Timelines: Early Modern - Renaissance - Historical Ephemeris

The Historical Ephemeris

600 BCE - CE 2200

Astrological Cycles in History

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Timelines: Early Modern - Renaissance

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Astro-historical timeline 9:
The Renaissance
Waxing Neptune-Pluto hemicycle  1398-1644 CE

Key:
* = a period of change or a general trend
? = an uncertain date


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1398

INDIA: Timurlenk invades India & sacks Delhi, retires (disease; Delhi Sultanate now small)

1398 NE CONJ PL Ge Ge

1398 NE Ge

+

C EUROPE: Jan Hus (1369-1415), Wyclifian reformer, lecturing on theology at Prague university

1398 UR on S Node

 

+

IBERIA: Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) sponsors expeditions to Africa & Atlantic

1398 Sa CONJ UR Sg Sg

 

1399

BRITAIN: king deposed; Henry IV King of England (1399-1413) (suppresses rebellion of nobles)

1399 NE CONJ PL Ge Ge

 

+

* CHINA: great drainage & irrigation, reforestation & repopulation works by Ming dynasty

 

 

+

 

 

 

1400

* SE ASIA: Malacca founded, becomes a focal port between Indian & Pacific oceans (dhows meet junks)

 

 

+

ITALY: rise of the Medici family in Florence (seed-point of Renaissance)

 

 

+

 

 

 

1401

MIDEAST: Mongol Timurlenk conquers Baghdad & Damascus

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1402

MIDEAST: Timurlenk defeats Ottomans in Anatolia at Bt of Ankara (Ottomans disintegrate)

 

1402 UR Cp

+

EUROPE: embassy from Ethiopia to Venice (later also to Lisbon, to find support against Mamluks)

 

 

+

 

 

 

1403

OTTOMANS: Suleiman I, Ottoman sultan (1403-11) (re-enlivens Ottoman culture)

 

 

+

CHINA: Ch'eng Tsu, Emperor (1403-24) (after deposing heir); overseas trade expeditions

 

 

+

 

 

 

1404

ASIA: Timurlenk plans Islamic Holy War against China

1404 UR -qcx PL Cp Ge

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1405

PERSIA: death of Timurlenk, succeeded by Timurid Shah Rukh (1404-1447) (end of Mongol scourge)

1405 UR -qcx PL Cp Ge

 

+

C ASIA: end of Chagatai Khanate of Altai, on death of Timurlenk

 

 

+

* S ASIA: Chinese explore Indian Ocean (1405-33), extract tribute from Sumatra, Ceylon, Hormuz

 

 

1406

ITALY: Venice takes over Padua, Florence takes over Pisa

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1407

FRANCE: civil war begins, on Burgundian murder of Duc d'Orleans

1407 UR -qcx NE Cp Ge

 

+

BRITAIN: pestilence kills 30,000 in London (brought by ship from outside Europe)

 

 

+

SE ASIA: China defeats Palembang (Sumatra), extracting tribute

 

 

1408

W EUROPE: cardinals of Rome & Avignon meet to end the Great Schism

1408 UR -qcx NE Cp Ge

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1409

 

1409 UR -qcx NE Cp Ge

1409 UR Aq

+

 

1409 UR -sqt PL Cp Ge

 

+

 

 

 

1410

E EUROPE: Poland defeats Teutonic Knights at Battle of Tannenberg; Prussia declines

1410 UR -qcx NE Aq Cn

1410 UR Aq

+

C EUROPE: Jan Hus and Hussite followers excommunicated by Archbishop of Prague & Pope

1410 UR -sqt PL Aq Ge

1410 NE Cn

+

S ASIA: China defeats king of Ceylon

 

 

1411

EUROPE: Conciliar Theory ("totality of faithful", not Pope, repr of Will of God): Ch reform period

 

1411 NE Cn

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1412

INDIA: droughts bring famine in N India

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1413

OTTOMANS: Mehemmed I (1413-21) reconstructs Ottoman empire after Mongol disruptions

1413 Sa CONJ PL Ge Ge

 

+

ASIA: Chinese sea missions reach as far as Hormuz, Persia & Aden (1418)

 

 

+

 

 

 

1414

W EUROPE: Thomas a Kempis' "Imitatio Christi"

1414 UR -tri PL Aq Ge

 

+

W EUROPE: Council of Konstanz (1414-18) (33 cardinals, 900 bishops) reforms Catholic church

1414 Sa CONJ PL Ge Ge

 

+

ITALY: the Medicis of Florence become papal bankers (rise of large European banking houses)

 

 

1415

W EUROPE: Battle of Agincourt: Henry V K of England (1413-22) resumes claim on France, wins

1415 UR -tri PL Aq Ge

 

+

NW AFRICA: BEGINNING OF PORTUGUESE OVERSEAS EXPANSION – occupation of Ceuta

1415 UR -sqt NE Aq Cn

 

+

C EUROPE: Jan Hus burned at stake at Konstanz for heresy

1415 Sa CONJ NE Cn Cn

 

1416

 

1416 UR -sqt NE Aq Cn

 

+

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

1417

ROME: end of Great Schism, with election of Pope Martin V (1417-31)

1417 UR -sqt NE Aq Cn

1417 UR Pi

+

W EUROPE: English take Caen & Normandy

 

 

+

 

 

 

1418

 

1418 UR -sqt NE Pi Cn

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1419

C EUROPE: war between HRE & Bohemian Hussites (1419-36) (over church reform and heresy)

1419 Sa OPPN UR Vi Pi

 

+

C EUROPE: Sigismund of Hungary obtains Bohemia; defeated by Hussites 1420

 

 

+

E ASIA: Korean King Sejong (1419-51) (expands and safeguards Korea, ind cultural development)

 

 

1420

FRANCE: Henry V of England enters Paris (recognised heir to French throne)

1420 Sa OPPN UR Vi Pi

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1421

CHINA: capital moved from Nanking to Beijing (modern'sn & to strengthen northern frontier)

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1422

C EUROPE: Hussites defeat Crusading HRE army near Prague (proto-Reformation victory for 'heretics')

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1423

 

1423 NE +ssx PL Le Cn

1423 PL Cn

+

 

 

1423 NE Le

+

 

 

 

1424

 

1424 UR -SQR PL Pi Ge

1424 UR Ar

+

 

1424 UR -tri NE Pi Cn

1424 PL Cn

+

 

1424 NE +ssx PL Cn Ge

 

1425

C EUROPE: division amongst Hussites between radicals (Taborites) & moderates

1425 UR -SQR PL Pi Ge

1424 NE Le

+

 

1425 UR -tri NE Ar Le

1425 PL Cn

+

 

 

 

1426

W EUROPE: Holland becomes centre of European music

1426 UR -SQR PL Ar Cn

1425 UR Ar

+

 

1426 UR -tri NE Ar Le

 

+

 

 

 

1427

C AMERICA: GROWTH OF AZTEC EMPIRE (Itzcoatl, r1428-40, ests league of three Aztec cities)

1426 NE on N Node

 

+

C AMERICA: Quiche Maya dominate Guatemalan highlands (1425-75, Quicab)

1427 UR -tri NE Ar Le

 

+

 

 

 

1428

SE ASIA: Chinese expelled from Vietnam; establishing of Le dynasty (1428-1788)

 

 

+

FRANCE: meteoric career of Jeanne d'Arc, leading French armies against England

 

 

+

 

 

 

1429

FRANCE: French regrouping & revival; Jeanne d'Arc seige of Orleans (historic victory)

 

 

+

EUROPE: Henry VI K of England (1429-61); Charles VII K of France (1427-61) (crowned at Rheims)

 

 

+

 

 

 

1430

RUSSIA: foundation of Khanate of Crimea (1430-1783) (Russian atavism of Mongol empire)

1430 Sa OPPN PL Cp Cn

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1431

SE ASIA: Siamese invasion of Cambodia leads to abandonment of Angkor Wat & end of Khmer empire

 

 

+

FRANCE: Jeanne d'Arc burned at stake at Rouen (after being caught by Burgundians, Eng allies)

 

 

+

W EUROPE: Henry VI of England crowned King of France at occupied Paris

 

 

1432

GERMANY: peasant revolt at Worms 1432 UR Ta

 

 

+

ASIA: Chinese Cheng Ho (Islamic) visits 20 states, obtaining tribute even frm Mecca

 

 

+

 

 

 

1433

ATLANTIC: Portuguese Gonzalo Cabral discovers the Azores (prelude to Age of Exploration)

 

 

+

W EUROPE: Council of Basel (1431-49) resists Papal power (friction between bishops & Pope)

 

1433 UR Ta

+

AFRICA: acceleration of Euro trading & plundering in W Africa (for slaves & gold)

 

 

1434

W AFRICA: Portuguese explore W African coast

1434 Sa OPPN NE Aq Le

 

+

ITALY: Cosimo de Medici becomes ruler of Florence (1434-64); revolt in Rome against Pope

 

 

+

 

 

 

1435

FRANCE: Peace of Arras between France & Burgundy (ends Burgundian alliance with England)

1435 UR -sxt PL Ta Cn

 

+

N EUROPE: Sweden's Riksdag (parliament) meets for the first time 1435 PL on N Node

 

 

+

 

 

 

1436

FRANCE: English army retires from Paris

1436 UR -sxt PL Ta Cn

 

+

BRITAIN: Scots beat English at Bt of Berwick on Tweed; truce between England & Scotland 1438

 

 

+

C EUROPE: Hussite Wars end; HRE: Sigismund acknowledged King of Bohemia (succ Albert V 1438)

 

 

1437

CHINA: Emperor Ying Tsung (1436-49 & 57-64) (conservative)

 

1437 NE Vi

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1438

* S AMERICA: INCA CONQUERING PERIOD started by Pachacutec, 9th Inca

1438 NE +ssq PL Vi Cn

1438 NE Vi

+

HRE: Habsburg Albert II of Austria elected HRE (office remains with Habsburgs until abolition in 1806)

 

 

+

 

 

 

1439

 

1439 NE +ssq PL Vi Cn

1439 UR Ge

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1440

GERMANY: election of Frederick V of Styria, King of Germany (1440-93)

1440 UR -SQR NE Ge Vi

1440 UR Ge

+

C EUROPE: Nicholas of Cusa (1401-64) "Of Learned Ignorance" (tolerance, religious pluralism)

1440 NE +ssq PL Vi Cn

 

+

SE ASIA: final abandonment of Angkor Wat by Khmers (effective end of Khmer culture)

1440 UR -ssq PL Ge Cn

 

1441

 

1441 UR -SQR NE Ge Vi

 

+

 

1441 UR -ssq PL Ge Cn

 

+

 

 

 

1442

W AFRICA: Portuguese navigators explore coastal W Africa (establishing Euro-African trade)

1442 UR -SQR NE Ge Vi

 

+

 

1442 UR on N Node

 

+

 

1442 Sa CONJ UR Ge Ge

 

1443

E EUROPE: Hungarian nationalists under Janos Hunyady defeat Ottoman Turks at Nish

1443 UR -SQR NE Ge Vi

 

+

 

1443 Sa CONJ UR Ge Ge

 

+

 

 

 

1444

E EUROPE: Battle of Varna, Turks beat Hungary & Poland (Turkish attempt to dominate Europe)

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1445

INNOVN: German Johannes Gutenberg (1397-1468) publishes the first printed book in Europe

1445 Sa CONJ PL Cn Cn

 

+

RUSSIA: foundation of Khanate of Kazan (1445-1556) (post-Mongol khanate in E Russia)

1445 UR -ssx PL Ge Cn

 

+

 

 

 

1446

E ASIA: Korean alphabetical script replaces Chinese script in Korea

1446 Sa CONJ PL Cn Cn

1446 UR Cn

+

 

1446 UR -ssx PL Ge Cn

 

+

 

 

 

1447

AUSTRIA: Pope grants Concordat (giving Austria rights over its national church)

 

1447 UR Cn

+

E AFRICA: Great Zimbabwe superseded by state of Mwenemutapa (gold, slaves, towns)

 

1447 PL Le

+

 

 

 

1448

BRITAIN: Anglo-Scots war renewed; houses of Lancaster & York become major rivals in England

 

1448 PL Le

+

E EUROPE: Ottomans under Murad II defeat Hungarians under Janos Hunyady

 

 

+

 

 

 

1449

W EUROPE: English break truce with France

 

 

+

CHINA: 1 million people die in rebellions against Ming in Fukien & Chekiang

 

 

+

CHINA: Emperor Ying Tsung captured for a year by Mongols (dynastic disorder in China)

 

 

