE -sqt PL Cn Sg

 

-

 

 

-218

MED'N: Second Punic War (218-01) (Rome v Carthage); Hannibal fails to beat Rome, loses Spain

-218 NE -sqt PL Cn Sg

-218 UR Vi

-

-217 UR -SQR PL Vi Sg

 

-217

N AFRICA: disastrous earthquakes kill 50,000 people, ruining 100 towns

-217 NE -sqt PL Cn Sg

-217 UR Vi

-

-217 Sa OPPN NE Cp Cn

 

-216

ITALY: Bt of Cannae, Hannibal wins worst Roman defeat ever); Hannibal retires (bad supplies)

-216 UR -SQR PL Vi Sg

-

-216 NE -sqt PL Cn Sg

 

-215

GREECE: internal division between states for & against Rome; Macedon allies with Carthage

-215 UR -SQR PL Vi Sg

-215 NE Le

-

-215 NE -sqt PL Cn Sg

 

-214

CHINA: building of earthen Great Wall (1400 miles), roads & canals; Shih Huang Ti invades S China

-215 UR +ssq NE Vi Le

-214 NE Le

-

-214 UR -SQR PL Vi Sg

 

-213

CHINA: "Burning of the Books" by Shih Huang-Ti (to suppress feudalism & traditionalism)

-214 NE -sqt PL Cn Sg

-

-214 UR +ssq NE Vi Cn

 

-212

CHINA: standardisation & simplification of Chinese script by Li Ssu, adviser to Shih Huang Ti

-213 Sa OPPN UR Pi Vi

-212 UR Li

-

-212 Sa OPPN UR Pi Vi

 

-211

ROME: Carthaginians under Hannibal before the walls of Rome

-211 Sa OPPN UR Ar Li

-211 UR Li

-

MIDEAST: Seleucids annex Armenia (211-190)

 

-210

ITALY: Sicily reconquered by Rome from Carthage

 

-

 

 

-209

* ASIA: formation of first Turkic empire of Hsiung-Nu in Mongolia

-209 UR +sxt NE Li Le

 

-

 

 

-208

PERSIA: Seleucid Antiochus III attempts & fails to suppress Parthians & Graeco-Bactrians

-208 UR +sxt NE Li Le

-

* C AMERICA: ASCENDANCY OF TEOTIHUACAN state, Valley of Mexico

 

-207

IBERIA: Romans beat Carthage in Spain (end of Carthaginian rule in Spain)

 

 

-

CHINA: collapse of Shih Huang-Ti's Ch'in empire & destruction of Ch'in capital, Loyang

 

 

-206

CHINA: EARLIER HAN DYNASTY (206-09CE) (peasant soldier hero Liu Bang becomes emperor)

-206 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg

-

 

 

-205

-205 UR -sxt PL Li Sg

-205 UR Sc

-

-205 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg

-205 PL Cp

-204

-204 UR -sxt PL Sc Cp

-204 UR Sc

-

 

-204 PL Cp

-203

 

 

-

 

 

-202

N AFRICA: Rome destroys Carthaginian army in Tunisia (vict of Roman citizens over Carthage traders)

 

 

-

 

 

-201

* PACIFIC: Polynesian settlement of Tahitian islands

-201 Sa CONJ NE Le Le

-201 NE Vi

-

 

 


Uranus square Pluto 298-97 BCE
Euclid, mathematician; fall of Chorrera culture (Equador); Sarmatians invade Ukraine from Siberia; Sun Temple at Teotihuacan built


Uranus square Neptune 283-280 BCE
Romans invade Corsica (first foreign growth); Aristarchus, astronomer; decline of Greece; Celtic expansion in Turkey and Iberia


Uranus opposition Pluto 264-261 BCE
Ashoka, Mauryan emperor (India); First Punic War, Romans v Carthage; balance shifts from Greece to Rome


Uranus square Pluto 217-214 BCE
Unification of China by Shi Huang-ti, then rise of Han dynasty; Hannibal & Carthaginian invasion of Italy (Romans later win); ascendancy of Teotihuacan, Mexico

-200

GREECE: Rome tames Macedon (to gain influence & trust in Greece)

-

* ROME: end of Roman agrarian & peasant state, beg of urban-trading dominance

-200 UR -ssq PL Sc Cp

-200 NE Vi

-

CHINA: emperor surrounded by rebellious Hsiung-Nu; pacification by marriage & gifts

