Timelines: Early Modern - Revolutions - Historical Ephemeris

The Historical Ephemeris

600 BCE - CE 2200

Astrological Cycles in History

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Astro-historical timeline 10:
The Age of Revolutions
Waning Neptune-Pluto hemicycle  1644-1892

Key:
* = a period of change or a general trend
? = an uncertain date


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1644

CHINA: rebel Li Tzu-cheng captures Beijing; Ming Dynasty ends; Manchus invade, overcoming rebels

1644 NE OPPN PL Sg Ge

+

CHINA: MANCHUS FOUND CH'ING DYNASTY in N China (covering all China by 1652)

+

GERMANY: French occupy Rhineland; BRITAIN: Parliament overcomes Royalists (except in SW England)

+

* C ASIA: Potala, Dalai Lama's residence at Lhasa, Tibet, being built

1645

EUROPE: HRE loses to French at Alerheim & to Swedes at Jankau (Bavaria & Austria threatened)

1645 NE OPPN PL Sg Ge

+

BRITAIN: Civil War: Battle of Naseby, Parliament wins control of all England; rise of Oliver Cromwell

+

MED'N: Ottomans & Venice (again) at war over possession of Crete

+

BRITAIN: scientists hold regular meetings in London (prelude to Royal Society, 1662)

1646

EUROPE: Swedes take Prague; dual invasion of Bavaria (Thirty Years War closing)

1646 NE OPPN PL Sg Ge

1646 UR Sg

+

BRITAIN: Civil War ends with surrender of Oxford; Parl't presents terms, Charles tries to flee

+

CHINA: many Chinese rally to support Ch'ing Dynasty; Chinese generals take S China for Ch'ing

+

1647

BRITAIN: Cromwell suppresses mutiny of mutinous Parliamentary 'Levellers' at Burford

1647 NE OPPN PL Sg Ge

+

ITALY: revolts in Naples against Spanish rule, led by Masaniello; order restored 1648

+

RUSSIA: Moscow revolt against Alexis I, Czar (1645-76)

1648

EUROPE: Peace of Westphalia ends THIRTY YEARS WAR; (carve-up of Europe, HRE disintegrates,

1648 NE OPPN PL Sg Ge

+

secular states & religious toleration, Swedish expansion; new European balance of power)

1648 UR OPPN PL Sg Ge

+

BRITAIN: Cromwell defeats Scots Royalist supporters at Preston; royal concessions rejected

1648 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg

+

FRANCE: FRONDE REBELLION of nobles, judges & people of Paris & other towns, to 1653

1648 Sa OPPN NE Ge Sg

+

MIDEAST: Turkish Jew Shabtai Zvi announces himself the Messiah (stirring unrest in E Europe)

1649

BRITAIN: trial & execution of Charles I: Commonwealth declared; business interests favoured

1648 Sa CONJ PL Ge Ge

+

IRELAND: Cromwell invades, suppressing revolts at Drogheda & Wexford; occupation to 1660

1649 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg

+

OTTOMANS: Mohammed IV, Ottoman sultan (1649-87, Ottoman power in hands of Janissaries)

1649 UR OPPN PL Sg Ge

+

FRANCE: confusion grows during Fronde rebellion

1649 Sa OPPN NE Ge Sg

+

1649 UR on S Node

1650

* JAPAN: beginnings of popular literary culture in Japan

1650 UR CONJ NE Sg Sg

+

BRITAIN: Cromwell occupies Scotland, defeating Royalists at Dunbar

+

N AMERICA: Anglo-Dutch agreement over frontiers (beginnings of Indian vs colonist frictions)

+

BRITAIN: Hobbes at work on jurisprudence; tea arrives in England

1651

BRITAIN: Charles II crowned in Scotland, flees after defeat by Cromwell at Worcester

+

FRANCE: Mazarin overpowered, leaves; Parlement grows in power; Louis XIV comes of age

+

JAPAN: rebellions in Edo, Yetuna, Shogun (1651-80) suppresses them, strengthens rule

+

BRITAIN: Hobbes' "Leviathan" (defending absolute monarchy); anti-Dutch Navigation Act

1652

W EUROPE: first Anglo-Dutch War, English victorious (beginning of the Dutch decline)

+

S AFRICA: Cape Colony (Capetown) founded (by the Dutch, as provisioning station and colony)

+

BRITAIN: Parliament offers pardon to Royalists; first coffee house opens in City of London

+

FRANCE: provisional Fronde gov't in Paris; Louis XIV recalls Mazarin, sets up government

1653

INDIA: Taj Mahal completed at Agra, India, initiated by Shahjahan

1653 UR Cp

+

FRANCE: end of Fronde rebellion

+

BRITAIN: Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) Lord Protector; English defeat Dutch in 3 sea battles

+

1654

RUSSIA: Cossack allegiance changes, Ukraine passes from Polish to Russian rule

+

S AMERICA: Portuguese drive Dutch out of Brazil; sugar trade continues through Amsterdam

+

W EUROPE: Treaty of Westminster ends Anglo-Dutch war (in England's favour)

+

SCANDNVA: Kristina becomes Cath, abdicates; Anglo-Swed trading accords; Oxenstjerna dies

1655

BRITAIN: Cromwell dissolves Parliament, virtual dictator; bans Anglican services

+

N EUROPE: 1st Northern War: Sweden invades Poland, Great Elector invades Prussia

+

AMERICAS: British take Jamaica; BRITAIN: Cromwell first 'architect of British Empire'

+

WORLD: BEGINNING of MAJOR EXPANSION of ENGLISH COLONIALISM and economic expansion

1656

INDIA: Aurangzeb, Mughal emperor (1656-1707) expands Mughal empire to greatest extent

1656 NE Cp

+

ITALY: St Peter's in Rome completed by Bernini; famine & plague kills 400,000

1656 NE Cp

+

N EUROPE: Sweden & Brandenburg form alliance, Swedes ceding Prussia to Great Elector

+

FRANCE: opening of Hopital General, Paris, hospital, poorhouse & factory

1657

BRITAIN: Cromwell's power grows; chocolate introduced to London

1657 UR -qcx PL Cp Ge

1657 NE Cp

+

N EUROPE: Sweden at war with Denmark, Russia, Austria & Poland; Brandbg allies Poland

+

AUSTRIA: Leopold I elected HRE (1658-1705)

+

INNOVN: Huygens develops the pendulum clock

1658

N EUROPE: Peace of Roskilde: SWEDISH EMPIRE AT ITS ZENITH

1658 UR -qcx PL Cp Ge

+

BRITAIN: death of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector (1653-8), succeeded by son, who fails

+

SCANDNVA: Swedes beseige Copenhagen; Sweden begins circulation of banknotes

+

GERMANY: foundation of Rhineland League, with French protection

1659

W AFRICA: French found trading post on Senegal coast

+

E EUROPE: Great Elector drives Swedes out of Prussia (Prussian identity growing)

+

W EUROPE: peace between France & Spain; Louis XIV takes control 1661, on death of Mazarin

+

INDIA: beginning of Hindu Maratha expansion from W Deccan (1659-70) eventually superseding Moghuls)

+

BRITAIN: Samuel Pepys, diarist (1633-1703), at peak of work 1660-70

+

CHINA: Manchus complete invasion and reunification of China

1660

FRANCE: CLASSICAL PERIOD of FRENCH ARISTOCRATIC CULTURE

1660 UR Aq

+

BRITAIN: Parliament invites Charles II back; coronation of Charles II, K of England (1661-85)