1450

* W AFRICA: SONGHAI EMPIRE in SAHEL reaches its prime, with a university at Timbuktu

1450 Sa CONJ NE Vi Vi

+

* S AMERICA: Monomatapa empire founded

 

 

+

AFRICA: European slave trade begins (10 million slaves transported 1450-1870)

 

 

+

* EUROPE: GENERAL ECONOMIC RECOVERY & UPSWING in EUROPE

 

 

+

ITALY: Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan (1450-66)

 

 

+

GERMANY: Gutenberg prints the Konstanz Mass Book (beginning of communications revolution)

 

 

1451

S AMERICA: INCAS overcome CHIMU Indian civilisation in N Peru (becomes tributary state)

 

1451 NE Li

+

OTTOMANS: Mehemmed II The Conqueror (1451-81) rebuilds Ottoman empire

 

 

+

JAPAN: Shogun Yoshimasa (1449-90) (collapse of authority, yet cultural upswing, court style)

 

 

1452

EUROPE: the MEDICI in FLORENCE STIMULATE THE RENAISSANCE and growth of culture & humanism

 

1452 NE Li

+

INDIA: Lodi dynasty inherits the Delhi Sultanate (1451-1526)

 

 

+

 

 

 

1453

W EUROPE: END of HUNDRED YEARS' WAR – England loses all continental possessions except Calais

1453 UR -sxt NE Le Li

1453 UR Le

+

E EUROPE: FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE TO OTTOMANS (end of Byzantium, Ottoman zenith starts)

 

 

+

OTTOMANS: St Sophia Basilica becomes a mosque, Istanbul (Constantinople) becomes Ottoman capital

 

 

1454

GERMANY: GUTENBERG PRINTS THE MAZARIN BIBLE at Mainz (first proper use of movable type)

1454 UR -sxt NE Le Li

 

+

S AMERICA: yellow fever wipes out much of Mayan culture

 

 

+

 

 

 

1455

BRITAIN: Wars of Roses (1455-85), between Houses of Lancaster & York (disarray in law & government)

1455 UR -sxt NE Le Li

 

+

W AFRICA: Venetian sailors explore up the Senegal river (trade prospectors)

1455 UR CONJ PL Le Le

 

+

* N AMERICA: depopulation & decline of Mississippian temple-cities ('empty quarter')

 

 

1456

OTTOMANS: Turks conquer Greece and overrun Athens; Topkapi Palace built in Istanbul

1456 UR CONJ PL Le Le

 

+

E EUROPE: Janos Hunyady & Hungarians expel Ottomans from Belgrade (Hungary blocks Turks)

1456 HALLEY'S COMET

 

+

ITALY: Naples ruined by major earthquake (35,000 die)

 

 

1457

PERSIA: Persia reunited by Mogul Abu Said, Sultan of Iran (1452-69)

 

 

+

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

1458

C EUROPE: Hussite leader George of Podebrad, King of Bohemia (1458-71)

 

 

+

C EUROPE: Matthias Corvinus, K of Hungary (1458-90) (strong & prosperous period for Hungary)

 

 

+

OTTOMANS: Turks wreck the Acropolis (to break Greek identity, force subservience)

 

 

1459

BRITAIN: renewal of Wars of Roses in England 1459 UR Vi

 

 

+

ROME: Conciliar Theory declared heretical by Pope (end of reform period in RC Church)

 

 

+

 

 

 

1460

MIDEAST: fall of Trapezus, last Christian stronghold in Asia

1460 UR -ssq NE Vi Li

1460 UR Vi

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1461

BRITAIN: Edward IV King of England (1461-83) (House of York; Wars of Roses continue)

1461 NE +sxt PL Li Le

 

+

ITALY: Leonardo da Vinci at study under Verocchio

1461 UR -ssq NE Vi Li

 

+

 

 

 

1462

 

1462 NE +sxt PL Li Le

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1463

OTTOMANS: Turks conquer Bosnia; Herzegovina 1467

1463 NE +sxt PL Li Le

 

+

 

1463 Sa OPPN PL Aq Le

 

+

 

 

 

1464

BRITAIN: peace between England & Scotland (England settles into general peace)

1464 NE +sxt PL Li Le

1464 PL Vi

+

FRANCE: Louis XI establishes French royal mail service

1464 Sa OPPN PL Aq Le

1464 NE Sc

+

W AFRICA: SONGHAI ASCENDANCY under Sanni Ali (Mali and gold trade eclipsed by Songhai)

 

 

1465

 

1465 NE +sxt PL Li Le

1465 PL Vi

+

 

 

1465 NE Sc

+

 

1466 NE +sxt PL Sc Vi

1465 UR Li

1466

C ASIA: foundation of Khanate of Astrakhan (1466-1556) (post-Mongol khanate)

1466 UR +ssx PL Li Vi

1466 UR Li

+

 

1466 UR -ssx NE Li Sc

 

+

 

1466 Sa OPPN UR Ar Li

 

1467

MIDEAST: Turkoman Uzun Hasan of Azerbaijan & Kurdistan (Horde of White Sheep) takes Persia

1467 NE +sxt PL Sc Vi

1466 PL Vi

+

JAPAN: Onin War (1467-77) (reshuffling of feudal domains, prelude to century of ongoing war)

1467 Sa OPPN UR Ar Li

1466 UR Li

+

 

 

 

1468

* N EUROPE: slow decline of Hansa League (trade shifts to Atlantic, Baltic powers grow)

1468 NE +sxt PL Sc Vi

 

+

 

1468 Sa OPPN UR Ar Li

 

+

 

 

 

1469

ITALY: Lorenzo de Medici the "Magnificent", ruler of Florence (1469-92) (cultural growth)

1469 NE +sxt PL Sc Vi

 

+

IDEAS: Pliny's "Historia Naturalis" (first Euro scientific book ever published)

1469 Sa OPPN NE Ta Sc

 

+

 

 

 

1470

S AMERICA: INCAS DESTROY CHIMU KINGDOM (developing central control of large, efficient empire)

1470 NE +sxt PL Sc Vi

 

+

ASIA: Khan Dayan reunites Mongols in peaceable Buddhist Asian kingdom (1470-1543)

1470 Sa OPPN NE Ta Sc

 

+

AFRICA: Portuguese explore Gold Coast

 

 

1471

SE ASIA: Annam (N Vietnam) annexes Champa (S Vietnam), expanding southwards

1471 NE +sxt PL Sc Vi

 

+

BRITAIN: climax of civil war in England; Edward IV enters London victorious

 

 

+

 

 

 

1472

N AMERICA: Deitrich Pining, Danish sailor, discovers Newfoundland

1472 NE +sxt PL Sc Vi

1472 UR Sc

+

RUSSIA: Ivan III marries Sophia Palaeologus (neice of last Byzantine emperor)

1472 UR +ssq PL Sc Vi

 

+

 

 

 

1473

MED'N: Cyprus taken over by Venice (for trading advantage in NE Med'n)

1473 NE +sxt PL Sc Vi

 

+

* S AMERICA: Inca Tupac Yupanqui conquers Bolivia & N Chile (1471-93)

 

 

+

 

 

 

1474

IBERIA: Isabella, Queen of Aragon (1474-1504)

1474 NE +sxt PL Sc Vi

 

+

INNOVN: William Caxton prints first book in English at Bruges; Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales" 1477

 

 

+

 

 

 

1475

FRANCE: Burgundy at the height of its power, partitioned 1477 between France & Habsburgs

1475 NE +sxt PL Sc Vi

 

+

OTTOMANS: Khanate of Crimea (successor state to Golden Horde) allies with Ottomans

 

 

+

 

 

 

1476

 

1476 NE +sxt PL Sc Vi

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1477

W EUROPE: Habsburgs acquire the (later Austrian) Netherlands by marriage

1477 NE +sxt PL Sc Vi

 

+

 

1478 NE +sxt PL Sc Vi

 

+

 

 

 

1478

RUSSIA: Ivan the Great, Czar of Russia (1478-1505), subdues Novgorod & ejects Mongols (1480)

1478 UR CONJ NE Sc Sc

1478 PL Li

+

 

1479 UR CONJ NE Sc Sc

1478 UR Sg

+

 

 

 

1479

IBERIA: union of Aragon & Castile under Ferdinand & Isabella (Spanish state takes shape)

1479 UR +sxt PL Sc Vi

1478 NE Sg

+

 

1479 NE +sxt PL Sg Li

1479 PL Li

+

 

 

 

1480

* PERSIA: local Safavid dynasty gradually removes rule by Turkoman Horde of White Sheep

1480 NE +sxt PL Sg Li

1479 UR Sg

+

RUSSIA: RISE OF RUSSIAN POWER (Ivan the Great breaks with Golden Horde, expands territories)

1480 Sa CONJ PL Li Li

1479 NE Sg

+

C AMERICA: civil wars rage in northern Maya states

 

 

1481

IBERIA: beginning of Spanish Inquisition under state & church; Jewish converts examined

1481 NE +sxt PL Sg Li

 

+

 

1481 UR on S Node

 

+

 

 

 

1482

W EUROPE: Peace of Arras between Louis XI King of France (1461-83) and Austrian Habsburgs

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1483

RUSSIA: Russians begin exploration of Siberia (in vacuum brought by Mongol decline)

 

 

+

INDIA: 700 Hindu Rajputs commit ritual death rather than convert to Islam

 

 

+

 

 

 

1484

OTTOMANS: Ottomans conquer most of Black Sea coast (restricting Russian access)

 

 

+

ROME: Papal Bull 'Summis desiderantes'; against witchcraft & sorcery

 

 

+

AFRICA: Portuguese discover the Congo river, meet with king of advanced Kongo kingdom

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Richard III K of England (1483-5) (reforms law, taxation & trading rules in England)

 

 

1485

BRITAIN: Bt of Bosworth, Richard dies; Wars of Roses end (Henry, heir to H of Lancaster wins)

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Henry VII (1485-1509); TUDOR DYNASTY (1485-1603) (midwives to British Empire)

 

 

+

 

 

 

1486

GERMANY: election of Maximilian I German King (1486-1519)

1486 Sa CONJ NE Sg Sg

1486 UR Cp

+

* EUROPE: Botticelli (1444-1510) painter & Durer (1471-1528) engraver, at work

 

 

+

 

 

 

1487

IBERIA: Spaniards conquer Malaga from Moors

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1488

W EUROPE: Flemish towns revolt against Maximilian I (resenting distant rule)

 

 

+

JAPAN: first Ikkoikki uprising (religious uprisings venting discontent)

 

 

+

 

 

 

1489

 

1489 Sa CONJ UR Cp Cp

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1490

ITALY: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), inventor & genius, at work

 

1490 PL Sc

+

INDIA: Kabir (1440-1518), teacher (reconciliation & Hindu-Muslim unity, seeds Sikh sect)

 

 

+

AFRICA: King Nzinga Nkuwu of Congo converts to Christianity (Portuguese missionaries)

 

 

1491

C EUROPE: Vladislav II recognises Habsburg right of succession in Hungary & Bohemia

 

1491 PL Sc

+

* N EUROPE: contraction of Hansa League (overseas offices & warehouses close)

 

 

+

 

 

 

1492

IBERIA: FALL of ARAB GRENADA: Arabs and Jews expelled from Spain; persecution by Inquisition

 

 

+

FRANCE: Charles VIII K of France (1483-98) takes control of government

 

 

+

W EUROPE: Henry VII attacks France, after Fr support for Perkin Warbeck (large indemnity paid)

 

 

+

AMERICAS: COLUMBUS explores Caribbean: Bahamas, Cuba & Haiti; MED'N: Span conq Maghreb

 

 

+

EUROPE: Behain constructs the first globe; da Vinci designs a flying machine

 

 

+

E EUROPE: Ottomans finally invade Hungary and (1493) Dalmatia & Croatia (Europe at risk)

 

 

1493

N AMERICA: Incas expand in Equador, found Quito as 2nd cap; first Span settlement in New World

1493 PL Peri 7Sc

1493 NE Cp

+

GERMANY: peasants' revolt in SW Germany and Alsace

1493 UR +ssx NE Aq Cp

1493 UR Aq

+

* EUROPE: publishing profession develops, merging typefounding, printing, bookselling

 

 

+

ITALY: Sforzas of Milan & Borgias of Florence gain in power through marriage & favour

 

 

1494

W EUROPE: beginning of rivalry for European dominance between Habsburgs & France (to 1700s)

1494 UR +ssx NE Aq Cp

 

+

S AMERICA: Treaty of Tordesillas: New World divided between Portugal & Spain

 