 

 

-199

* N AFRICA: carving of Rosetta Stone (later enabling decipherment of ancient Egyptian scripts)

-199 UR -ssq PL Sc Cp

 

-

 

 

-198

MIDEAST: Seleucid Antiochus III takes Palestine from Egypt

-198 UR Sg

-

 

 

-197

ROME: 'History of Rome' by Quintus Fabius Pictor

 

-

 

 

-196

 

 

-

 

 

-195

* S AMERICA: flourishing of the early Moche culture, lowland coastal Peru

-195 UR +SQR NE Sg Vi

 

-

 

 

-194

* GERMANY: Teuton tribes (Allemani, Franks, Saxons, Thuringians) move south along Rhine & Elbe

-194 UR +SQR NE Sg Vi

-

-194 UR -ssx PL Sg Cp

 

-193

-193 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

 

-

-193 UR -ssx PL Sg Cp

 

-192

GREECE: Antiochus III & Hannibal attack Greece (to counter Rome, gain Seleucid power in E Medn)

-192 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

 

-

 

 

-191

* CHINA: Han traditionalist revival, leading to classical rebirth & book-transcription

-191 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

-191 UR Cp

-

 

 

-190

MIDEAST: Romans beat Seleucid Antiochus III, taking Asia Minor (beginning of Seleucid decline)

-190 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

-190 UR Cp

-

-190 Sa CONJ UR Cp Cp

 

-189

MIDEAST: Armenia takes independence from Seleucids

-189 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

 

-

 

 

-188

* MED'N: Roman dominance of eastern Mediterranean (after defeat of Hannibal's navy)

-188 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

 

-

-188 Sa CONJ PL Cp Cp

 

-187

-187 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

-187 NE Li

-

 

 

-186

INDIA: Hindu Brahmin SHUNGA DYNASTY (186- 30) – fall of Buddhist Mauryans in north India

 

-186 NE Li

-

 

 

-185

ROME: Carthaginian Hannibal's attacks on Rome, ending -182; Rome spreads north to Alps

 

-185 PL Aq

-

 

 

-184

INDIA: Bactrian Greeks invade Gandhara & Punjab (diffusing Greek culture in India & Buddhism)

 

 

-

 

 

-183

 

-183 UR Aq

-

 

 

-182

* S AMERICA: flourishing of Nazca culture in coastal Peru (making of Nazca Lines, -200 to +600)

-182 UR CONJ PL Aq Aq

-

* N AMERICA: rise of Basketmaker (pre-Hopi) culture in SW deserts of N America

-182 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li

 

-181

-181 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li

 

-

 

 

-180

INDIA: peak of Greek Bactria (Afghanistan & India)

-180 UR +tri NE Aq Li

 

-

 

 

-179

-179 UR + tri NE Aq Li

 

-

 

 

-178

-178 UR +tri NE Aq Li

 

-

 

 

-177

-177 UR +tri NE Aq Li –

 

-

 

 

-176

-176 UR +tri NE Aq Li

 

-

 

 

-175

 

-175 UR Pi

-

 

 

-174

 

-174 NE Sc

-

 

 

-173

-173 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq

-173 NE Sc

-

 

 

-172

-172 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq

-172 NE Sc

-

-171 UR +sqt NE Pi Sc

 

-171

GREECE: Antigonid Greeks fall to Romans (171-68) (persecution, partition, vassalage)

-171 UR +ssx PL Pi Aq

-

-170 Sa OPPN UR Vi Pi

 

-170

INDIA: Bactrian Greek principalities founded in Punjab (adopting Buddhism)

-170 UR +sqt NE Pi Sc

 

-

E ASIA: Hsiung Nu defeat the Yueh-Chi, to dominate Mongolia (driving Yueh-Chi westwards)

-170 UR +ssx PL Pi Aq

 

-169

* ROME: BEGINNING OF ROMAN WORLD DOMINATION (on fall of Macedon)

-169 Sa OPPN UR Vi Pi

 

-

PERSIA: beginning of Parthian invasion of Seleucid kingdom (Persia-Syria, complete -141)

-169 UR +sqt NE Pi Sc

 