+

EUROPE: Peace of Oliva ends war between Austria, Poland, Sweden & Brandenburg

+

SCANDNVA: Peace of Copenhagen ends Swedish-Danish war; Karl XI, king of Sweden (1660-97)

1661 UR Aq

1661

SE ASIA: king Narai of Siam (1661-88, with Greek adviser) asks French aid to expel Dutch

+

INDIA: widespread famines, through lack of rain for three years; English base set up in Bombay

+

BRITAIN: Cavalier Parliament meets; Evelyn criticises London's air pollution

+

IDEAS: Boyle defines chemical elements; Royal Society (for scientists) chartered 1662

1662

AFRICA: Bt of Ambuila: Portuguese destroy Kongo kingdom; Bambara kgdms dominate W Africa

1662 UR -sqt PL Aq Ge

+

CHINA: K'ang-hsi, Ch'ing emperor (age 8, 1662-1722); Ming loyalists take Taiwan from Dutch, until 1683

+

W EUROPE: England sells Dunkirk to France; FRANCE: building of Palace of Versailles

+

INNOVN: Boyle's research on gases; Guericke develops an air pump

1663

OTTOMANS: Ottomans declare war on Austria, invading Hungary & Transylvania (unsuccessful longterm)

1663 UR -sqt PL Aq Ge

+

N AMERICA: St Lawrence colonies formally organised as New France, capital Quebec

+

INNOVN: Guericke makes a frictional electric machine; Descartes' writings banned by Pope

+

BRITAIN: Charles II busy: many changes in England & colonies

1664

N AMERICA: New Amsterdam taken by British from the Dutch (renamed New York)

1664 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge

+

E EUROPE: Austrians beat Ottomans at Raab (Ottoman threat to Europe ended)

+

N AMERICA: English annex New Netherlands, resettling Conn to Maryland (Anglo dominance in N Am)

+

* BRITAIN: strong restrictions being put on Nonconformists in England

1665

W EUROPE: second Anglo-Dutch war, British win (Dutch influence further weakened)

1665 UR +ssx NE Aq Cp

+

IBERIA: English help Portuguese to defeat Spain and secure Portugal's independence

+

* ARTS: Bernini & Christopher Wren (architects), Rembrandt & Vermeer (painters), at work

+

IDEAS: Newton (1642-1738) invents differential calculus; Grimaldi's "Diffraction of Light"

1666

FRANCE: Academie Francaise founded in Paris

1666 UR +ssx NE Aq Cp

+

BRITAIN: Great Fire of London; preceded by plague 1664

+

RUSSIA: Great Schism in Russian Orthodox church; Russia gains Smolensk & Kiev from Poland

+

IDEAS: Newton's "Laws of Gravitation"

1667

* FRANCE: beginning of French expansion under Louis XIV, le Roi Soleil

1667 UR -tri PL Aq Ge

+

BENELUX: French invade Habsburg Netherlands (seeking new border on Rhine)

1667 Sa CONJ NE Cp Cp

+

W EUROPE: Peace of Breda between France, Holland & England

+

BRITAIN: Milton's "Paradise Lost"; "Paradise Regained", 1671

+

SE ASIA: Dutch conquer the wealtyh spice Sultanate of Macassar

1668

W EUROPE: Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (France coerced by Engl, Holl & Swed to end aggression)

1668 UR -tri PL Aq Ge

1668 UR Pi

+

INDIA: Bombay under control of British East India Co (rise of Eng econ influence in India)

1668 PL Cn

+

INNOVN: Italian scientist Borelli attempts to fly (using artificial wings)

+

AFRICA: rise of Bambara kingdoms (1660s, in Nigeria, replacing Mandingo kingdom)

1669

MED'N: Ottomans take Crete, last colony of Venice (Venice in decline)

1669 UR Pi

+

INDIA: Moghul Aurangzeb bans Hindu faith (forced conversion to Islam); rebellions; famine, 3m die

1669 PL Cn

+

N EUROPE: last congress of the Hanseatic League (end of a medieval trading confederation)

+

INNOVN: geology formalised by Steno; phosphorus made by Brand; insects studied by Swammerdam

1670

W EUROPE: France occupies Lorraine (Louis XIV's expnsion of borders policy)

1670 PL Cn

+

N AMERICA: Hudson's Bay colony founded (Rupert's Land)

1670 NE Aq

+

BENELUX: William of Orange becomes Captain General of United Dutch Provinces

+

RUSSIA: rebellion of Ukrainian Cossacks (led by Stenka Razin) suppressed

1671

SE ASIA: Javanese succession struggles make Java dependent on Dutch aid

1671 Sa CONJ UR Pi Pi

1671 NE Aq

+

BRITAIN: formation of Whig & Tory political parties; est of Habeas Corpus (right to trial)

+

BRITAIN: Sir Christopher Wren's 'Monument' starts rebuilding of churches & buildings in London

+

CHINA: Ch'ing emp K'ang Hsi's Holy Edict enforces Confucian conduct rules (Jesuit inspired)

+

N AMERICA: English explorers cross the Appalachian mountains (beginning of opening up of West)

1672

SE ASIA: French thrown out of Siam by King Narai (reaction to French garrisons at Bangkok)

1672 NE -qcx PL Aq Cn

+

W EUROPE: third Anglo-Dutch war, Dutch largely win; French attack Holland, Dutch flood polders

+

BRITAIN: economic problems in England; Crown payments stopped for one year

+

INNOVN: Leibnitz invents a calculating machine

1673

EUROPE: Austria declares war on France

1673 NE -qcx PL Aq Cn

+

E EUROPE: Ottoman attack on Poland 1672, Poles beat Ottomans at Bt of Khorzim

+

N AMERICA: French explorers reach top of Mississippi river (opening trade with Midwest Indians)

+

BRITAIN: Test Act forbits Catholics to have official posts in England

1674

N AMERICA: Holland & Sweden formally cede New York & New Sweden to England

1674 NE on S Node

+

W EUROPE: French army wrecks the Palatinate (Mainz)

1674 UR +ssq NE Pi Aq

+

BENELUX: Dutch office of Stadtholder (William of Orange) becomes hereditary

+

INDIA: Maratha Sivaji Bhonsla declares independence of Aurangzeb's declining Mughal empire

1675

* CHINA: CH'ING PEACE & PROSPERITY for 100 years, after suppression of rebel Three Feudatories

1675 UR +ssq NE Pi Aq

+

N EUROPE: Brandenburg beats Sweden at Fehrbellin (Prussia beats Europe's greatest milit power)

+

W EUROPE: Louis XIV lends Charles II of England money to overcome Parliamentary resistance

+

N AMERICA: major native American revolts against European colonists

+

IDEAS: Spinoza's "Ethics", Newton's "Opticks", Leibnitz's Calculus, Roemer on speed of light

1676

N AMERICA: Nathaniel Bacon gathers support in Virginia for a revolt against English rulers

1676 UR Ar

+

INNOVN: Greenwich Observatory opened, under direction of John Flamsteed, astronomer royal

+

INNOVN: Leeuwenhoek researches spermatozoa

+

1677

E EUROPE: Great Elector takes Baltic ports of Ruegen, Stettin, Stralsund (carving of Prussia)