 

+

* W AFRICA: zenith of Songhai empire (1494-1529) under Askia Mohammed

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Drogheda parliament makes Ireland subservient to England; HRE supports Perkin Warbeck

 

 

1495

ITALY: Charles VIII (Fr) inv Italy (Naples); Pope flees; peace by Sforza (end Papal primacy)

 

 

+

HRE: Diet of Worms, law and tax reforms in Germany

 

 

+

EUROPE: major works by da Vinci (1452-1519), Heironymus Bosch (1450-1516), Durer (1471-1528)

 

 

+

W EUROPE: syphilis epidemic spread from Naples by French troops

 

 

1496

N AFRICA: Spain takes Tenerife, to weaken Arab influence (beginning of overseas expansion)

1496 UR +SQR PL Aq Sc

 

+

* EUROPE: Sforza's 1495 treaty sets precedent for Balance-of-Power politics of modern Europe

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Perkin Warbeck claims Eng throne (1492-99), agitation in Scotland, Ireland & SW England

 

 

+

EUROPE: royal marriages build new alliances -- Spain-Austria, Florence-Naples, Portugal-Spain

 

 

1497

N EUROPE: Danish king Johann II invades Sweden and revives Scandinavian Union

1497 UR +SQR PL Aq Sc

 

+

BRITAIN: risings in England; rebels defeated, Warbeck captured; executed 1499

 

 

+

N AMERICA: John Cabot (Genoan, sailing from England) makes landfall in Newfoundland

 

 

+

ATLANTIC: da Gama (Port) sails southern Trade Winds, rounds Cape of Good Hope, enters Pacific

 

 

+

N AMERICA: French explorer Cartier explores Labrador, Quebec, St Lawrence

 

 

1498

C AMERICA: Columbus explores Caribbean coasts and islands, thinking it Asian paradise

1498 UR +SQR PL Aq Sc

 

+

ASIA: Portuguese Vasco da Gama reaches Malabar, India, rounding Africa and crossing Indian Ocean

 

 

+

INNOVN: Michaelangelo (1475-1564) & Erasmus (philosopher, 1465-1539) at work

 

 

+

FRANCE: Louis XII, king of France (1498-1515)

 

 

1499

EUROPE: Switzerland becomes an independent republic (after war with Swabia & Peace of Basel)

1499 UR +SQR PL Aq Sc

 

+

* EUROPE: END OF EARLY RENAISSANCE; BEGINNING OF HIGH RENAISSANCE

1499 Sa OPPN PL Ta Sc

 

+

IBERIA: Inquisition forces mass conversion of Moors (stimulating Arab revolt in Grenada)

 

 

+

OTTOMANS: Turks defeat Venetian fleet; treaty 1503, Venice abandons Lepanto

 

 


Neptune conjunct Pluto 1394-96

Timurlenk invades Iraq, Persia, N India (brings decline of Delhi Sultanate); Ottomans control Balkans (Bt of Kosovo); last pagan European state, Lithuania, converts to Catholicism; rebuilding in Ming China (after previous wars); Hundred Years War, England v France; Sweden, Denmark & Norway united (Kalmar); first stirrings of European Renaissance in Italy (Medicis in Florence); Henry the Navigator sponsors Portuguese exploration to Africa; Timurlenk defeats Ottomans - Ottoman revival under Suleiman I; fall of Timurlenk's empire on his death; ascendancy in Korea; most of Eurasia in intense transition


Uranus square Pluto 1424-26

First Protestant stirrings in Euope (Hussites); rise of Holland as Europe's centre of trade & arts; Aztec ascendancy; rise of Vietnam; Joan of Arc leads French armies against England; Chinese maritime exploration, visiting Mecca, E Africa, Antarctic, Caribbean; Quiche Maya dominate Guatemala highlands; Chinese capital moves from Nanking to Beijing


Uranus square Neptune 1440-43
Inca conquering period, Peru; Gutenberg publishes first printed book; Mongol Khanate of Kazan, Russia; conservatism in China; zenith of Songhai kgdm, Sahara; economic upswing in Europe; discovery of the Azores, W African coast explored by Portuguese (Euro-African trade); end of Khmer culture, Cambodia; Hungarians defeat Ottomans in Balkans (blocking Ottoman growth into Europe)


Uranus conjunct Pluto 1455-56
Incas overcome Chimu culture; Renaissance in Medici Florence; England loses Hundred Years War; Wars of the Roses, England; Ottomans take Constantinople - end of Byzantium; decline of the Maya, Yucatan; Gutenberg's Bible; decline of Mississippian temple cities; Ottomans invade Greece


Uranus conjunct Neptune 1478-79
End of state of Burgundy; Ferdinand & Isabella (union of Aragon & Castile, Spanish revival); Inca expansion; Russia ejects Mongols (Ivan the Great - rise of Russia); Tudor dynasty, England (modernisers); witchcraft burnings, Europe; Habsburgs acquire the Netherlands (by marriage); civil wars, northern Maya, Mexico; rise of Safavid dynasty, Persia


Uranus square Pluto 1498-1500
Columbus - Spaniards visit the Caribbean; Incas take Bolivia; end of Arab Grenada (rise of Spain); ascendancy of Habsburg dynasty, Austria; Safavid dynasty, Persia; High Renaissance, Europe; last Mongol khanate falls; Portuguese colony in India (Vasco da Gama); English land in Newfoundland (Cabot); Switzerland becomes independent

1500

PERSIA: SHAH ISMAEL I FOUNDS PERSIAN SAFAVID DYNASTY (until 1736)

1500 UR +SQR PL Aq Sc

+

S AMERICA: Brazil claimed for Portugal by Cabral; Vespucci explores Amazonas; Greenland rediscovered

1500 Sa OPPN PL Ta Sc

 

+

GERMANY: first regular postal link established between Vienna & Brussels

 

 

+

INNOVN: Wynkyn de Worde opens printing press on Fleet St, London (birth of an institution)

 

 

1501

W EUROPE: Peace of Trent, HRE recognises French gains in N Italy; Louis XII king of Naples

1501 UR +ssq NE Pi Cp

1501 UR Pi

+

E EUROPE: Ivan III invades Lithuania; parts of E Poland 1503 (Russian expansionism)

 

 

+

ROME: Papal Bull orders burning of all books questioning church authority

 

 

+

RUSSIA: final end of Khanate of the Golden Horde in Uzbekistan & Astrakhan (last Mongol state)

 

 

1502

INDIA: Portuguese colony founded at Cochin, by Vasco da Gama (first in European foothold in India)

1502 UR +ssq NE Pi Cp

1502 PL Sg

+

C AMERICA: AZTEC ZENITH, Montezuma II, Aztec ruler (1502-20); Columbus explores Honduras

 

 

+

S AMERICA: Amerigo Vespucci realises that S America is a continent, not part of Asia

 

 

+

ITALY: Bellini ("Baptism of Christ") & Botticelli ("Last Communion of St Jerome") at work

 

 

1503

BRITAIN: James I of Scotland marries Margaret Tudor (seed of Stuart dynasty 1603)

1503 UR +ssq NE Pi Cp

1503 PL Sg

+

GERMANY: War of Succession for throne of Holy Roman Empire (Bavaria vs Palatinate)

 

 

+

ITALY: Spain fights France over Naples, wins; da Vinci (1452-1519) paints "Mona Lisa"

 

 

+

AFRICA: Portuguese colonise Zanzibar as trading station; Mozambique 1506

 

 

1504

ITALY: Treaty of Lyons: Naples to Spain (beginning of Habsburg domination in Italy)

1504 Sa OPPN NE Cn Cp

 

+

C ASIA: Mongols under Babur expelled from Ferghana by Uzbeks; Babur captures Kabul (Afghanistan)

 

 

+

INNOVN: construction of a Suez canal first proposed, by Venetians to the Turks

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Henry VII places Guilds & Companies under state supervision

 

 

1505

INDIAN OCEAN: Portuguese establish trading posts in East Africa and explore Ceylon

1505 Sa OPPN NE Cn Cp

 

+

GERMANY: Maximilian I institutes COUNTER-REFORMATION of HRE (Habsburg designs on power)

 

 

+

RUSSIA: death of Ivan the Great, succeeded by Vasili (Basil) III

 

 

+

EUROPE: Bosch's "Garden of Earthly Delights" (marks last fling of Gothic Middle Ages)

 

 

1506

IBERIA: riots in Lisbon lead to slaughter of 2000-4000 converted Jews

 

1506 NE Aq

+

ITALY: beginning of rebuilding of St Peter's, Rome, by Bramante, to take 120 years

 

 

+

S AMERICA: Sugar cane first grown by Spaniards

 

 

+

GERMANY: spices from East Indies first imported to Europe (by trader Jakob Fugger, Augsburg)

 

 

1507

GERMANY: first use of the name "America" (after Vespucci) in Waldseemueller's Atlas

 

1507 NE Aq

+

BRITAIN: plague strikes London

 

 

+

HRE: Diet of Konstanz recognises unity of HRE under Maximilian I (anti-Habsburg feelings)

 

 

+

GERMANY: Martin Luther ordained as a priest in the Cath church (experienced conversion 1505)

 

 

1508

ITALY: Michaelangelo (Cistine Chapel), da Vinci (turbine) & Raphael (painter) at work

 

1508 UR Ar

+

C AMERICA: SPANISH CONQUESTS BEGIN: Puerto Rico 1508-11, Cuba 1511-15, Panama 1509-19

 

 

+

MIDEAST: Baghdad becomes a Persian Safavid province

 

 

+

SE AFRICA: Portuguese colonisation of Mozambique begins (gold, slaves, naval base)

 

 

+

GERMANY: Maximilian I assumes title of HR Emperor; German king now automatically becomes HRE

 

 

+

ITALY: Venice under attack from League of Cambrai; defeated 1509 (envy over trading strength)

 

 

1509

INNOVN: the pocket watch is invented by Peter Henlein in Nurnberg 1509 UR +sxt NE Ar Aq

 

1509 UR Ar

+

S ASIA: Portuguese control Indian Ocean by routing Egyptian & Gujarati fleets; Malacca visited

1509 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

 

+

GERMANY: persecution of Jews in Germany by Johann Pfefferkorn, supported by HRE

1509 NE on S Node

 

+

BRITAIN: Henry VIII becomes King of England (age 17)

1509 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

 

1510

INDIA: Goa captured by Portuguese (first European possession in Asia)

1510 UR +sxt NE Ar Aq

 

+

N AMERICA: East coast of North America comprehensively explored by Europeans

1510 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

 

+

S AMERICA: transatlantic slave trade begins -- Portuguese take slaves to Brazil

1510 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

 

+

N AFRICA: end of Spanish crusade against Moors, Spain retains seized ports in the Maghreb

 

 

1511

SE ASIA: Portuguese take emporium of Malacca, to dominate trade in the Far East

1511 UR +sxt NE Ar Aq

 

+

E EUROPE: Poland establishes serfdom

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Henry VIII begins major reforms of Royal Navy (prelude to English imp expansion)

 

 

+

EUROPE: Pope forms Holy League (Venice, Aragon, Britain) to drive French out of Italy

 

 

1512

INNOVN: Copernicus proposes heliocentric solar system in "Commentariolus"

1512 UR +sxt NE Ar Aq

 

+

PERSIA: Shi'ite Islam becomes the state religion of Persia; Ismail drives Uzbeks from Khorasan

 

 

+

OTTOMANS: Selim I 'The Grim' becomes Sultan of Turkey (1512-20); friction with Shi'ite Persia

 

 

+

E EUROPE: war between Russia & Poland (1512-22) (for space & Russian access to Baltic)

 

 

+

W AFRICA: Askia Mohammed of Songhai ovecomes the Hausa city-states (N Nigeria)

 

 

1513

BRITAIN: English beat the Scots at Bt of Flodden Field (James IV claiming English throne

 

 

+

ASIA: Portuguese visit E Indies; Alvarez reaches Canton, China

 

 

+

C AMERICA: Balboa crosses Panama to Pacific; Ponce de Leon claims Florida, de Cuellar Cuba

 

 

+

S AMERICA: Inca Huayna Capac completes subjection of Quito culture (Equador)

 

 

1514

C EUROPE: peasants' revolt in Hungary (against Turks); peasants' revolt in S Germany

1514 UR +tri PL Ar Sg

 

+

RUSSIA: Russians under Vasili III take Smolensk (part of westward expansion)

 

 

+

ROME: Pope Leo X issues Papal Bull against slavery, forbids printing of books without permit

 

 