-168

MIDEAST: revolt of the Hasmoneans (Maccabees; Seleucids give more autonomy to Palestine Jews)

-168 UR +sqt NE Pi Sc

-168 UR Ar

-

C ASIA: Iranians lose control of C Asia as a result of Hsiung-Nu conquest of Yueh-Chih

 

 

-167

 

-167 UR Ar

-

 

 

-166

 

 

-

 

 

-165

* ASIA: Kushan tribe of the Yueh-Chi horde settle in Bukhara (Oxus), starting Kushan empire

-165 UR +ssq PL Ar Aq

-

-165 Sa CONJ NE Sc Sc

 

-164

? MIDEAST: writing of Book of Daniel in Palestine; Jews gain religious freedom under Seleucids

-164 UR +qcx NE Ar Sc

-

-164 HALLEY'S COMET

 

-163

-163 UR +qcx NE Ar Sc

 

-

 

 

-162

-161 UR +qcx NE Ar Sc

 

-

 

 

-161

-161 UR +qcx NE Ar Sc

-161 PL Pi

-

 

-161 UR Ta

-160

-160 UR +qcx NE Ar Sc

-160 PL Pi

-

 

-160 UR Ta

-159

INNOVN: first water clock comes into use, in Rome

-159 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

-159 NE Sg

-

 

 

-158

-158 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

 

-

 

 

-157

* C AMERICA: El Mirador, S Yucatan, becomes chief Mayan city-state (-150 to +150)

-157 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

 

-

 

 

-156

-156 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

 

-

 

 

-155

-155 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

 

-

-154 Sa CONJ PL Pi Pi

 

-154

 

-154 UR Ge

-

 

 

-153

 

-153 UR Ge

-

 

 

-152

 

 

-

 

 

-151

-151 UR +SQR PL Ge Pi

 

-

 

 

-150

* INDIA: Patanjali writes his Great Commentary & Sutras

-150 UR +SQR PL Ge Pi

 

-

-150 UR OPPN NE Ge Sg

-149

MED'N: third Punic War (Corinth & Carthage destroyed)

-149 UR OPPN NE Ge Sg

 

-

 

 

-148

PERSIA: Parthians dominate Persia

-148 UR OPPN NE Ge Sg

 

-

-147 UR OPPN NE Ge Sg

 

-147

-147 Sa OPPN NE Ge Sg

-147 UR Cn

-

-147 Sa CONJ UR Cn Cn

 

-146

MED'N: Rome annexes Macedon, Greece and Carthage (ending independence & old era)

-146 Sa CONJ UR Ge Ge

-146 UR Cn

-

-146 UR OPPN NE Ge Sg

 

-145

MED'N: organisation of 7 Roman provinces – Macedon, Africa, Gaul, two Spains, Sicily, Corsica-Sardinia

-146 Sa OPPN NE Ge Sg

-145 NE Cp

-

 

 

-144

 

 

-

 

 

-143

 

 

-

 

 

-142

 

 

-

 

 

-141

* IDEAS: Hipparchus of Nicaea (190-120), astronomer (star catalog & precession of equinoxes)

-141 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

-141 UR Le

-

 

 

-140

CHINA: HAN WU TI, Han Emperor (140-87) ('Martial Emperor'; expansion of Chinese influence)

-140 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

-140 UR Le

-

 

 

-139

PERSIA: PARTHIANS (Mithriades I) ESTABLISH CONTROL OVER IRAN & MESOPOTAMIA

-139 UR +sqt PL Le Pi

-

 

 

-138

ASIA: Chiang Chien explores central Asia for Han China

-138 UR +sqt PL Le Pi

 

-

ASIA: fall of Greek Bactria (Afghanistan/N India) to Scythian Sakas and Yueh-Chi

 

 

-137

-137 UR +sqt PL Le Pi

 

-

-137 UR -qcx NE Le Cp

 

-136

CHINA: formal introduction of Confucian education in Five Classics for mandarin administrators

-136 UR -qcx NE Le Cp

-

 

 

-135

-135 UR +qcx PL Le Pi

 

-

-135 UR -qcx NE Le Cp

 

-134

-134 UR +qcx PL Le Pi

-134 UR Vi

-

-134 UR -qcx NE Le Cp

 

-133

MIDEAST: Attalos III of Pergamum bequeaths his kingdom to Rome (to be part of Asia province)