+

AMERICA: crisis in New England as it develops its own economy & identity

+

INNOVN: introduction of ice cream to fashionable Paris

+

IDEAS: Kristiaan Huygens' work on light; John Bunyan's "Pilgrims Progress"

1678

BRITAIN: rise of anti-Catholic feelings & trials in England; the 'Popish Plot'

1678 UR -SQR PL Ar Cn

+

W EUROPE: Peace of Nijmegen between France, Holland & Habsburgs

+

C EUROPE: rebellion of Hungarians against Habsburg Austria, behind Emeric Tokolyi

+

N EUROPE: Sweden at war with Russia, Brandenburg, Denmark, Holland

+

C ASIA: Khanate of Kokand (W Turkestan) takes Khanate of Kashgar (control of Silk Road)

1679

N EUROPE: Peace between Sweden, Denmark & Brandenburg

1679 UR -SQR PL Ar Cn

+

IBERIA: waning Habsburg influence in Spain strengthened by Marie of Austria

+

N AMERICA: creation of New Hampshire as separate province to Massachusetts

+

INNOVN: Halley's "Catalogue of the Southern Stars"; first German coffee-house in Hamburg

+

INDIA: war between Muslim Moghuls and Hindu Rajputs (1679-1709, growing religious polarisation)

1680

N AMERICA: French colonise upper Mississippi from Great Lakes; English take Pennsylvania

1680 UR -SQR PL Ar Cn

+

SCANDNVA: Karl XI, king of Sweden (1660-97) creates absolute monarchy

1680 Sa CONJ PL Cn Cn

+

GERMANY: Maximilian Emanuel, Elector Bavaria (1680-1726); JAPAN: Tsunayoshi, Shogun (1680-1709)

+

BRITAIN: Robert Filmer's "Natural Power of Kings"; Sir William Temple's "Essay on Government"

1681

EUROPE: Brandenburg forms defence alliances with France & Sweden

1681 UR +sxt NE Ar Aq

+

EUROPE: meeting of the first European Congress at Frankfurt-am-Main (European consciousness)

+

BRITAIN: cheques brought into use; Chelsea Hospital founded for wounded & pensioned soldiers

+

* CHINA: K'ang Hsi strengthens Mandarin heirarchy, foreign trade, intellectual repression

+

N AMERICA: La Salle explores the length of the Mississippi for France (start of French Louisiana)

1682

C EUROPE: anti-Austrian rebel leader Emeric Tokolyi in Hungary supported by Ottomans

1682 UR +sxt NE Ar Aq

+

FRANCE: forced conversion of 60,000 Huguenots; Versailles becomes Louis XIV's royal seat

1682 PL on N Node

+

BENELUX: weaving factory established in Amsterdam, with 100 looms (prelude to industrial rev'n)

1682 HALLEY'S COMET

+

N AMERICA: founding of Pennsylvania by William Penn

1683

C EUROPE: Ottoman seige of Vienna (Europe at risk); ended by intervention of Poland & Lorraine

1683 UR +sxt NE Ar Aq

1683 UR Ta

+

W EUROPE: Spain, Austria, Holland & Sweden ally against France

1683 Sa OPPN NE Le Aq

+

CHINA: Manchu Ch'ing conquer Taiwan (held to 1895); Dutch traders established in Canton/Guangzhou

+

N AMERICA: treaty between Quaker Wm Penn (1644-1718) & Indians; first German settlers arrive

1684

C EUROPE: Holy League formed against Ottomans by Austria, Poland & Venice

1684 UR +sxt NE Ar Aq

1684 UR Ta

+

SE ASIA: Sultanate of Bantam (Java) comes under Dutch control, English expelled (spice trade)

1684 Sa OPPN NE Vi Pi

1684 NE Pi

+

GERMANY: Elector of Brandenburg offers refuge to Fr Huguenots; anti-Jewish mvmnt in Bordeaux

+

N AMERICA: Eng king annuls Massachusetts Charter ("Puritan insubordination")

1685

CHINA: ports opened to foreign trade; English establish trade between India & China

1685 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn

1685 NE Pi

+

BRITAIN: Pitchfork Rebellion defeated at Bt of Sedgemoor; Judge Jeffreys' 'Bloody Assizes'

+

FRANCE: Louis XIV exiles thousands of Huguenots by revoking Edict of Nantes (1598)

+

BRITAIN: England receives many Huguenots, bringing with them textile industries

1686

N AMERICA: English colonies reorganised with formation of Federation of New England

1686 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn

+

C EUROPE: Holy League (Duke of Lorraine) take Buda from Ottomans; Russia at war with Ottomans

+

N AMERICA: French settlers in Texas; La Salle explores & claims Mississippi river & Louisiana

+

W AFRICA: Brandenburg establishes a colony at Guinea

1687

BRITAIN: religious liberalisation in England, with James II's Declaration of Indulgence

1687 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn

+

C EUROPE: Bt of Mohacs, Ottomans beaten decisively by Holy League (weakening of Turkey)

+

C EUROPE: Hungarian crown recognised as hereditary to Austrian Habsburgs

+

IDEAS: Newton's "Principia" published; Sloane's botanical collections started; plate glass

1688

BRITAIN: 'Glorious Revolution' ests const monarchy under William of Orange; James II flees

1688 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn

+

E EUROPE: Belgrade occupied by Austrians (Ottoman retreat); Ottoman Athens bombed by Venice

+

GERMANY: France invades Palatinate (in war to limit Austrian Habsburg power)

+

* INDIA: friction between Mughals in north and Marathas in south, growing chaos in India

+

SE ASIA: revolt in Ayutthaya (Siam) against foreign influences overthrows monarchy, excludes foreigners

1689

EUROPE: Grand Alliance against Louis XIV (general increase of war in Europe)

1689 UR -sxt PL Ta Cn

+

BRITAIN: William III & Mary, K & Q of England & Scotland (1690-1702); Declaration of Rights

1689 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn

+

RUSSIA: Peter the Great, Czar of Russia (1689-1730)

+

N AMERICA: angry Iroqouis indians massacre French settlers near Montreal

1690

IRELAND: William III defeats Catholics at Bt of the Boyne (fuelling Prot-Cath rivalry)

1690 UR -sxt PL Ta Cn

1690 UR Ge

+

IDEAS: Joseph Locke's "Two Treatises on Gov't" (lays way for constitutional monarchy)

+

INDIA: British East India Trading Co establishes trading centre at Calcutta, Bengal

+

* BRITAIN: Britain now the leading trading & financial power in the world (until 1914)

1691

IRELAND: Irish rebellion ends with the Treaty of Limerick

1691 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

1691 UR Ge

+

C EUROPE: Transylvania absorbed into Habsburg Austrian empire

+

IDEAS: Leibnitz' "Protagaea" on geology; Locke's "Concerning Human Understanding"

+

IDEAS: Huygens' wave theory of Light

+

C ASIA: revolts of Dzungar Mongols against Ming China (1690-96, crushed)

1692

W EUROPE: English navy destroys French navy at La Hogue (ending risk of French invasion)

1692 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

1692 PL Le

+

BRITAIN: Glencoe Massacre of Clan MacDonald by pro-English Clan Campbell

+

CHINA: edict of toleration for Christians; N AMERICA: Salem witchcraft trials (New England)

+

BRITAIN: Bank of England established in London (Sir Isaac Newton); creation of National Debt