+

* GERMANY: financier Jakob Fugger (1459-1525) at peak of wealth & influence

 

 

1515

ASIA: Portuguese gain mastery of trade with East by taking Hormuz (Persia)

1515 UR +tri PL Ar Sg

 

+

BRITAIN: Thomas Wolsey appointed Lord Chancellor of England under Henry VIII

 

 

+

BRITAIN: laws made against enclosure of common land (against big landowners)

 

 

+

OTTOMANS: Selim I conquers Anatolia & Turkestan, attacking Persia (Safavid setbacks)

 

 

1516

BRITAIN: Thomas More writes "Utopia", describing a land governed by Reason

1516 UR +tri PL Ta Cp

1516 PL Cp

+

BENELUX: Erasmus publishes edited Bible in Greek and Latin

 

1516 UR Ta

+

EUROPE: Charles I unites HABSBURG DYNASTY, uniting Spain-Neths-Burg'y-Sicily-Span America

 

 

+

OTTOMANS: OTTOMAN EXPANSION: Turks overrun Syria, Jerusalem, Egypt and, by 1517, Arabia & Mecca

 

 

1517

Mexico: Mayan civilisation in Yucatan discovered by Spanish explorer Cordoba

1517 UR +tri PL Ta Cp

 

+

GERMANY: REFORMATION: MARTIN LUTHER'S '95 THESES' on RC church abuses, at Wittenberg

 

 

+

N AFRICA: end of the Egyptian MAMLUK EMPIRE, brought about by Ottoman Selim I

 

 

+

AFRICA: Hausa confederation defeats Songhai empire (becoming major power in NW Africa)

 

 

1518

EUROPE: Peace of London ends war between England, France, HRE, Pope & Spain -- Wolsey's doing

1518 UR +tri PL Ta Cp

 

+

* INNOVN: spectacles on public sale; Asian porcelain, coffee & chocolate introduced

1518 Sa CONJ PL Cp Cp

 

+

BRITAIN: founding of Royal College of Physicians (Linacre) & Royal Exchange (1519, Gresham)

 

 

+

* INDIA: teacher Chaitanya revives Vishnu worship in E & N India; hindu revival

 

 

1519

EUROPE: Habsburg Charles I (Sp) elected HRE Charles V (biggest Euro ruler since Charlemagne)

 

 

+

INDIA: Sikh religion founded by Guru Nanak in Punjab

 

 

+

GERMANY: Zwingli initiates Swiss Reformation; Luther questions Papal infallibility in Leipzig

 

 

+

INNOVN: MAGELLAN CIRCUMNAVIGATES WORLD (dies 1521 Philippines, survivors return 1522)

 

 

1520

N EUROPE: Christian II of Denmark & Norway defeats Sweden (uniting Scandinavia)

 

1520 NE Pi

+

GERMANY: Anabaptist movement founded (Protestants who baptise active believers only)

 

 

+

GERMANY: Luther excommunicated; Swiss end Papal allegiance (breakthrough of Reformation)

 

 

+

S AMERICA: CORTES CONQUERS the AZTEC EMPIRE (mainly by disease), claims Mexico for Spain

 

 

+

SE ASIA: rise of the Muslim states of Aceh (Sumatra) and Bantam (Java)

1521

GERMANY: M Luther outlawed by HRE Diet of Worms (Reformation getting serious)

1521 UR +sqt PL Ta Cp

1521 NE Pi

+

OTTOMANS: Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan (1520-66, greatest Ottoman Sultan) conquers Hungary

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Henry VIII named "Defender of Faith" by Pope Leo X (for anti-Luther stand)

 

 

+

N EUROPE: Gustav Vasa & Swedes resist Danish invasion of Sweden

 

 

1522

S AMERICA: Spaniards conquer Guatemala; explore Peru; Santo Domingo cathedral built

1522 UR +sqt PL Ta Cp

 

+

MED'N: Turks defeat Knights of St John on Rhodos (1530 Knights move to Malta)

 

 

+

GERMANY: Luther translates New Testament; criticises extremist Protestants at Wittenberg

 

 

+

E AFRICA: war between Islamic Adal (Red Sea state) & Christian Ethiopia

 

 

1523

N EUROPE: Gustav Vasa elected King of Sweden: independence 1524 (beg'n of Greater Sweden)

1523 Sa CONJ NE Pi Pi

1523 UR Ge

+

INNOVN: first marine insurance policies issued in Florence & Venice

1523 PL on S Node

 

+

BRITAIN: Parliament under Thomas More rebels against Henry VIIIs tax demands

1523 UR +sqt PL Ge Cp

 

+

BRITAIN: Fitzherbert's "Book of Husbandry": first agricultural manual published

 

 

+

* S AMERICA: INCA EMPIRE AT ITS ZENITH (under Huayna Capac, 1493-1525)

 

 

+

CHINA: Ming forces throw off major attack by Japanese Wako pirates (to protect sea trade)

 

 

1524

GERMANY: Peasants' War across Germany: Protestants protest feudalism & aristocratic oppression

1524 Sa CONJ NE Pi Pi

1524 UR Ge

+

INNOVN: Bennewitz's "Cosmographia" (first textbook on theoretical geography)

1524 UR +sqt PL Ge Cp

 

+

INDIA: Babur enters NW India; Vasco da Gama becomes first European viceroy in India (to Babur)

 

 

+

C AMERICA: SPANISH CONQUEST OF THE MAYA BEGINS

 

 

1525

HRE: Charles V becomes dominant in Italy on defeat of French and Swiss

1525 UR +SQR NE Ge Pi

 

+

GERMANY: Anabaptist Munzer sets up a communistic theocracy in Mulhausen; suppressed

 

 

+

S AMERICA: civil war between N (Quito) & S (Cuzco) Inca kingdoms

 

 

+

E EUROPE: Teut Knight Albert makes Prussia a secular duchy; Knights convert to Lutheranism

 

 

1526

C EUROPE: Bt of Mohacs: Ottoman Turks overrun Hungary (independent Hungary capital at Bratislava)

1526 UR +SQR NE Ge Pi

 

+

C EUROPE: HABSBURG Austro-Hungarian state founded by Ferdinand of Austria, to resist Turks

1526 UR on N Node

 

+

INDIA: Bt of Panipat: BABUR CONQUERS DELHI, FOUNDS MUGHAL EMPIRE; Punjab invaded 1525

 

 

+

GERMANY: creative peak of Albrecht Durer ("The Four Apostles"); Luther's "German Mass"

 

 

1527

AUSTRIA: reorganisation of Habsburg gov't (to encompass expansion and Turkish pressures)

1527 UR +SQR NE Ge Pi

 

+

ITALY: Florence becomes a republic (cosmopolitan birthplace of Renaissance)

1527 UR +qcx PL Ge Cp

 

+

* N EUROPE: Lutheran reformation in Sweden & Denmark; * BENELUX: Hans Holbein's creative period

 

 

+

EUROPE: Rome sacked by Holy Roman Emperor, signalling END OF RENAISSANCE

 

 

+

E AFRICA: Muslim Adali chief Ahmed Gran (Somalia) attacks Christian Ethiopia

 

 

1528

BRITAIN: beginning of Scottish Reformation; Henry VIII seeks divorce from Catherine of Aragon

1528 UR +SQR NE Ge Pi

 

+

EUROPE: typhus epidemic in Italy, Germany & Britain

1528 UR +qcx PL Ge Cp

 

+

IDEAS: Swiss Paracelsus, physician & alchemist, writes 1st manual of medical surgery

 

 

+

* OTTOMAN EMPIRE REACHES PEAK OF INFLUENCE & EXTENT (on failing to take Vienna & Austria)

 

 

1529

C EUROPE: Civil war between Catholics & Protestants (Caths eventually defeated)

1529 UR +qcx PL Ge Cp

 

+

BRITAIN: "Reformation Parliament" summoned by Henry VIII (over divorce issue); fall of Wolsey

 

 

+

GERMANY: "Protestants" (hence name) protest oppression by Catholic majority at Diet of Speyer

 

 

+

W EUROPE: Peace of Cambrai between France, Holy Roman Empire & England

 

 

+

W AFRICA: Songhai dominates all of West Africa and its trade

 

 

1530

ITALY: last HRE coronation by a Pope: Charles V crowned HRE & King of Italy

1530 UR +qcx PL Ge Cp

1530 UR Cn

+

GERMANY: Prot princes unite as Schmalkaldic League against HRE & Pope; Augsburg Confession

 

 

+

S AMERICA: Portuguese establish first colonies in Brazil

 

 

+

BENELUX: Antwerpen Exchange founded

 

 

1531

WORLD: visitation of Halley's Comet, arousing much anticipation

1531 HALLEY'S COMET

 

+

* IBERIA: INQUISITION active, persecuting Protestants & Jews; Lisbon destroyed in earthquake

 

 

+

BENELUX: first complete publication of Aristotle's works, by Erasmus (revival of classicism)

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Henry VIII becomes supreme head of Anglican church

 

 

1532

E EUROPE: war between Turks (Suleiman I) & Austria; Turks gain in Hungary, Aust keep Croatia

 

1532 PL Aq

+

S AMERICA: SPANISH CONQUISTADORS (Pizzarro) attack INCA EMPIRE; Great Inca killed 1533

 

 

+

FRANCE: Calvin starts the Protestant reformation in France

 

 

+

INNOVN: Rabelais' "Pantagruel" satires; Machiavelli's "The Prince" (about fluxings of states)

 

 

1533

RUSSIA: Ivan IV "The Terrible" Czar (1530-84, age 3); St Basil's Church begun

1533 Sa CONJ UR Cn Cn

 

+

BRITAIN: Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn -- future Q Elizabeth I born; Henry excommunicated

 

 

+

EUROPE: the first "lunatic asylums" are set up (without medical input)

 

 

+

* AFRICA: Ashanti, Dahomey & Benin kgdms lucratively selling slaves to Europeans

 

 

*

SE ASIA: Dai Viet kingdom fragments into petty states

1534

BRITAIN: HENRY VIII breaks with Rome (tips balance of power to NW Europe, away from Rome)

1534 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq

1534 NE Ar

+

FRANCE: foundation of Jesuit Order by Loyola (to counteract Protestant ascendancy)

 

 

+

GERMANY: Luther completes German translation of Bible; Anabaptist communistic state at Münster

 

 

+

N AMERICA: French explorer Cartier explores Labrador, Quebec, St Lawrence (first unsuccessful colony)

 

 

+

S AMERICA: first African slaves in New World landed in Brazil (beginning of transatlantic slave trade)

 

 

1535

BRITAIN: dissention over Anglican Ch; Sir Th More executed for treason; Holbein's "Henry VIII"

1535 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq

1535 NE Ar

+

N AFRICA: Charles V (HRE) invades Tunis and frees 20,000 Christian slaves

 

 

+

GERMANY: Anabaptist state of Mulhausen surrenders to Catholic troops

 

 

+

N AMERICA: Spaniards establish viceroyalty of Mexico

 

 

+

INDIA: Mughal emperor Humayun invades Gujarat (W India)

 

 

1536

BRITAIN: dissolution of 376 monasteries & religious houses; "Pilgrimage of Grace") opposition

1536 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

1536 UR Le

+

BRITAIN: gov't of England & Wales unified in London, Welsh language outlawed in Wales

 

 

+

S AMERICA: foundation of Buenos Aires and Lima; end of first period of American colonisation

 

 

+

N EUROPE: Lutheran reformation in Norway & Denmark

 

 

1537

BRITAIN: newly-married Queens of England & Scotland both separately die (coincidentally)

1537 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

1537 UR Le

+

W EUROPE: Paracelsus' "Grosse Astronomie" (astrology); Mercator's map of Flanders

 

 

+

S AMERICA: destruction of Chibcha Indian culture, by Conquistadors (Spanish control Colombia)

 

 

+

 

 

 

1538

FRANCE: Calvin exiled from Geneve, settles in Strasbourg

1538 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

 

+

BRITAIN: destruction of churches & religious relics in England

1538 UR OPPN PL Le Aq

 

+

OTTOMANS: peak of Ottoman military power (on strength of foreign slave soldiers)

1538 UR +tri NE Le Ar

 

+

INDIA: Ottoman navy attacks Portuguese in India (control of Indian Ocean)

 

 

1539

N EUROPE: Swedish Olaus Magnus of Upsala publishes a world map

1539 UR OPPN PL Le Aq

 

+

INDIA: Suri Afghans of Bihar conquer much of the Mughals' territory (Mughal retreat, until 1556)

1539 UR +tri NE Le Ar

 