-133 UR +qcx PL Vi Ar

-133 UR Vi

-

 

-133 PL Ar

-132

ROME: reform movement (132-22) in Rome (led by Tiberias & Gaius Gracchus)

 

-132 PL Ar

-

 

 

-131

-131 NE -sxt PL Cp Pi

-131 NE Aq

-

-131 UR -sqt NE Vi Cp

-131 PL Ar

-130

ASIA: Scythians (Yueh-Ch'i) clash with Hsiung-Nu (then to move Siberia to Afghanistan & India)

-130 NE -sxt PL Aq Ar

-

-130 UR -sqt NE Vi Aq

 

-129

* CHINA: compilation of early & Taoist philosophy under Liu Teh of Ho-chien

-129 UR -sqt NE Vi Aq

 

-

 

 

-128

PERSIA: Parthians push declining Seleucids west into Syria (permanently)

-128 UR -sqt NE Vi Aq

-128 UR Li

-

PERSIA: Scythians (Yueh-Chi) occupy Parthia (128-124)

-128 Sa CONJ NE Aq Aq

 

-127

-127 UR OPPN PL Li Ar

-127 UR Li

-

 

 

-126

-126 UR OPPN PL Li Ar

 

-

 

 

-125

-125 UR OPPN PL Li Ar

 

-

-125 UR -tri NE Li Aq

 

-124

PERSIA: revival of Parthia under Mithridates II the Great, K of Parthia (124- 88BCE)

-124 UR -tri NE Li Aq

 

-

CHINA: creation of a Grand College for training officials in Confucian style

 

-123

N AFRICA: rebuilding of Carthage as Roman trading & admin centre

-123 UR -tri NE Li Aq

 

-

-123 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

 

-122

ROME: Gracchus' reform movement undermined by vested interests in Rome

-122 UR -tri NE Li Aq

 

-

-122 Sa OPPN UR Ar Li

 

-121

CHINA: Hsiung-Nu driven out of China by General Ho Chu-Ping

-121 Sa OPPN UR Ar Li

-121 UR Sc

-

 

 

-120

JAPAN: Yamato kingdom grows under Jimu Teno (developing Japanese identity)

 

 

-

 

 

-119

CHINA: debasement of currency, sale of posts & pardons by government (to raise funds)

-119 NE -ssq PL Aq Ar

-

 

 

-118

-118 UR -qcx PL Sc Ar

-118 NE Pi

-

 

 

-117

-117 UR -qcx PL Sc Ar

-117 NE Pi

-

 

 

-116

 

 

-

 

 

-115

ASIA: China imposes domination on E Turkestan (Tarim Basin) to control Silk Roads

-115 PL Aphn 16Ar

 

-

 

 

-114

-114 UR -sqt PL Sg Ar

-114 UR Sg

-

 

 

-113

ROME: panic as Cimbri & Teutons beat Romans in Germany (beaten by -101)

-113 UR -sqt PL Sg Ar

 

-

 

 

-112

* ASIA: SILK ROAD SECURELY OPEN, linking China with Mediterranean (secure empires)

-112 Sa OPPN NE Vi Pi

-

 

 

-111

CHINA: subjugation of Yueh completes formation of Han China 'proper'; overseas travel to India

-111 UR -SQR NE Sg Pi

-

S AMERICA: development of the institutionalised state of Moche, (-200 to +700), coastal Peru

-111 Sa OPPN NE Vi Pi

-110

* MIDEAST: rise of the Pharisees & Sadducees in Palestine

-110 UR -SQR NE Sg Pi

 

-

CHINA: Wu Ti inaugurates Sacrifice to Heaven (divine right) as sacred obligation of emperor

 

 

-109

SE ASIA: annexation of state of Tonkin (N Vietnam) by China (109BCE-900CE)

-109 UR -SQR NE Sg Pi

 

-

-109 UR -tri PL Sg Ar

 

-108

-108 UR -SQR NE Sg Pi

 

-

-1078UR -tri PL Sg Ar

 

-107

* GERMANY: Teuton tribes (Alemanni & Franks) occupy south Germany (originally from Scandinavia)

-108 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

-

-107 NE -ssx PL Pi Ar

-107 UR Cp

-106

ROME: thorough reform of Roman army

 