1693

W AFRICA: Bt of Lagos, French defeat an English merchant fleet off Nigeria

1693 UR on N Node

1693 PL Le

+

ITALY: Knights of the Apocalypse founded to counter the Antichrist

+

FRANCE: Louis XIV begins a policy of peace, with a reconciliation with the Pope

+

S AMERICA: gold & diamonds discovered in Brazil; Kingston, Jamaica founded (after an earthquake)

1694

PERSIA: Hussain, Shah of Persia (1694-1721)

1694 UR -ssq PL Ge Le

1694 PL Le

+

W EUROPE: English & Dutch (William III) assault on French Channel ports & borders

+

+

1695

BRITAIN: end of press censorship in England

1695 UR -ssq PL Ge Le

+

RUSSIA: Peter the Great fails in war against Ottomans, attends to home affairs

+

BRITAIN: taxes on windows & salt, and new coinage in England; Royal Bank of Scotland founded

+

RUSSIA: Russians sent to Europe to study, Peter following in 1697 & 1716 (westernisation of Russia)

1696

RUSSIA: Peter the Great beats Ottomans, takes Azov (access to Black Sea); Russians take Kamchatka

1696 UR +SQR NE Ge Pi

+

BRITAIN: Habeas Corpus suspended in England; Daniel Defoe proposes income tax

+

* FRANCE: Louis XIV's Versailles court acts as a model for European aristocracy

+

* W AFRICA: rise of the Ashanti empire (Gold Coast)

1697

E ASIA: Manchus occupy Outer Mongolia, defeating Oirat Mongols, attacking Panchen Lama at Urga

1697 UR +SQR NE Cn Ar

1697 NE Ar

+

SCANDNVA: Karl XII, king of Sweden (1697-1718) (temp extends Swedish terr to greatest extent)

1697 Sa OPPN PL Aq Le

1697 UR Cn

+

W EUROPE: Treaty of Ryswyck between France & England

+

C AMERICA: last remnants of Maya culture destroyed by Spaniards in Yucatan, Mexico

1698

RUSSIA: rebellion in Moscow of absent Peter the Great's Streltsi guards, subsides

1698 UR +SQR NE Ge Pi

1698 NE Ar

+

GERMANY: George Louis, Elector of Hanover (1698-1725) (future George I of England)

1698 UR Cn

+

* GERMANY: gradual rise of Prussian militarism, army trained by Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau

+

BRITAIN: founding of Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge (SPCK) by Thomas Bray

+

E AFRICA: Omani Arabs est Sultanate of Zanzibar (to control E African & Indian Ocean trade)

1699

C EUROPE: Treaty of Karlowitz: Ottomans make peace with Holy League; Habsburgs gain Hungary

1699 UR +SQR NE Cn Ar

+

E EUROPE: Treaty of Preobrazhenskoe: Swedish empire partitioned by Den, Russia, Poland, Saxony

+

SCANDNVA: Frederick IV, king of Denmark (1699-1730)

+

BRITAIN: Billingsgate market opened


Neptune opposition Pluto, 1644-48
Uranus conjunct Neptune 1650

Uranus opposition Pluto 1648-49

European High Baroque period; Manchu Ch'ing dynasty takes power, China; Protestant gains, end of Thirty Years' War (Germany destroyed); Fronde Rebellion, France; Swedish zenith, controlling Baltic lands; English Civil War (Cromwell, war & repression in Wales & Ireland, massacre of Catholics in Ulster); peak of Mughal empire, India (Shahjahan, Taj Mahal built); Cape Colony founded by Dutch; classical French aristocratic period; cotton products manufactured in Manchester (seed of industrial revolution); age of engineers, inventors, philosophers & scientists takes off; zenith in Tibet (building of Potala); Jewish messianic movement of Shabtai Zvi, Turkey; beginning of friction between colonists & native Americans, N America


Uranus square Pluto 1678-80
Peace & prosperity in Manchu China; growth of New England as a proto-nation; first European Congress (diplomacy); scientific revolution; expansion of Prussia (Prussian militarism); French colonisation of Great Lakes & Mississippi


Uranus square Neptune 1696-99
English growth - Bank of England, leading trading nation; state of Ashanti, W Africa; chaos in India (wars & revolts); German Baroque period; War of Spanish Succession (first global war); weakening of Ottomans; final destruction of Mayans, Yucatan, by Spanish; Arab control of E African trade ports

1700

* GERMANY: PEAK of GERMAN BAROQUE: Buxtehude, Handel, JS Bach, Pachelbel

1700 UR -ssx PL Cn Le

+

N EUROPE: Great Northern War, until 1720; Saxons take Livonia; Sweden beats Russia at Narva

+

INDIA: chaos in INDIA: Marathas ravage Deccan; Rajput civil war; Sikh, Jat & Satnami revolts

+

IBERIA: end of the Spanish Habsburgs; Philip V (Bourbon), king of Spain (1700-46)

1701

GERMANY: Elector of Brandenburg crowns himself Frederick Wm I, K of Prussia (1700-32, 'drill-master')

+

EUROPE: War of Spanish Succession begins (the first 'world war', over balance of power fears)

+

W EUROPE: Louis XIV challenges English succession, proposing James II's son as king

+

IDEAS: Bernoulli's "Theory of Probability" (statistics); Collier's "Dictionary"

+

W AFRICA: warrior kgdm of Asante grows under Osei Tutu (later a major anti-Euro power)

1702

BRITAIN: Anne, Queen of England (1702-14); Duke of Marlborough becomes Captain-General of army

+

E EUROPE: Northern war: Karl XII of Sweden overruns Poland; beats Russians 1703

+

FRANCE: rebellion of 'Camisard' Huguenot peasants; France exhausted by continual warring

+

EUROPE: serfdom abolished in Denmark; oil lighting becoming common in German towns

1703

RUSSIA: St Petersburg founded, giving Russia access to Baltic (becomes Russian capital 1712)

1703 Sa CONJ NE Ar Ar

+

W EUROPE: English (Marlborough) & Austrian (Prince Eugene) forces advance on Germany

+

IBERIA: Habsburg Archduke Charles proclaimed king of Spain; Anglo-Portuguese treaty in Lisbon

+

BRITAIN: Sir Isaac Newton becomes president of the Royal Society

1704

GERMANY: Marlborough & Prince Eugene meet, defeat France & Bavaria at Bt of Blenheim

1704 NE -tri PL Ar Le

1704 UR Le +

+

MED'N: English take Gibraltar (to establish naval base against Spain in Med'n)

+

N AMERICA: French settlers involve Iroquois Indians in attacks on English settlers

+

ARTS: JS Bach writes first cantata; Handel's "St John's Passion"

1705

RUSSIA: rebellion in Astrakhan against Peter the Great's westernisation

1705 NE -tri PL Ar Le

1705 UR Le

+

IBERIA: English navy takes Barcelona; N AFRICA: Tunisians throw off Ottoman rule

+

IDEAS: Sir Edmund Halley correctly predicts Halley's Comet's return in 1758 (last seen 1682)

+

IDEAS: "Vossiche Zeitung" Berlin; "Boston News Letter" Mass; "Daily Courant" & "Review" London

1706

EUROPE: Karl XII beats Russia & Saxony; Marlborough conquers Span Neths, Eugene beats French

1706 NE -tri PL Ar Le

+

N AMERICA: French & Spanish attempt to take Carolina (bordering Louisiana & Florida