+

SE ASIA: Tabin Shweti of Toungou begins to unify Burma (at peak by 1555)

1539 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

 

+

 

1539 Sa OPPN NE Li Ar

 

1540

* FRANCE: Nostradamus (1503-1566) at work; first publ predictions

1547 1540 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

 

+

MED'N: Venice & Ottomans sign peace and trade treaty at Istanbul (Constantinople)

1540 UR OPPN PL Le Aq

 

+

W EUROPE: Servetus researches circulation of the blood

1540 UR +tri NE Le Ar

 

+

ROME: Pope calls Council of Trent to arrange Counter-Reformation; recognises Jesuit Order

1540 Sa OPPN NE Li Ar

 

1541

BRITAIN: John Knox leads the Calvinist Reformation in Scotland

1541 UR +tri NE Le Ar

 

+

BRITAIN: Henry VIII assumes title of king of Ireland & head of Irish church

 

 

+

C EUROPE: John Calvin founds reformed church and puritan Protestant order in Geneva

 

 

+

N AMERICA: Coronado explores New Mexico-Texas-Oklahoma areas for Spain; Mississippi discovered

 

 

1542

BRITAIN: Mary, Queen of Scots, ascends Scots throne (age six days)

 

 

+

ROME: Inquisition established in Rome by Pope Paul III

 

 

+

ASIA: start to Jesuit St Francis Xavier's missions in Asia, at Goa

 

 

+

* S AMERICA: Spaniards take over Aztec & Inca silver mines in Mexico & Peru (Potosi)

 

 

+

CHINA: Mongols under Altan Khan attack N China (again in 1550) – defeated by Ming

 

 

1543

E EUROPE: Polish Copernicus publ "Of the Revolution of Celestial Bodies" (heliocentricity)

 

1543 UR Vi

+

IBERIA: Protestants first burned at stake for heresy by Spanish Inquisition

 

 

+

JAPAN: Portuguese visit Japan, trading at Tanegashima

 

 

+

IBERIA: da Garay designs a steam boat

 

 

1544

EUROPE: Agricola establishes study of geology; Ghini publishes herbal medical manual

1544 UR +sqt NE Vi Ar

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1545

EUROPE: COUNCIL OF TRENT initiates the COUNTER-REFORMATION by Catholics

1545 UR +sqt NE Vi Ar

 

+

C EUROPE: HRE, Austria & Ottomans sign Truce of Adrianople

 

 

+

INNOVN: first European botanical garden at Padua, Italy

 

 

+

INNOVN: Mercator idents earth's magnetic pole; Cordus' "Pharmacopeia"; infections also studied

 

 

1546

W AFRICA: destruction of Mali empire by Songhai empire, Sahel

1546 UR +sqt NE Vi Ar

 

+

GERMANY: civil war between Catholic HRE & Protestant Schmalkaldic League

 

 

+

E EUROPE: Ottomans occupy Moldavia

 

 

+

GERMANY: Martin Luther dies

 

 

1547

EUROPE: new monarchs: Ivan IV Czar (majority); Edward VI K England; Henry II K France

1547 UR -qcx PL Vi Aq

1547 NE Ta

+

RUSSIA: Moscow destroyed by fire; Ivan IV crowned first czar of Russia

1547 UR +sqt NE Vi Ta

 

+

BRITAIN: taxes levied in London to support the poor

 

 

+

 

 

 

1548

OTTOMANS: incursions into Persia; occupation of Tabriz

1548 UR -qcx PL Vi Aq

1548 NE Ta

+

FRANCE: first covered theatre opened in Paris, Hotel de Bourgogne

 

 

+

JAPAN: St Francis Xavier founds a Jesuit mission in Japan

 

 

+

 

 

 

1549

RUSSIA: Ivan IV calls the first national assembly in Russia

1549 UR -qcx PL Vi Aq

1549 UR Li

+

S AMERICA: Jesuit missionaries establish themselves in S America

 

 

+

BRITAIN: rebellion in Devon & Norfolk

 

 

+

 

 

 

1550

CHINA: Mongol Altan Khan attacks N China; Japanese pirate raids in CHINA: China under attack

1550 UR +qcx NE Li Ta

1550 UR Li

+

* W EUROPE: BEGINNING of the EARLY BAROQUE PERIOD

 

 

+

* IBERIA: SPAIN AT THE ZENITH OF GROWTH AND POWER 1550-1600

 

 

+

W EUROPE: creative period of painter Titian (1477-1576); Michaelangelo still at work

 

 

1551

OTTOMANS: Turks take Libya, but fail to capture Malta from Knights of St John

1551 UR +qcx NE Li Ta

 

+

S AMERICA: foundation of university of Lima, Peru

 

 

+

INNOVN: early playing of cricket (England) and billiards (Italy)

 

 

+

 

 

 

1552

C ASIA: Ivan IV the Terrible of Russia conquers Khanates of Kazan & Astrakhan (by 1556)

1552 Sa CONJ PL Aq Aq

1552 PL Pi

+

GERMANY: half of HRE Imperial army killed by typhus

1552 UR +qcx NE Li Ta

 

+

 

1552 UR -sqt PL Li Aq

 

+

 

 

 

1553

BRITAIN: succession problems & revolt of Catholics in England; Mary I, Queen (1553-8)

1553 UR +qcx NE Li Ta

1553 PL Pi

+

OTTOMANS: Suleiman I makes peace with Persia

1553 UR -sqt PL Li Pi

 

+

N EUROPE: British explore northern passage, visiting Archangelsk, disc Novaya Zemla

 

 

+

 

 

 

1554

BRITAIN: Catholic restoration in England, under Mary I; rebellion in Kent

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1555

GERMANY: Peace of Augsburg gives Protestant states equality with Catholic states

 

1555 UR Sc

+

N AMERICA: French colony established at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

 

 

+

CHINA: seige of Nanking by Japanese pirates

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Catholic Thomas Cranmer burned at stake by Protestants

 

 

+

SE ASIA: Burma: Toungou invades Ava & Chiangmai (unification of Burma, lasts to 1600)

 

 

1556

RUSSIA: Ivan the Terrible conquers Ukraine (to reach Black Sea)

1556 UR -tri PL Sc Pi

1556 UR Sc

+

HRE: abdication of Charles V; Spain goes to Philip II, HRE to Ferdinand I of Austria

 

 

+

INDIA: accession of popular AKBAR THE GREAT, Moghul emperor 1556-1605, Moghul empire restored

 

 

+

CHINA: largest death toll by an earthquake in history, 830,000 die in Shanxi province

 

 

1557

CHINA: Portuguese establish Macao, China, as the first Euro-Chinese trading post

1557 UR -tri PL Sc Pi

 

+

EUROPE: economic problems, state bankruptcy in Spain & France; influenza epidemic in Europe

1557 Sa OPPN UR Ta Sc

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

1558

FRANCE: English lose Calais (last English continental possession)

1558 UR -tri PL Sc Pi

 

+

BRITAIN: accession of Elizabeth I, Queen of England (1558-1603); Lord Dudley chief adviser

1558 Sa OPPN UR Ta Sc

 

+

GERMANY: Hamburg Exchange founded in free city of Hamburg

 

 

+

BRITAIN: economist Gresham proposes reform of English currency

 

 

1559

INNOVN: tobacco first introduced into Europe (in the form of snuff, in Portugal)

1559 Sa CONJ NE Ta Ta

 

+

FRANCE: Mary Queen of Scots, wife of French king, claims English throne

 

 

+

INNOVN: Portuguese begin sugar plantations in Brazil

 

 

+

S AMERICA: smallpox epidemic in Brazil kills millions of indigenous people

 

 

1560

BRITAIN: church of Scotland founded; beginnings of Puritan movement in England

 

1560 NE Ge

+

FRANCE: liberty of worship promised after Protestant Huguenot rising

 

 

+

MED'N: Ottoman fleet destroys Spanish fleet off Tripoli, Libya

 

 

+

IBERIA: Madrid becomes capital of Spain

 

 

1561

FRANCE: Edict of Orleans ends persecution of Huguenots

 

1561 NE Ge

+

BRITAIN: England takes in Calvinist Huguenots from Flanders (part of HRE)

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Scottish "Confessions of Faith", clarifying reformation after work of John Knox

 

 

+

 

 

 

1562

FRANCE: Wars of Religion (1562-98), between Huguenots & Catholics; 1200 Huguenots massacred

 

1562 UR Sg

+

BRITAIN: Shane O'Neill's rebellion against English rule in Ireland

 

 

+

FRANCE: English seize le Havre, losing it following year; plague in Paris

 

 

+

BENELUX: Pieter Brueghel (1520-69), painter, at work

 

 

1563

C EUROPE: Habsburg Maximilian II king of Bohemia & Hungary

1563 UR OPPN NE Sg Ge

1563 UR Sg

+

C EUROPE: Counter-Reformation begins in Bavaria & Poland

 

 

+

EUROPE: plague over most of Europe

 

 

+

N AMERICA: voyages of John Hawkins to Americas, takes many items back to England

 

 

1564

W EUROPE: England & France end war at Peace of Troyes

1564 UR OPPN NE Sg Ge

 

+

HRE: Maximilian II HR Emperor (1564-76)

 

 

+

RUSSIA: revolt of Boyars (nobles) against Ivan IV the Terrible

 

 

+

ROME: Index of prohibited books released by the Pope (as part of Counter-Reformation)

 

 

1565

INDIA: Akbar the Great extends Mughal power to the Deccan; fall of state of Vijayanagar

1565 UR OPPN NE Sg Ge

 

+

MED'N: Turks beseige Knights of St John on Malta; Spanish support, Turks withdraw

1565 UR on S Node

 

+

ATLANTIC: Spaniards establish major convoys to carry valuable goods across Atlantic

 

 

+

E ASIA: Spaniards occupy Philippine islands, building capital Manila 1571

 

 

+

N AMERICA: first American colony at St Augustine, Florida (Spanish, built to stop Huguenots taking Florida)

 

 

1566

BENELUX: DUTCH REVOLT AGAINST SPAIN BEGINS: Dutch Inquisition abolished after Calvinist riots

1566 UR OPPN NE Sg Ge

 

+

C EUROPE: renewal of warring between Ottomans & Austro-Hungarians

1566 UR -SQR PL Sg Pi

 

+

INNOVN: a regular newspaper appears in Venice

 

 

+

* OTTOMANS: gradual disintegration of Ottoman Empire (1567-1661)

 

 

1567

BRITAIN: scandals around Mary Queen of Scots bring her abdication

1567 UR -SQR PL Sg Pi

 

+

BRITAIN: Irish rebellion suppressed, Shane O'Neill killed

1567 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

 

+

BENELUX: reign of terror starts on arrival of new Habsburg governor

 

 

+

JAPAN: coup d'etat by Nobunaga, centralising government in Kyoto; Japan unifies, opens to westerners

 

 

1568

E EUROPE: peace between Ottoman Selim II & Habsburg Maximilian II

1568 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

 

+

N EUROPE: coup d'etat in Sweden; Johann III king of Sweden (1568-92)

 

 

+

BRITAIN: first modern Welsh Eisteddfod

 

 

+

* S AMERICA: typhoid fever, brought by Europeans, kills millions of indigenous people

 

 

1569

BRITAIN: rebellion in N England, Durham cathedral damaged

1569 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

1569 UR Cp

+

IBERIA: Morisco rebellion in Grenada, Spain

 

 

+

E EUROPE: Union of Lublin unites Poland & Lithuania

 

 

+

INNOVN: Mercator's "Cosmographia" and world navigational maps

 

 

1570

JAPAN: Nagasaki opens to trade with Portuguese, Ports carry forbidden Chinese goods

1570 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

1570 UR Cp

+

MED'N: Turks attack Cyprus, declare war on Venice

 

 

+

FRANCE: Huguenots receive amnesty, in third stage of Wars of Religion

 

 

+

* BRITAIN: major economic growth in England under Elizabeth I

 

 

1571

MED'N: Bt of Lepanto between Austrians (Don John) & Turks (end of Turkish seapower in C Med'n)

1571 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

 

+

AFRICA: Portuguese establish a colony in Angola; ZENITH OF KANEM-BORNU (Chad) under Idris III

 

 

+

FRANCE: reconciliation between Huguenots & Catholic Charles IX

 

 

+

RUSSIA: Moscow attacked by Crimean Tatars

 

 

+

INDIA: Akbar builds new Moghul capital at Fatehpur Sikri (seeking to build new religious tolerance)

 

 

+

SE ASIA: Spanish found Manila in the Philippines (beginning of serious takeover of Philippines)

 

 