 

-

 

 

-105

INNOVN: first College of Technology founded at Alexandria by Heron the Mathematician

 

-105 NE Ar

-

 

 

-104

 

-104 NE Ar

-

 

 

-103

* N AMERICA: rise of Hopewell culture (replacing Adena culture) in Ohio

 

-

 

 

-102

 

 

-

 

 

-101

 

-100 PL Ta

-

 

 

-100

* CHINA: Han fiefdoms brought under strong central control under Emperor Wu Ti

 

-100 PL Ta

-

 

 

99

ASIA: Chinese vessels reach Bengal

-99 UR -SQR PL Aq Ta

-99 PL Ta

-

-99 Sa CONJ UR Aq Aq

-99 UR Aq

98

 

 

-

 

 

97

 

 

-

 

 

96

 

 

-

 

 

95

 

 

-

 

 

94

MIDEAST: rise of Tigranes I, King of Armenia (83-69) (becomes most powerful king in Asia)

 

 

-

 

 

93

-93 UR -sxt NE Aq Ar

 

-

 

 

92

-92 UR -sxt NE Aq Ar

-92 UR Pi

-

-91 Sa CONJ NE Ar Ar

 

91

ROME: dissension leads to civil war in Italy between supporters of Marius & Sulla

-91 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

-91 UR Pi

-

 

-91 NE Ta

90

* INDIA: the Deccan dominated by Andhra dynasty (90BCE-225CE)

-90 NE Ta

-

 

 

89

ROME: all free inhabitants of Italy receive Roman citizenship (Sulla in ascendancy)

-89 UR -sxt PL Pi Ta

 

-

 

 

88

ROME: agitation by Plebeians against Roman Senate – order restored by Sulla; uprisings in Athens

-88 UR -sxt PL Pi Ta

-

 

 

87

-87 HALLEY'S COMET

 

-

 

 

86

CHINA: Chao Ti, Han Emperor (86-73) repeals corrupt fundraising practices by Han Dynasty

 

 

-

 

 

85

 

 

-

-84 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta

 

84

ROME: civil war in Rome

-84 UR -ssq NE Pi Ta

-84 UR Ar

-

-84 UR -ssq PL Ar Ta

 

-83

MIDEAST: collapse of Parthia as a viable strong nation

-83 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta

 

-

BRITAIN: coinage first introduced in Britain (by Belgae Celts)

-83 UR -ssq NE Ar Ta

 

-82

ROME: Sulla elected dictator, forces order on Rome & empire; fundamental legal reforms

-83 UR -ssq PL Ar Ta


Uranus square Neptune 195-194 BCE
Growth of Moche culture, Peru; migration south into Germany of Teutonic tribes; decline of Buddhist Mauryan dynasty, N India


Uranus conjunct Pluto 182 BCE
Flourishing of Nazca culture, Peru; Hundu Shunga dynasty,
N India; peak of Greek Bactria (Afghanistan) & Taxila (Pakistan);
rise of pre-Hopi Basketmaker culture, SW USA


Neptune square Pluto 158-155 BCE
Uranus square Pluto 151-150 BCE
Uranus opposition Neptune 150-146 BCE

Patanjali, philosopher, India; Parthians dominate Persia;
organisation of Roman conquered provinces; Hipparchus, astronomer; expansion of Han China (Han Wu Ti)


Uranus opposition Pluto 127-125 BCE
Reform movement in Rome (Gracchus bros); compilation of Taoist philosophy (Liu Teh); movement of Yueh-Chi and Hsiung-Nu tribes from Mongolia westwards; growth of Han China


Uranus square Neptune 111-108 BCE
Teuton tribes occupying Germany, beat Romans back; Silk Road securely open, stable empires across Eurasia; state of Moche, Peru


Uranus square Pluto 99BCE
Wu Ti brings China to a zenith


Neptune conjunct Pluto 84-83 BCE
Battle for the future of Rome (civil war); zenith in Armenia; collapse of Parthia; reform in imperial China; expansion of the Germans (Suevi and others); Hopewell culture, Ohio; stability and trade across Asia

 

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The Historical Ephemeris © Copyright Palden Jenkins 1993-99


The Historical Ephemeris
by Palden Jenkins
Astro-historical tables for 2,500 years

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