+

+

1707

* INDIA: DECLINE OF MOGHUL EMPIRE BEGINS: death of Aurangzeb; Bahadur Shah succeeds

1707 NE -tri PL Ar Le

+

INDIA: Sikh rebellions in Punjab, led by Guru Gobind Singh, defeated by Moghuls

+

BRITAIN: Act of Union of England & Scotland, under name Great Britain

+

JAPAN: Mt Fujiyama erupts for the last time

+

1708

W EUROPE: Marlborough (Britain) & Eugene (Austria) defeat France at Bt of Oudenarde

1708 NE -tri PL Ar Le

+

E EUROPE: Karl XII (Sweden) invades the Ukraine

+

RUSSIA: Peter the Great reorganises Russian regions (to improve governance)

+

BRITAIN: lexicographer Collier's "Ecclesiastical History of Britain"

1709

E EUROPE: Bt of Poltava: Russians decisively defeat Karl XII (turning point for Swedish empire)

1709 NE -tri PL Ar Le

+

W EUROPE: Marlborough & Eugene campaign in Belgium, beating French at Bt of Malplaquet

1709 UR +tri NE Le Ar

+

C ASIA: Afghans of Kandahar rebel against Persian Safavid rule, gaining independence

+

INNOVN: Darby discovers coke-smelting techniques for producing pig iron in England

1710

INNOVN: Le Blon, engraver, develops three-colour printing in Germany

1710 UR +tri NE Le Ar

1710 UR Vi

+

EUROPE: various European wars lapse into complexity and stalemate, losing direction

1710 UR CONJ PL Le Le

1710 PL Vi

+

RUSSIA: newly-built St Petersburg becomes capital of westernising Russia

1710 NE -tri PL Ar Le

+

* GERMANY: constant warring stimulates emigration to N America

1711

BRITAIN: Duke of Marlborough dismissed as C-in-C; Tories (Bolingbroke) take power

1711 UR +tri NE Le Ar

1711 PL Vi

+

C EUROPE: Charles VI of Austria (1711-40) (conciliatory to Euro powers & Hungary)

1711 NE -tri PL Ar Le

1711 UR Vi

+

E EUROPE: war between Russia and Ottomans in Black Sea environs

1711 NE Ta

+

N AMERICA: war between Carolina settlers & Tuscarora; British gain Acadia (Nova Scotia) from French

1712

EUROPE: opening of Utrecht Peace Congress, to end War of Spanish Succession

1712 UR +tri NE Vi Ta

1712 NE Ta

+

C EUROPE: Swiss civil war of religion ends with the Treaty of Aarau

1712 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1712 PL Vi

+

EUROPE: last execution for witchcraft in England; witch trials abolished in Prussia

+

INDIA: war of succession between Moghul Shah Bahadur's four sons

1713

EUROPE: TREATY OF UTRECHT: Span Euro posessions to Austria; Bourbon Philip K of Spain; British

1713 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

gains in colonies & monopoly of slave trade; Habsburg losses (new order in bal of power)

1713 Sa CONJ PL Vi Vi

+

* EUROPE: PERIOD of EUROPEAN CABINET POLITICS (1713-48 and after)

+

N EUROPE: capitulation of Sweden at Oldenburg; Karl XII Ottoman prisoner (Swedish power broken)

*

W AFRICA: British gain 30-year monopoly of slave trade (peak of slaving in Africa)

1714

EUROPE: Austria fights on, then French-Austrian treaties of Rastatt & Baden (HRE accepts new order)

1714 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

N EUROPE: Russia invades Finland; Karl XII released, rides to Stralsund, broken

1714 Sa CONJ UR Vi Vi

+

BRITAIN: George I, king of Britain (1714-27) (was George Louis, Elector of Hanover)

+

OTTOMANS: Libya independent; peace treaty with Russia (weakening of Ottoman power)

1715

FRANCE: Louis XV, king of France (age 5, 1715-74), regent Duc d'Orleans

1715 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

BRITAIN: Jacobite Rebellion, Cath supporters of 'Pretender' James III defeated

1715 UR +sqt NE Vi Ta

+

N AMERICA: uprising of Indian Yamassee tribes in Carolina against expanding settlers, defeated

+

* EUROPEAN CULTURE: Rococo style, Georgian architecture, spas, travel, modern diet, music, art

1716

EUROPE: peace dawning throughout war-weary Europe

1716 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1716 UR Li

+

C EUROPE: Austria (Eugene) ejects Ottomans from Hungary & Bulgaria (Ottoman decline)

1716 UR +sqt NE Vi Ta

+

FRANCE: Scottish economist John Law ests Banque Generale & Mississippi Company

+

INNOVN: Fahrenheit develops mercury thermometer; Anel invents syringe

+

N AMERICA: Spain occupies Texas (responding to French expansion of Louisiana)

1717

C ASIA: Mongols occupy C Tibet and Lhasa, destroying a large Chinese army; China regains control 1720

1717 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1717 UR Li

+

EUROPE: Handel's "Water Music"; Bach's "Orgelbuchlein"

1717 UR +sqt NE Vi Ta

+

GERMANY: compulsory schooling and other reforms being introduced in Prussia

+

BRITAIN: Mother grand Lodge of Freemasons moves to London

1718

N AMERICA: Spaniards found government in Texas; French found New Orleans (Mississippi entrepot)

1718 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

EUROPE: Quadruple Alliance between France, Austria, England & Holland

1718 UR +sqt NE Li Ta

+

SCANDNVA: Karl XII killed in action in Norway (treaty carve-up of Sweden next four years)

+

BRITAIN: first banknotes in England; Society of Antiquaries founded

1719

W EUROPE: England & France separately declare war on Spain

1719 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

INDIA: Mohammed Shah Moghul emperor (1719-48) (after succession battles)

1719 Sa OPPN NE Sc Ta

+

W EUROPE: Liechtenstein becomes independent principality

+

SCANDNVA: Russians attempt invasion of Sweden over frozen Gulf of Bothnia

1720

W EUROPE: 'South Sea Bubble' collapse (GB); French national bankruptcy (failure of Law's Miss'pi Co)

1720 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

SCANDNVA: Frederick II, King of Sweden (1720-51) (Sweden engages in no more wars from now)

1720 Sa OPPN NE Sc Ta

+

N AMERICA: New York increases trade & links with Indians; collective settlement in Vermont

+

GERMANY: Palatinate court moves from Heidelberg to Mannheim

1721

RUSSIA: Peter the Great wrests Estonia & Livonia from Sweden; proclaimed Czar of all Russias

1721 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

BRITAIN: Robert Walpole made Chancellor of Exchequer (restoring public financial confidence)

1721 UR +qcx NE Li Ta

+

N AMERICA: major emigration from Prussia to New England; Swiss settlers introduce rifle

1721 UR +ssx PL Li Vi

+

EUROPE: Bailey's "Univ Etym English Dictionary"; Jablonski's "Allgemeines Lexikon"

1722

HRE: succession problems to 1725, over female succession to Habsburg throne (Maria Theresa)

1722 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

PERSIA: Afghans invade Persia, taking Isfahan (retrieved 1726)