1572

BENELUX: Dutch revolt against Spanish Habsburg rule; Haarlem beseiged

1572 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

 

+

FRANCE: massacre of St Bartholomew against Huguenots in Paris; Wars of Religion restart

 

 

+

* INNOVN: Tycho Brahe (1546-1602) pioneers observational astronomy in Denmark

 

 

+

S AMERICA: English under Francis Drake harry & raid Spanish ships & ports in S America

 

 

+

WORLD: visible nova appears in Cassiopaeia constellation

 

 

1573

CHINA: Ming Wan Li Emperor of China (1573-1620)

 

 

+

MED'N: Ottomans & Venetians sign Peace of Constantinople (trade deals, Cyprus passes to Ottomans)

 

 

+

JAPAN: Hideyoshi conquers lands across Japan to assist Nobunaga's unification of Japan (complete 1590)

 

 

1574

OTTOMANS: Murad III, Sultan of Turkey (1574-95); N AFRICA: Tunisia taken by Ottomans from Spaniards

 

1574 NE Cn

+

* BENELUX: Habsburgs hold control in Holland, no concessions; storms break dikes, troops drown

 

 

+

EUROPE: crowns of France & Poland held by same king, Henry III of France

 

 

+

INDIA: Moghul invasion of Gujarat (for seaports, 1572) & Bengal (by 1576)

 

 

1575

INDIA: Moghul Akbar the Great conquers Bengal

 

1575 NE Cn

+

IBERIA: Spanish state goes bankrupt; ASIA: Muslim princes expel Spaniards from Molluccas

 

 

+

INNOVN: Tycho Brahe constructs special observatory at Uraniborg

 

 

+

S AMERICA: Brazil exports sugar, attracts many Port settlers; slave trade from Angola (Luanda) to Brazil

 

 

1576

FRANCE: Edict of Beaulieu offers toleration of Huguenots

1576 UR -sxt PL Cp Pi

 

+

HRE: Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor (1576-1612)

 

 

+

BENELUX: Spaniards attack Antwerpen; Don John becomes governor of Neths; Congress of Ghent

 

 

+

INNOVN: Jean Bodin's "La Republique" advocates constitutional monarchy

 

 

1577

BENELUX: Spanish don John deposed by Dutch States General; William of Orange takes Bruxelles

1577 UR -sxt PL Aq Ar

1577 UR Aq

+

BRITAIN: Holinshed's "Chronicles of England, Scotland & Ireland"

1577 Sa OPPN NE Cp Cn

1577 PL Ar

+

BRITAIN: Francis Drake sets out to circumnavigate world, returns 1580

 

 

+

* BRITAIN: setting up of trading companies to cover different parts of the world

 

 

+

C ASIA: Altan Khan accepts authority of Dalai Lama & Buddhism over the Mongols (major cultural change)

 

 

1578

N AFRICA: Bt of Al Kasr al Kebir: Moroccans destroy Portuguese power in NW Africa

 

1578 PL Ar

+

PERSIA: Mohammed Khudabanda, Shi'ite Shah of Persia (1578-87)

 

 

+

JAPAN: one of Japan's rulers, Otomo Yoshishige, converted to Christianity by Jesuits

 

 

+

BENELUX: Habsburgs lose initiative in Holland; English seek to mediate

 

 

1579

BENELUX: Dutch Republic founded at Union of Utrecht; Anglo-Dutch alliance (trade interests)

1579 UR -qcx NE Aq Cn

1579 PL Ar

+

N AMERICA: Francis Drake claims California ("New Albion") for England (not followed up)

 

 

+

* EUROPE: heated attention on witchcraft across Europe

 

 

+

MIDEAST: Long War (1578-90) between Sunnite Ottomans & Shi'ite Persians

 

 

1580

IBERIA: Spaniards invade Portugal; vast empire in Americas & Philippines

1580 Sa CONJ UR Aq Aq

 

+

FRANCE: seventh outbreak of Wars of Religion

1580 UR -qcx NE Aq Cn

 

+

BRITAIN: earthquake in London brings about building laws restricting city growth

 

 

+

INNOVN: intro from Chile of potato to Britain, Germany & Austria (high yield carbohydrates)

 

 

1581

RUSSIA: Yermak and Cossacks begins Russian exploration/conquest of Siberia, to 1598

1581 UR -qcx NE Aq Cn

 

+

INDIA: Moghul Akbar the Great (re-)invades Afghanistan; AFRICA: Moroccan expansion into Sahara

 

 

+

EUROPE: Pope Gregorius XIII (1572-85) attempts to reconcile Catholic & Russ Orthodox churches

 

 

+

INNOVN: Galileo Galilei (1564-1650) researches properties of pendulum

 

 

1582

E EUROPE: Poland & Sweden attack Russia; Poland gains Livonia & Estonia – Russian Baltic access blocked

1582 UR -qcx NE Aq Cn

 

+

EUROPE: Gregorian calendar adopted in Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Netherlands, Scandinavia

1582 UR -ssq PL Aq Ar

 

+

CHINA: MING DECLINE; emperors cease conducting court business; reign of terror by officials; corruption

 

 

+

N AMERICA: first English colony in America, founded in Newfoundland

 

 

+

JAPAN: Hideyoshi becomes shogun of unifying Japan (1582-1600, centralisation, security and control)

 

 

1583

BENELUX: punitive attack on Antwerpen by French (in support of HRE)

 

 

+

BENELUX: William of Orange becomes ruler of N Holland; assassinated 1584 (by Habsburgs)

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Merchant Adventurers send expeditions to Persia & India; plots against Elizabeth I

 

 

+

CHINA: first Jesuit mission in China

 

 

1584

SE ASIA: Phra Narai creates an independent Siam

 

1584 UR Pi

+

N AMERICA: Sir Walter Raleigh annexes Virginia

 

 

+

RUSSIA: Boris Gudonov comes to power in Russia, Ivan dies; Archangelsk founded, link to west

 

 

+

* OTTOMANS: econ inflation, rising population & shrinking economy slowly erode Ottoman empire

 

 

1585

BENELUX: England & France refuse sovereignty of Neths; Amsterdam & Rotterdam now main ports

1585 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

1585 UR Pi

+

C AMERICA: Sir Francis Drake attacks Spanish bases in Caribbean

 

 

+

JAPAN: dictatorship in Kyoto under Hideyoshi (Shogun 1585-98)

 

 

+

* BRITAIN: Shakespeare (1564-1616) becomes known; also playwright Christopher Marlowe

 

 

1586

BRITAIN: Mary Q of Scots jailed at Fotheringay (treason, plot against Eliz I), executed 1587

 

 

+

PERSIA: Abbas I, Shah of Persia (1586-1628)

 

 

+

BRITAIN: bad harvests & food shortages in England

 

 

+

SE ASIA: Portuguese freebooters try to seize power in Burma & Cambodia, are expelled

 

 

1587

ROME: Pope Sixtus V proclaims Catholic crusade against England; offers financial aid to Armada

1587 UR -ssx PL Pi Ar

1587 NE Le

+

JAPAN: Hideyoshi closes Japan to foreigners, banishing Portuguese missionaries

 

 

+

E EUROPE: Swedish royal son becomes king Sigismund III of Poland (1587-1632)

 

 

+

BRITAIN: architect Inigo Jones (1573-1652) begins work

 

 

1588

W EUROPE: Spanish Armada defeated by the English (establishes English supremacy on the seas)

1588 UR -sqt NE Pi Cn

1588 NE Le

+

BRITAIN: translation of Bible into Welsh by William Morgan (first fixing of written Welsh)

 

 

+

INNOVN: development of shorthand by Timothy Bright in England

 

 

+

FRANCE: rebellion in Brittany, Rouen, la Rochelle

 

 

+

PERSIA: Abbas I the Great becomes shah (1588-1629, many conflicts with Ottomans)

 

 

1589

FRANCE: Henry III assassinated, naming Henry IV (K of Navarre) heir (first Bourbon king)

1589 UR -sqt NE Pi Le

 

+

RUSSIA: Boris Gudunov reaffirms Russian Orthodox independence of Patriarch of Constantinople

 

 

+

INNOVN: Hakluyt's chronicles of voyages of European explorers; Galileo professor at Pisa

 

 

+

INNOVN: knitting machine developed in England; forks first used in France

 

 

1590

MIDEAST: Shah Abbas of Persia signs peace with Turks, ceding Georgia & Tabriz

1590 UR -sqt NE Pi Le

 

+

FRANCE: succession difficulties; Henry IV beseiges Paris

 

 

+

INNOVN: coal mining begins in Ruhr valley, Germany (prelude to industrial revolution)

 

 

+

EUROPE: Shakespeare's "Henry VI"; Spenser's "Faerie Queen"; Galileo's work on gravitation

 

 

1591

N AFRICA: Bt of Tondibi: Moroccans destroy Songhai kingdom in Sahel, annex Timbuktu & W Sudan

1591 NE on N Node

 

+

FRANCE: Henry IV excommunicated by Pope Gregorius XIV

1591 UR -sqt NE Pi Le

 

+

* S AMERICA: SPANISH AMERICAN COLONIES at peak of growth, prosperity and influence

 

 

+

INNOVN: Janssen develops the microscope

 

 

1592

INDIA: Moghul Akbar the Great conquers Sind

 

1592 UR Ar

+

JAPAN: Hideyoshi attempts invasion of Korea, then China; stopped by Koreans & Ming Chinese

 

 

+

E EUROPE: crowns of Poland & Sweden united under Sigismund III

 

 

+

SE ASIA: Sir James Lancaster explores Malayan coast

 

 

1593

C EUROPE: Austrian Rudolf II renews war on Ottoman Turks

 

1593 UR Ar

+

FRANCE: Henry IV becomes Catholic, appeasing Pope

 

 

+

ITALY: founding of Sant Ambrogio Bank in Milan

 

 

+

INNOVN: Galileo's "Golden Rule"

 

 

1594

FRANCE: Henry IV king of France (1594-1610); freedom of worship given to Huguenots

1594 NE +tri PL Le Ar

 

+

INDIA: Akbar the Great takes Kandahar, Afghanistan

1594 Sa CONJ NE Le Le

 

+

C EUROPE: Turks move dangerously close to Vienna, at Raab (threat to Europe)

 

 

+

INDIA: English trader Lancaster breaks Portuguese trade monopoly in India

 

 

1595

SE ASIA: Dutch begin to colonise Indonesia (East Indies)

1595 NE +tri PL Le Ar

 

+

W EUROPE: French Henry IV declares war on Spain; Spaniards attack Penzance, Cornwall

 

 

+

AUSTRIA: Protestant peasant revolt in Upper Austria; forced re-Catholicisation in 1597

 

 

+

ITALY: Giordano Bruno, scientist, jailed by Pope (supporter of Copernican heresy, killed 1600)

 

 

1596

W EUROPE: Cadiz raided by English; Spanish take Calais (to cut links between England & France)

1596 NE +tri PL Le Ar

 

+

ASIA: Japan & China make peace; 1597 Hideyoshi resumes attacks on Korea

1596 UR -tri NE Ar Le

 

+

INNOVN: Galileo invents thermometer; Kepler (1571-1630) at work on planetary orbits

 

 

+

N EUROPE: rivalry between Hansa League (Baltic trading cities) & English traders, peak 1598

 

 

1597

W EUROPE: second Spanish Armada against England stopped by storms

1597 UR -tri NE Ar Le

 

+

AUSTRIA: Transylvania ceded to Austria; Protestants exiled from Austria & Styria

1597 NE +tri PL Le Ar

 

+

* BRITAIN: Sir Francis Bacon, scientist & philosopher (1561-1627) at work

 

 

+

SE ASIA: Dutch found colony of Batavia, Java (bypassing Portuguese); Dutch take Mauritius 1598

 

 

1598

RUSSIA: troubles in Russia; Boris Gudunov formally elected Czar

1598 NE +tri PL Le Ar

 

+

PERSIA: Shah Abbas I creates an imperial capital at Isfahan; INDIA: Moghul capital moves to Agra

1598 UR CONJ PL Ar Ar

 

+

FRANCE: Wars of Religion end in France, with Treaty of Ponts de Ce

1598 UR -tri NE Ar Le

 

+

JAPAN: Tokugawa Shogunate restored (to 1868) on death of Hideyoshi; Ieyasu shogun (1598-1605)

 

 

1599

FRANCE: reforms of economy, taxation, trade and farming by minister Duke of Sully

1599 UR -tri NE Ar Le

1599 UR Ta

+

BRITAIN: Globe Theatre built; Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar", "As You Like It", "Twelfth Night"