1722 UR +qcx NE Li Ta

+

INNOVN: de Reaumur (Fr) writes on steel-making

1722 UR +ssx PL Li Vi

+

CHINA: T'u Shu Chi Ch'eng, major Chinese encyclopaedia

1723

GERMANY: Prussia reorganises governance, ministries & bureaucracy

1723 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1723 UR Sc

+

* ARTS: Bach (1685-1750), Telemann (1681-1767), Handel (1685-1759) at work

1723 UR +qcx NE Li Ta

+

* INDIA: Moghul disintegration – states separate from empire: Rohikhand 1721, Oudh & Hyderabad 1724

+

1724

C ASIA: China occupies Tsinghai (NE Tibet)

1724 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1724 UR Sc

+

FRANCE: Paris Bourse opens

1724 UR +qcx NE Sc Ge

1724 NE Ge

+

W AFRICA: growth of kgdm of Dahomey (supported by Euro slave traders)

1724 PL Li

+

1725

HRE: Treaty of Vienna: succession problems (Pragmatic Sanction) resolved in all Habsburg lands

1725 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1725 PL Li

+

ARTS: Alexander Pope (1688-1744), Daniel Defoe (1661-1731), Voltaire (1694-1778) at work

1725 NE Ge

+

+

1726

CHINA: tribal revolts in Yunnan (SW China)

1726 NE -tri PL Ge Li

+

E EUROPE: alliance between Russia & Austria against Ottomans (to break Ottoman power in Europe)

+

ARTS: Jonathon Swift (1667-1758) "Gulliver's Travels"; exiled Voltaire flees to England

+

BRITAIN: Gen Wade builds military roads in Scottish Highlands (to break power of Clans)

1727

BRITAIN: George II (1727-60); Gibraltar beseiged unsuccessfully by Spain; Newton dies

1727 NE -tri PL Ge Li

+

E ASIA: frontiers fixed between Russian E Siberia & China, along river Amur

+

N AMERICA: American Philosophical Society founded; Quakers demand abolition of slavery

+

S AMERICA: coffee first planted in Brazil

1728

PACIFIC: Bering (Dutch) explores Alaska & Bering Strait (ests America & Asia to be separate)

1728 NE -tri PL Ge Li

+

GERMANY: Treaty of Berlin between Prussia & Austria (becoming equal powers in German world)

1728 UR +ssq PL Sc Li

+

ARTS: Ephraim Chambers' "Cyclopaedia"; Bach's "St Matthew Passion"; Gay's "Beggar's Opera"

+

IBERIA: Inquisition suppresses Freemasonry (otherwise Freemasons expand in Europe & America)

1729

N AMERICA: N & S Carolina become Crown colonies of Britain

1729 NE -tri PL Ge Li

+

CHINA: Ch'ing emperor Yung Cheng prohibits opium smoking, reduces slavery

1729 UR +ssq PL Sc Li

+

INNOVN: Stephen Gray researches electrical conductivity; Newton's "Principia" tr to English

+

MED'N: brief independence of Corsica from Genoa (three years)

1730

BRITAIN: Methodist Church started by the Wesley brothers at Oxford

1730 NE -tri PL Ge Li

1730 UR Sg

+

* N AFRICA: revival of the ancient empire of Bornu in Sudan

+

WORLD: Persian Shah murdered; Ottoman Ahmad XII deposed; Prussian crown prince imprisoned

+

EUROPE: ZENITH of ROCOCO – court art, fashion, drama, furnishings, culture

1731

GERMANY: exile of Salzburg Protestants, 12,000 received by Prussia, 8,000 to Georgia

1731 NE -tri PL Ge Li

+

BRITAIN: 10 Downing St & Covent Garden Opera built; emigration prohibited for factory workers

+

INNOVN: Hadley invents navigational quadrant; zinc-smelting introduced; dieting first suggested

+

CHINA: Beijing destroyed in earthquake (virtually whole population dies)

1732

GERMANY: Prussia introduces systematic conscription (precedent)

1732 NE -tri PL Ge Li

+

N AMERICA: Georgia becomes colony; Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Ga (English foothold in South)

1732 Sa OPPN PL Ar Li

+

N AMERICA: new sects: Ephrata Community (Baptist), Moravian Brethren, Corp for Prop'n of Gospel

+

N AMERICA: Shawnee & Delaware Americans migrate west to escape European settlers

1733

N AMERICA: Georgia incorporated as thirteenth English crown colony in N America

1733 NE -tri PL Ge Li

+

E EUROPE: war of Polish Succession (gradual disintegration of Poland); Russians take Gdansk

1733 Sa OPPN PL Ar Li

+

1733 UR on S Node

+

1734

MIDEAST: short friction between Ottomans and an unstable Persia

1734 NE -tri PL Ge Li

+

BRITAIN: Quran translated into English by George Sale

+

IDEAS: Emmanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772), Swedish engineer & visionary, at work

+

1735

ISLAM: WAHHABITE MOVEMENT to purify Islam BEGINS in MECCA (Abd-al-Wahhab 1703-92)

1735 UR OPPN NE Sg Ge

+

BRITAIN: William Pitt the Elder (1708-1778) enters Parliament (future great minister)

1735 NE -tri PL Ge Li

+

IDEAS: Linnaeus publishes a nomenclature of organic species; Huntsman makes cast steel

+

1736

PERSIA: Safavid dynasty deposed by Nadir Shah (1736-47) (stabiliser & moderniser)

1736 UR OPPN NE Sg Ge

1736 PL Sc

+

CHINA: Ch'ing emperor Ch'ien Lung (1736-96) (orthodox Confucian, Manchu system ossifies)

1736 NE -tri PL Ge Li

+

BRITAIN: Porteous riots in Edinburgh; India rubber arrives; witchcraft statutes repealed

+

EUROPE: Celsius (Fr) explores Lappland; first appendicitis operation; glassmaking in Venice

1737

ITALY: last of the Medicis dies (Grand Duke of Tuscany) (end of a major Renaissance family)

1737 UR OPPN NE Sg Ge

1737 UR Cp

+

BRITAIN: censorship of theatres established in England

1737 NE -tri PL Ge Li

1737 PL Sc

+

INDIA: Calcutta ruined in earthquake, storms destroy 20,000 ships

1737 NE Cn

+

1738

N AMERICA: frictions between Georgia (Eng) & Florida (Sp); evangelist Wesley moves to Georgia

1738 UR OPPN NE Cp Cn

1738 NE Cn

+

E EUROPE: Ottomans advance once more into Balkans, taking Orsova

1738 UR +sxt PL Cp Sc

+

INNOVN: cuckoo clocks introduced in Bavaria; Bernoulli's principle of hydrodynamics

1738 NE -tri PL Cn Sc

+

INNOVN: Wyatt invents the roller loom for large-scale spinning

1738 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

1739

S AMERICA: Spaniards found viceroyalty of New Granada (Colombia)

1738 Sa CONJ NE Cn Cn

+

INDIA: Persian Nadir Shah raids North India & Delhi; Shahjahan's Peacock Throne taken to Persia

1739 NE -tri PL Cn Sc

+

EUROPE: Hume's "Treatise on Human Nature"; Frederick of Prussia's "Anti-Machiavell"

1739 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

+

1740

GERMANY: war between Frederick the Great (Prussia 1740-86) & Maria Theresa (Austria 1740-80)

[CHIRON data starts here]

+

GERMANY: Frederick the Great introduces freedom of worship & of press in Prussia

1740 CH +qcx UR Ge Cp

+

SE ASIA: Mons tribe rebels against Burmese king, setting up dynasty at Pegu

1740 CH -sqt PL Ge Sc

+

INDIA: wars by Marathas & Nizam of Hyderabad for control of Carnatic, E India

1741

C EUROPE: Prussia invades Silesia, France, Saxony & Bavaria occupy Prague; England mediates

1741 PL Peri 10Sc

1741 CH Cn

+

EUROPE: Linneaus founds Uppsala botanical gdns, Sweden; Handel's "Messiah", England

1741 CH -sqt PL Ge Sc

+

N AMERICA: Russians explore Alaska & California; settlers reach Dakotas; Fr explorers reach Rocky Mts

+

BRITAIN: Highway Act facilitates major road improvements (coherent road transport policy)

1742

C EUROPE: Prussia beats Austria, Peace of Berlin lays down terms (rise of Prussia in Germany)

1742 CH CONJ NE Cn Cn

+

INNOVN: canal building in Germany (Elbe-Havel); cotton factories in Birmingham & Lancashire

1742 CH -tri PL Cn Sc

+

* CHINA: Ch'ing zenith under Emperor Ch'ien Lung (1736-96) (expansion in Turkestan & Mongolia)

+

1743

RUSSIA: religious & political pogroms under Elizabeth, Czarina (1741-62)

1743 CH OPPN UR Cn Cp

+

W EUROPE: Britain beats France at Bt of Dettingen

1743 CH -tri PL Cn Sc

+

+

1744

INDIA: British (Robert Clive) & French at war over trading in Karnatic; famine in Sind

1744 CH OPPN UR Cn Cp

1744 UR Aq

+

EUROPE: France declares war on Britain & Austria; Austria & Saxony drive Prussia from Prague

1744 CH Le

+

ARABIA: ruling Saudi family converts to Wahhabi teachings (giving weight to Islamic reform)

+

* JAPAN: Tokugawa rule declines into corruption

1745

HRE: Maria Theresa's husband Francis elected HRE (1745-65)

1745 CH OPPN UR Le Aq

+

W EUROPE: Fr defeats Brit, takes Aust Neths; Pr beats Aust, gains Silesia in Treaty of Dresden

1745 CH -SQR PL Le Sc

+

BRITAIN: Bonnie Prince Charlie lands in Scotland, gets to Derby, forced to retreat

1745 CH +ssx NE Le Cn

+

INNOVN: von Kleist's capacitor Leyden jar; Alembert on fluid dynamics; Bonnet's "Insectologie"

1746

CHINA: rebellions of Chin-ch'uan tribes in Szechwan 1746-49, also 1771-6

1746 CH -SQR PL Le Sc

1746 CH Vi

+

BRITAIN: Bonnie Prince Charlie loses at Culloden, flees to France (repression in Scotland)

1746 CH +ssq NE Vi Cn

+

IDEAS: Denis Diderot's "Pensees Philosophiques"; painter Canaletto (1697-1768) in England

1746 CH -qcx UR Vi Aq

+

GERMANY: Karl Fred'ck of Baden (1746-1811), reform prince (village self-gov't, abol'n serfdom)

1747

C ASIA: Nadir Shah killed; Shah Rukh of Persia; Ahmad Khan Abdali K in Afghanistan (1747-73)

1747 CH +sxt NE Vi Cn

+

IDEAS: Benjamin Franklin's "Plain Truth"; Hume's "Concerning Human Understanding"

1747 CH -qcx UR Vi Aq

+

INNOVN: Marggraf isolates sugar in beets; Euler's "Analysis Infinitorum" (mathematics)

1747 CH -sqt UR Vi Aq

+

W AFRICA: Oyo (Yoruba, Nigeria) defeats Dahomey, to become main power in Niger delta region

1747 CH -sxt PL Vi Sc

1748

E EUROPE: Russian troops advance through Bohemia towards Rhine

1748 CH Peri 3Li

1748 PL Sg

+

EUROPE: Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle recognises Austrian Succession, settles war

1748 CH -sqt UR Vi Aq

1748 CH Li

+

INNOVN: Platinum brought to Europe from S America

1748 CH -sxt PL Vi Sc

+

FRANCE: Montesquieu (1689-1755) "L'Esprit des Lois" (about const monarchy, liberty & justice)

1748 CH -tri UR Li Aq

1749

N AMERICA: Ohio & Nova Scotia properly settled; Philadelphia Academy founded

1749 CH +SQR NE Li Cn

1749 PL Sg

+

BRITAIN: Britain reorganises its navy (Consolidation Act)

1749 CH -ssq PL Li Sc

1749 CH Sc

+

ARTS: Bach's "Die Kunste der Fuge"; Handel's "Music for Royal Fireworks"

1749 CH -ssx PL Sc Sg

+

1749 CH -tri UR Li Aq

1750

E EUROPE: 'Treks of the Swabians', German colonisation of Hungary & Rumania

1750 Sa CONJ PL Sg Sg

1750 CH Sc

+

E EUROPE: Jewish Hassidim sect founded in Carpathians by Baal Shem (1699-1760)

1750 CH -ssx PL Sc Sg

+

* EUROPE: spread of Neo-Classicism: Gluck (1714-87), Haydn 1732-1809), Mozart (1756-91)

+

N AMERICA: first playhouse in New York on the Broad Way

1751

C ASIA: China overruns Tibet, Tsungaria and Tarim Basin (1756-59)

1751 CH -SQR UR Sc Aq

1751 NE Le

+

EUROPE: alliance of Russia, Austria & Britain against Prussia

1751 UR -qcx NE Aq Cn

1751 CH Sg

+

INDIA: French gain control of Deccan and the Karnatic in India

+

IDEAS: Swedish Linnaeus "Philosophia Botanica" & "Species Plantorum" (biological nomenclature)

+

EUROPE: the Minuet becomes fashionable as a dance form

1752

BRITAIN: England adopts the Gregorian calendar, (on new Sept 14, 3-13 omitted, instituted 1582)

1752 CH -SQR UR Sg Pi

1752 UR Pi

+

SE ASIA: Mons rebels capture Bangkok, retreating on arrival of new Burmese leader, Alaungpaya

1752 CH CONJ PL Sg Sg

1752 NE Le

+

INNOVN: Benjamin Franklin invents lightning conductor

1752 UR -qcx NE Aq Cn

+

IDEAS: David Hume (1711-79) "Principles of Morals" (1751) & "Political Discourses" (1752)

1752 CH +tri NE Sg Le

+

INDIA: battle for India between French & English: English win Bt of Trichinopoly

1753

N AMERICA: French from Canada take Ohio valley

1753 UR -qcx NE Pi Le

+

BRITAIN: Parliament permits naturalisation of Jews; British Museum founded

1753 CH +sqt NE Sg Le

+

AUSTRIA: Vienna Stock exchange founded

+

+

1754

N AMERICA: French & Indian war, to 1760; English extinguish French N American ambitions

1754 UR -qcx NE Pi Le

1754 CH Cp

+

INNOVN: first iron-rolling mill, Fareham, England

+

EUROPE: first woman doctor qualifies in Germany at Halle University

+

BRITAIN: cabinetmaker Chippendale, artists Hogarth (1697-1764) & Gainsborough (1727-88) at work

+

1755

SE ASIA: Alaungpaya founds Rangoon, beats Mons tribes & Fr allies, reunites Burma (to 1824)

1755 UR +SQR PL Pi Sg

+

IBERIA: disastrous earthquake in Lisbon; major reconstruction & new industries follow