1599 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

 

+

BRITAIN: James VI of Scotland writes against witchcraft & on divine right of kings

1599 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

 

+

* C ASIA: Khanate of Bokhara (Samarkand-Tashkent, 1598-1785); end of Uzbek Khanate (1447-1598)

 

 


Uranus square Neptune 1525-28
Babur conquers NW India & Delhi, founding Mughal empire; rise of Habsburg Austro-Hungarian empire, resisting the Ottomans & protecting Europe; Ottoman zenith in Istanbul; birth of Prussia (north Germany); Rome sacked by Germans; end of the High Renaissance; zenith of the Inca empire, Peru; Conquistadors conquer the Aztecs & Mayans; rise of Sweden as a Euro power (Gustav Vasa)


Uranus opposition Pluto 1538-40
Conquistadors end the Mayan Aztec & Inca empires; English Henry VIII breaks with Rome; Luther & the Reformation; early Euro colonies in Americas; zenith of Spanish wealth & power; Council of Trent - Counter-Reformation; Catholic Inquisition; Portuguese reach China & Japan; England formally takes Ireland & Wales; peak of Ottoman military power; Nostradamus; Jesuit missions in Asia


Uranus opposition Neptune 1563-66


Neptune square Pluto 1568-72

Elizabeth I, England (cultural upswing); Akbar the Great, Mughal India (Mughal greatness); Protestant-Catholic rivalry (Puritans & Huguenots), social & religious rebellions, Europe; beginning of long, slow Ottoman decline; Nobunaga coup & shogunate, unifiying & modernising Japan (opened to foreigners); English expansion overseas (Sir Francis Drake); European early colonial expansion; Boyar revolt against Ivan the Terrible, Russia; Dutch revolt begins against Spain; death of millions of indigenous people by typhoid fever introduced by Europeans, Americas; zenith of Saharan Kanem-Bornu; Spaniards occupy Philippines; expansion of Ottomans in the Balkans; fall of Vijayanagar to Mughals, S India


Uranus conjunct Pluto 1598
English N American colonies; Dutch republic; end of kgdm of Songhai (Mali); Ottoman Turks attack Vienna (fails); Spanish colonial wealth; Tokugawa Restoration, Japan; Khanate of Bokhara; English & Dutch East India Companies (first multinational corporations), Dutch colonise Indonesia, rise of English trading primacy; early scientists at work, Europe (Kepler, Galileo, Bacon); troubles in Russia (Boris Gudunov)

 

1600

W EUROPE: foundation of English & Dutch (1602) East India Companies (opening Eastern contacts)

1600 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

1600 UR Ta

+

* W AFRICA: Oyo & Benin forest states (Nigeria) at height of their development

1600 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

 

+

JAPAN: Tokugawa Ieyasu consolidates power, moves capital to Tokyo, starts Tokugawa period

 

 

+

N EUROPE: persecution of Catholics in Sweden under Karl IX (1599-1611)

 

 

1601

BENELUX: Austrians beseige Oostende, successful by 1604

1601 Sa OPPN UR Sc Ta

1601 NE Vi

+

BRITAIN: Elizabeth I's 'Golden Speech', about achievements of her reign; monopolies abolished

 

 

+

E EUROPE: 'False Dmitri' in Poland, gains support for invasion of Russia

 

 

+

INNOVN: Dutch invent telescope; Brahe & Kepler work in Prague; Gilbert on electr'y & magnetism

 

 

1602

SE ASIA: English est trading station at Bantam, Java (spice trade); * World: 50% of world known to Europeans

 

1602 NE Vi

+

EUROPE: Dutch East India Co founded, Amsterdam, occupies HQ at Batavia, Java, 1619

 

 

+

IRELAND: Spanish army surrenders to English at Kinsale, after attempted invasion of Ireland

 

 

+

INNOVN: Brahe's Star Catalog; Galileo researches laws of gravitation & oscillation

 

 

+

AUSTRIA: Rudolf II suppresses meetings of Protestant Moravian Brethren

 

 

1603

MIDEAST: 2nd Long War between Ottomans and Safavid Persia (1603-19); costly Ottoman conquests

 

 

+

BRITAIN: death of Elizabeth I; James I of Scotland becomes king of England (1603-25); STUART DYNASTY

 

 

+

AUSTRIA: revolts in Transylvania against Rudolf II

 

 

+

BRITAIN: serious outbreak of plague in England

 

 

1604

RUSSIA: "False Dmitri", claimant to throne defeated by Boris Gudunov – Russia's 'time of troubles' 1604-13

 

 

+

W EUROPE: Peace signed between England & Spain; trade treaty between England & France

 

 

+

MIDEAST: Turks lose Tabriz to Persia

 

 

+

INNOVN: Kepler's "Optics"

 

 

1605

RUSSIA: Boris Gudunov dies; 'False Dmitri' takes throne, killed, succession problems

 

 

+

INDIA: Jahangir, Moghul emperor (1605-27)

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Gunpowder Plot; (Guy Fawkes and friends attempt to blow up King & Parliament)

 

 

+

JAPAN: Tokugawa Hidetada (Shogun 1605-23) succeeds Shogun Ieyasu

 

 

1606

E EUROPE: Peace of Zsitva-Torok, between Austria & Ottomans

1606 UR +ssx PL Ge Ta

1606 UR Ge

+

FRANCE: large-scale program of road-building & public works embarked upon

 

 

+

* ARTS: Monteverdi (1587-1643) at work establishing opera as an art form

 

 

+

S AMERICA: Jesuits establish a state in Paraguay

 

 

1607

N AMERICA: first permanent English settlement in N America at Jamestown, Virginia

1607 HALLEY'S COMET

1607 UR Ge

+

IRELAND: O'Dogherty rebellion, several Irish nobles flee to Spain fearing arrest for revolt

1607 UR +ssx PL Ge Ta

1607 PL Ta

+

BRITAIN: proposed union of England & Scotland rejected by Parliament

1607 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar

 

+

EUROPE: national bankruptcy in Spain causes failure of Bank of Genoa

 

 

1608

N AMERICA: French colonists (Champlain) found New France – Quebec & St Lawrence

1608 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar

1608 PL Ta

+

IRELAND: O'Dogherty rebellion against English loses steam

 

 

+

GERMANY: Protestant Union formed between Prot states in Rhineland

 

 

+

BENELUX: first use of cheques in Holland

 

 

1609

BENELUX: independence of the Dutch Republic; 12 years truce between Spain & Holland

1609 NE +sqt PL Vi Ta

 

+

GERMANY: Catholic League founded, in answer to arising of Protestant Union

 

 

+

AUSTRIA: Rudolf II permits freedom of worship in Bohemia

 

 

+

EUROPE: Dutch East India Co brings tea to Europe from China

 

 

1610

* EUROPE: SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION begins: Kepler, Bacon, Galileo, Descartes (1596-1663)

1610 UR on N Node

 

+

FRANCE: Henry IV assassinated; Louis XIII king at age 9, Maria de Medici regent

1610 NE +sqt PL Vi Ta

 

+

INNOVN: Galileo finds Jupiter's moons; Harriott discovers sunspots; Speed's maps of Britain

 

 

+

N AMERICA: Hudson explores Delaware, Hudson River (NY) and Hudson's Bay

 

 

1611

BRITAIN: Parliament dissolved by James I

1611 UR -SQR NE Ge Vi

 

+

N EUROPE: Denmark & Sweden at war, to 1613

1611 UR +ssq PL Ge Ta

 

+

EUROPE: Gustav II Adolphus king of Sweden (1611-32), Axel Oxenstjerna becomes chancellor

 

 

+

BRITAIN: King James' Bible published; JAPAN: major earthquakes

 

 

+

SE ASIA: Champa (S Vietnam) absorbed by Cochin-China (C Vietnam)

 

 

1612

S ASIA: Dutch sign peace & trading treaty with the king of Kandy, Ceylon

1612 UR -SQR NE Ge Vi

 

+

BRITAIN: last recorded burning of heretics in England

1612 UR +ssq PL Ge Ta

 

+

* EUROPE: philosophers Jakob Boehme, Henry More, Francis Bacon, Francisco Suarez at work

 

 

+

N AMERICA: Virginians plant tobacco, colonise Bermudas, stop French in Maryland & Nova Scotia

 

 

1613

RUSSIA: Czar Mikael I, first of Romanov dynasty (to 1917), elected after succession troubles

1613 UR -SQR NE Ge Vi

1613 UR Cn

+

SE ASIA: Sultan Agung of Mataram (1613-46), Javanese ruler resists Dutch incursions

1613 Sa OPPN NE Pi Vi

 

+

W EUROPE: German Protestant Union agrees alliance with Holland

 

 

+

C EUROPE: Turks assault Hungary; peace 1615

 

 

1614

BRITAIN: James I's second ('Addled') Parliament dissolves, refusing to discuss royal finances

1614 UR -SQR NE Ge Vi

1614 UR Cn

+

FRANCE: States General called by regent Maria to restrict powers of nobility

1614 Sa OPPN NE Pi Vi

1614 NE Li

+

N EUROPE: Gustavus Adolphus starts Swedish expansion by capturing Novgorod, Russia

 

 

+

INNOVN: Napier's logarithms

 

 

1615

W EUROPE: Habsburg (Austria-Spain) & Bourbon (France) dynasties unite through two marriages

 

1615 NE Li

+

ASIA: Portuguese losses: Dutch take Moluccas, English win naval battle off Bombay

 

 

+

ITALY: Galileo called to account to the Inquisition; prohibited from scientific work 1616

 

 

+

E ASIA: Nurhachi becomes leader of Jurchen/Manchu peoples (beginning of Manchu ascendancy)

 

 

1616

W EUROPE: rise to ministerial power of Richelieu (France) & Francis Bacon (England)

1616 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

 

+

E ASIA: anti-Christian Hidetada Shogun in Japan; Manchu/Jurchen Tatars attack China (to 1620)

 

 

+

EUROPE: Venice and Austria at war, ends 1618

 

 

+

BRITAIN: James I near bankruptcy, sells peerages to earn money; visits Scotland 1617

 

 

1617

N EUROPE: Swedes return Novgorod, receive Livonia, recognise Czar Mikael

1617 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

 

+

S AMERICA: Sir Walter Raleigh reaches Orinoco river, in search of El Dorado gold sources

 

 

+

INNOVN: Snellius' Law of Reflection of light; Harvey works on circulation of the blood

 

 

+

MIDEAST: Ottomans lose Azerbaijan, Georgia and, temporarily, Baghdad & Mosul, in war with Persia

 

 

1618

EUROPE: outbreak of Thirty Years War, over Habsburg succession & religious issues

1618 PL Aphn 10Ta

 

+

AUSTRIA: Ferdinand II defeats Bohemian Prot revolt (with gold & troops from Spain & Germany)

 

 

+

EUROPE: Sir Walter Raleigh executed; Richelieu exiled

 

 

+

INNOVN: Kepler states his third law of planetary motion

 

 

1619

SE ASIA: foundation of Batavia (Jakarta) by Dutch: beginning of Dutch East Indies

1619 NE +qcx PL Li Ta

 

+

FRANCE: succession challenges, Richelieu saves Louis XIII, beating Maria de Medici

 

 

+

AUSTRIA: election of Archduke Ferdinand II HRE (1620-37); opposition in Bohemia

 

 

+

N AMERICA: first colonial assembly at Jamestown, Virginia

 

 

1620

N AMERICA: puritan Pilgrim Fathers land at Plymouth, Massachussetts; English settle Maine 1622

1620 NE +qcx PL Li Ta

1620 UR Le

+

INNOVN: first weekly newspapers in Europe (Mainz & Amsterdam)

 

 

+

GERMANY: Agreement of Ulm between Protestant Union & Catholic League

 

 

+

C EUROPE: Catholic League beats Bohemians, revolt suppressed; Bohemian Prot clergy exiled

 

 

1621

EUROPE: 30 Yrs War switches from Bohemia to Palatinate; war between Holland & Spain

1621 NE +qcx PL Li Ta

1621 UR Le

+

FRANCE: Huguenot rebellion against Louis XIII & Richelieu; ends 1622 with treaty

 

 

+

N AMERICA: new colonial laws for Virginia, new gov'nr Wyatt; Eng occupies N Scotia & Nfndland

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Francis Bacon charged with corruption, later pardoned

 

 

1622

GERMANY: Catholics gain the upper hand over Protestants in Thirty Years' War

1622 NE +qcx PL Li Ta

 

+

ASIA: English capture Hormuz from Portuguese (giving access to Persian Gulf)

 

 

+

ROME: Pope Gregorius XV adopts January 1st as New Year (previously March 25th)

 

 

+

* EUROPE: Rubens, Van Dyck, Rembrandt (still young), Brueghel the Elder, Inigo Jones at work

 

 

1623

SE ASIA: Dutch massacre English traders at Amboina, Moluccas

1623 UR +SQR PL Le Ta

 

+

GERMANY: Cath League occupy Westphalia & Lr Saxony; punishment of Bohemia, forced Catholicis'n

1623 Sa CONJ UR Le Le

 

+

N EUROPE: Gustavus Adolphus reforms Swedish government

1623 NE +qcx PL Li Ta

 

+

PERSIA: Shah Abbas I conquers Baghdad

 

 

1624

N AMERICA: Virginia becomes an English crown colony; British settlement of Caribbean begins

1624 UR +SQR PL Le Ta

 

+

C EUROPE: rise of Albrecht von Wallenstein; becomes rich by land dealings, lends army to Caths

1624 UR -sxt NE Le Li

 

+

N AMERICA: Dutch colonies formally organised as New Netherlands; New Amsterdam (NY) settled

1624 Sa CONJ UR Le Le

 

+

* EUROPE: costs of Thirty Years War to royalty & plundered peoples enormous & destructive

 

 

+

E ASIA: Dutch occupy Taiwan (previously independent, taken by Ching China 1683)

 

 

1625

N AMERICA: Dutch settle New Amsterdam (New York); harass Spanish ships in Atlantic

1625 UR -sxt NE Le Li

 

+

CHINA: Manchu Ch'ing expansion in Manchuria, cap Mukden

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Charles I, king of England & Scotland (1625-49); plague in London

 

 

+

GERMANY: Catholic mercenary army under Tilly occupies Lr Saxony, beats Danes 1626

 

 

1626

GERMANY: Wallenstein defeats Prots, pushes them to Silesia & Hungary; masters N Germany

1626 UR -sxt NE Le Li

1626 UR Vi

+

N AMERICA: Dutch buy and settle Manhattan from local Indians for $25, renamed New Amsterdam

 

 

+

FRANCE: Richelieu becomes a virtual dictator of France; Huguenot rising in La Rochelle

 

 

+

ITALY: Naples destroyed (again) by earthquake, 70,000 die

 

 

1627

CHINA: wave of peasant rebellions against Ming dynasty: major crop failures; Manchus take power in Korea

 

1627 UR Vi

+

INDIA: Shahjahan (1627-56), expands Mughal system & lands; Maratha Sivaji (1627-80) king in South

 

 

+

EUROPE: Cath forces occupy N Germany & Jutland; embattled Danes move to Zeeland

 

 

+

 

 

 

1628

W AFRICA: Portuguese destroy the Mwenemutapa empire

 

1628 NE Sc

+

BRITAIN: rebellion in Somerset; rebellion in Fenland 1630; Cromwell becomes an MP

 

 

+

* EUROPE: philosophers John Donne & Rene Descartes at work

 

 

+

EUROPE: fortunes change for Wallenstein & Catholics; Sweden joins war, allied with Denmark

 

 

1629

N AMERICA: English found Massachusetts Bay colony, storm Quebec (beg Eng-Fr American rivalry)

1629 Sa CONJ NE Sc Sc

1629 NE Sc

+

PERSIA: death of Safavid Abbas I starts period of confusion and decline in Persia

 

 

+

GERMANY: HRE defeats German Protestants; Edict of Restitution returns church land to church

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Charles I dissolves Parliament (not to meet again until 1640)

 

 

1630

* BENELUX: height of artistic culture in Netherlands: Hals, Rembrandt, Vermeer, Reubens

1630 Sa CONJ NE Sc Sc

 

+

ATLANTIC: Dutch seize Portuguese bases in W Africa, Angola & Brazil (cutting Port trade)

 

 

+

ARTS: HIGH BAROQUE PERIOD 1630-80: Monteverdi, Torelli, Frescobaldi; opera, aria, overture

 

 

+

GERMANY: fall of Wallenstein; Prot Swedes under G Adolphus enter Germany; fortunes turn in war

 

 

1631

GERMANY: Swedes aid German Protestants, beating Caths at Breitenfeld, takes Wurzburg & Mainz

1631 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

 

+

FRANCE: Maria de Medici, exiled to Bruxelles, undertakes to fell Richelieu

1631 UR -ssq NE Vi Sc

 

+

ITALY: eruption of Mt Vesuvius, earthquake in Naples

 

 

+

INDIA: famines & floods kill 100,000 in N India

 

 

+

SE ASIA: Sultanate of Macassar at its zenith (1631-60, E Indonesia, Celebes, Moluccas, rich from spice trade)

 

 

1632

N AMERICA: English claim Maryland; settle St Kitts (Leeward Is); Dutch settle Delaware

1632 UR +tri PL Vi Ta

 

+

GERMANY: Swedes take Nurnberg, defeat Caths at Lech & Luetzen; Gustav Adolphus & Tilly killed

1632 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

 

+

INDIA: Portuguese driven out of Bengal by Moghul Shahjahan; Moghul invasion of Deccan (C India)

1632 UR -ssq NE Vi Sc

 

+

N EUROPE: Kristina, queen of Sweden (1632-54); regency of Axel Oxenstjerna

 

 

1633

GERMANY: reinstated Wallenstein takes Silesia, beats Swedes, winters in Bohemia

 

1633 UR Li

+

FRANCE: French army occupies Lorraine (for strategic & religious purposes)

 

 

+

BRITAIN: trial of the Pendle witches; postal service reformed; Covent Garden Market opened

 

 

+

ITALY: Galileo forced by Inquisition to oppose Copernican heliocentric theories

 

 

1634

* C AMERICA: Eng & France occupy various Caribbean is, Dutch Curacao (plantations & trade)

 

 

+

EUROPE: Bt of Nordlingen, Cath victory; Wurttemberg & Franconia retaken; Wallenstein killed

 

 

+

E EUROPE: Poland renounces claim to Russian throne; truce with Sweden 1635

 

 

+

INDIA: English settle Cochin, Malabar, and open trading station in Bengal

 

 

1635

EUROPE: Peace of Prague between Austria & Prot Saxony; alliance of France & Sweden vs Austria

1635 UR +sqt PL Li Ta

 

+

N AMERICA: colonisation of Connecticut, from Mass; Council of New England dissolved

 

 

+

BENELUX: Dutch occupy Taiwan, Virgin Is (English), Martinique (French)

 

 

+

* JAPAN: persecution of Christians; Japanese forbidden to travel abroad; Japan prosperous

 

 

1636

N AMERICA: Harvard College founded near Boston, first university in N America

1636 UR -ssx NE Li Sc

 

+

CHINA: increasing rebellions against Ming in NW, NE (by Manchu Ch'ing) & C China

1636 UR +sqt PL Li Ta

 

+

GERMANY: Swedes beat Saxony at Wittstock; Austria withdraws from Burgundy

 

 

+

N AMERICA: banished from Mass, Puritans settle Providence, RI, seeking religious freedom

 

 

1637

E ASIA: Manchu Ch'ing dynasty invades Korea & Inner Mongolia: Russians reach Pacific coast in Siberia

1637 UR -ssx NE Li Sc

 

+

AUSTRIA: Ferdinand III, HRE (1637-57) (general will to peace grows)

 

 

+

INNOVN: Hobbes' "Rhetorique"; Descartes' "Geometrie"; 1638 Galileo's "Mathematical Discourses"

 

 

+

BRITAIN: new liturgy in Scotland provokes riots

 

 

1638

N AMERICA: English colonise Connecticut, Swedes Delaware

 

1638 PL Ge

+

MIDEAST: Ottomans re-take Baghdad from Persia

 

 

+

BRITAIN: Scots sign Scottish Covenant; Charles I backtracks from it

 

 

+

GERMANY: Elector of Brandenburg removes capital to Koenigsberg, Prussia

 

 

1639

FRANCE: revolt in Normandy; Jules Mazarin enters service of Richelieu

1639 UR +qcx PL Sc Ge

1639 PL Ge

+

RUSSIA: Russian Cossacks cross Urals to reach Okhotsk, colonising Siberian riversides

 

1639 UR Sc

+

C EUROPE: Swedish army at Prague, living off peasants; withdraw 1640

 

 

+

INDIA: English settle Madras; Dutch settle in Ceylon

 

 

1640

AFRICA: Portuguese re-take Angola from Dutch; IBERIA: Portugal becomes independent of Spain

1640 UR +qcx PL Sc Ge

1640 PL Ge

+

BRITAIN: Parliament meets again; Covenanters beat Charles at Tyneside; Charles I buys peace

 

1640 UR Sc

+

* OTTOMANS: on death of Murad IV, Ottoman empire declines in wealth, modernity and political unity

 

 

+

GERMANY: Frederick William, Great Elector of Brandenburg (1640-88) (prelude to Prussian state)

 

 

1641

SE ASIA: Dutch capture Malacca from the Portuguese (for control of East India trade)

 

 

+

CHINA: rival post-Ming regimes set up in N & C China (1641-45) by Li Zucheng & Zhang Xianzhong

 

 

+

IRELAND: Kilkenny Catholic rebellion (to 1649); massacre of Catholics by Protestants in Ulster

 

 

+

INNOVN: cotton products start to be made in Manchester (seed of industrial revolution)

 

 

+

N AMERICA: code of laws estd in Massachusetts; French settle in Michigan, found Montreal 1642

 

 

1642

BRITAIN: ENGLISH CIVIL WAR BEGINS; Parliament raises army against king, in defence of rights

 

1642 NE Sg

+

BRITAIN: income & property taxes introduced; Puritan ascendancy; theatres closed until 1660

 

 

+

EUROPE: Cath Austrian Imperial army defeated in three battles in Thirty Years War

 

 

+

OCEANIA: Dutch Tasman visits Tasmania & New Zealand; AFRICA: Portuguese cede Gold Coast to Dutch

 

 

1643

EUROPE: Prot victs at Rocroi & Jankow (1646) (settling Euro religious & political differences)

 

1643 NE Sg

+

FRANCE: Louis XIV, king of France (1643-1715) age 5; Anne of Austria regent; Mazarin remains

 

 

+

N AMERICA: New England Confederation of Connecticut, New Haven, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay

 

 

+

INNOVN: Torricelli (Italy) invents barometer; Pascal invents an adding machine

 

 

1644

CHINA: rebel Li Tzu-cheng captures Beijing; Ming Dynasty ends; Manchus invade N China & Beijing

1644 NE OPPN PL Sg Ge

 

+

CHINA: MANCHUS FOUND CH'ING DYNASTY in N China (covering all China by 1652)

 

 

+

GERMANY: French occupy Rhineland; BRITAIN: Parliament overcoming Royalists (except in SW England)

 

 

+

* C ASIA: ZENITH IN TIBET: Potala, Dalai Lama's residence at Lhasa, Tibet, being built

 

 


Uranus square Neptune 1612-13
Swedish ascendancy & Baltic expansion; Pilgrim Fathers - growth of American colonies; start of Thirty Years' War; scientific revolution; Virginians plant tobacco; tea brought to Europe; unification of Vietnam


Uranus square Pluto 1624
Mughal expansion, India; Counter-Reformation wars, Europe; Dutch art, trade & colonial expansion; enormous destruction in Thirty Years' War; British occupy Caribbean; rise of Manchu Ch'ing in Manchuria; England & Scotland unified (Charles I); rebellions against Ming dynasty, China


Neptune opposition Pluto, 1644-48
Uranus conjunct Neptune 1650
Uranus opposition Pluto 1648-49

European High Baroque period; Manchu Ch'ing dynasty takes power, China; Protestant gains, end of Thirty Years' War (Germany destroyed); Fronde Rebellion, France; Swedish zenith, controlling Baltic lands; English Civil War (Cromwell, war & repression in Wales & Ireland, massacre of Catholics in Ulster); peak of Mughal empire, India (Shahjahan, Taj Mahal built); Cape Colony founded by Dutch; classical French aristocratic period; cotton products manufactured in Manchester (seed of industrial revolution); age of engineers, inventors, philosophers & scientists takes off; zenith in Tibet (building of Potala); Jewish messianic movement of Shabtai Zvi, Turkey; beginning of friction between colonists & native Americans, N America

NEXT: The Age of Revolutions
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The Historical Ephemeris © Copyright Palden Jenkins 1993-99


The Historical Ephemeris
by Palden Jenkins
Astro-historical tables for 2,500 years

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