1755 NE on N Node

+

IDEAS: Samuel Johnson (1709-84) "Dictionary of the English Language"

1755 CH +qcx NE Cp Le

+

N AMERICA: French victories over British at Ft Duquesne (Pittsburgh) & Great Lakes (1756)

+

1756

EUROPE: near-global SEVEN YEARS WAR begins: Brit & Prussia vs other powers

1756 UR +SQR PL Pi Sg

+

E EUROPE: outnumbered Prussians (Fred the Great) score victories over Saxons & Austrians

1756 Sa OPPN NE Aq Le

+

INDIA: 'Black Hole of Calcutta': 120 British soldiers die in Bengali prison

1756 CH +qcx NE Cp Le

+

INDIA: war between British & Nawab of Bengal, Clive retakes Calcutta 1757

1756 CH -sxt UR Cp Pi

+

INNOVN: cotton velvet first made at Bolton, Lancs; first chocolate factory, in Germany

1756 CH -sxt UR Cp Pi

1757

INDIA: Bt of Plassey: Robert Clive destroys French influence, gains Bengal, Bihar, Orissa

1757 UR +SQR PL Pi Sg

+

BRITAIN: William Pitt the Elder prime minister (1757-61) (architect of British empire)

1757 Sa OPPN NE Aq Le

+

EUROPE: Prussia on offensive, allied to Britain

1757 CH +ssx PL Cp Sg

+

FRANCE: assassination attempt on life of Louis XV by Damiens (then executed)

1757 CH -sxt UR Cp Pi

+

1758

ASIA: China occupies East Turkestan (expansionism, plus resistance to Russian threat)

1758 UR +SQR PL Pi Sg

1758 CH Aq

+

N AMERICA: British beat French (incl G Washington, Brit officer); 1st Am Synagogue, Newport RI

+

E EUROPE: Russians invade East Prussia (turn of fortunes for Frederick the Great)

+

INDIA: Clive becomes governor of Bengal; Dutch influence in India ends

+

1759

SE ASIA: Alaungpaya expels British from Burma

1759 UR -sqt NE Pi Le

1759 UR Ar

+

N AMERICA: British take Quebec, Montreal 1760 (fight to exclude French from N America)

+

EUROPE: Prussia beaten at Bt of Kunersdorf, saved by opponents' disunity; Russians burn Berlin

+

BRITAIN: Wedgwood's pottery works founded, Staffordshire

+

C ASIA: Manchus destroy the Oirat Mongols, and gain control of Kashgar and Silk Road

1760

* EUROPE: EUROPEAN ENLIGHTENMENT: Voltaire (1694-1778), Diderot (1713-66), Hume (1711-79)

1760 UR -sqt NE Ar Le

1760 UR Ar

+

S AFRICA: Boer voortrekker Jakobus Coetzee explores Transvaal

1760 CH +ssq PL Aq Sg

+

INNOVN: Josiah Wedgwood (1730-95) founds pottery factory in Staffordshire, England

+

INNOVN: Kew Botanical Gardens, London, opened (botanical treasures from overseas explorations)

+

GERMANY: Russians occupy and burn Berlin (Prussia)

+

JAPAN: widespread peasant uprisings (gainst Tokugawa inefficiency & corruption)

1761

INDIA: 3rd Bt of Panipat: Islamic Moghuls beat Hindu Marathas (ending poss of Hindu Marathan India)

1761 Sa CONJ UR Ar Ar

+

JAPAN: Ieharu, Shogun of Japan

1761 CH OPPN NE Aq Le

+

IDEAS: Henry Home "Introduction to the Art of Thinking"; Voltaire's collected wks published in English

1761 UR -sqt NE Ar Le

+

IDEAS: ident'n of chest diseases by percussion (Avenbrugger); Lomonosov discs atmos of Venus

1761 CH +ssq PL Aq Sg

+

MIDEAST: Danish Niebuhr explores Arabia

1762

FRANCE: J J Rousseau's "Social Contract" (democratic ideals & equality of rights)

1762 Sa CONJ UR Ar Ar

1762 PL Cp

+

EUROPE: coalition disintegrates: Russia loses interest, Swed & France no funds; Aust negotiates

1762 CH OPPN NE Aq Le

+

RUSSIA: Catherine the Great, Czarina of Russia (1762-96)

1762 UR -sqt NE Ar Le

+

WORLD: British capture Martinique, Grenada, Cuba & Philippines

+

INNOVN: Benjamin Franklin develops harmonica; Mozart, age 6, tours Europe performing music

+

INDIA: Sikhs achieve de facto independence in Punjub

1763

N AMERICA: Treaty of Paris: Canada & Louisiana & Florida ceded to British (N Am Anglo dominated)

1763 CH OPPN NE Aq Le

+

N AMERICA: Proclamation Line makes all lands W of Allegheny Mts Indian territory (changed 1768)

1763 UR -sqt NE Ar Le

+

EUROPE: Seven Years War ends: no major changes (German nat'l feeling grows, French Ancien Regime

+

loses face, Russian influence increases, British overseas interests benefit)

+

INDIA: adventurer Hyder Ali (1722-82) conquers Mysore

1764

E EUROPE: Poland in a state of 'anarchy tempered by civil war' (prelude to partition)

1764 CH OPPN NE Aq Le

1764 NE Vi

+

N AMERICA: British tax American colonies (Sugar Act & Stamp Act)

1764 CH -ssq UR Aq Ar

1764 CH Pi

+

EUROPE: confiscation of Church lands in Russia; Jesuits banned in France, 1767 Spain & Sicily

+

IDEAS: Literary Club, London (Johnson, Burke, Gibbon, Goldsmith); Literary Salons in Paris

+

EUROPE: JS Bach performs in London; Mozart writes first symphony; Haydn "Symphony No 22 in E Flat"

1765

AUSTRIA: Joseph II, co-regent of Austria (1765-80) with Maria Theresa (bringing wide reforms)

1765 CH +sxt PL Pi Cp

1765 NE Vi

+

N AMERICA: Stamp Act Congress in New York challenges British (declares rights & liberties)

1765 CH -ssq UR Pi Ar

+

IDEAS: Turgot (French) "Reflections on the formation & distribution of wealth"

+

BRITAIN: Britain gains full control of Isle of Man; house-numbering introduced in London

+

INNOVN: hermetic sealing introd by Spallanzani (for food-preservation)

+

INDIA: English East India Co gains Bihar and Bengal (English take Benares 1775)

1766

PACIFIC: Wallis discovers Tahiti (suggests inhabitable southern Pacific continent)

1766 CH +sxt PL Pi Cp

+

SE ASIA: attempted invasion of Burma by Chinese, fails; INDIA: famine in Bengal

1766 CH -ssq UR Pi Ar

+

N AMERICA: Stamp Act repealed; Mason-Dixon line marked (dividing North & South USA)

+

RUSSIA: Catherine the Great grants freedom of worship

+

INNOVN: first streetside pavement, in Westminster, London

1767

N AMERICA: Spaniards found colonial gov't in California; W Canada disputed by Russia & Spain

1767 CH +sxt PL Pi Cp

1767 UR Ta

+

RUSSIA: reform commission fails to bring reforms (short of educated officials & popular will)

1767 CH -ssq UR Pi Ar

+

SE ASIA: Burmese attack Siam (Ayutthaya), expanding borders; unsuccessful but destructive

+

INDIA: chaos in India, Robert Clive leaves; first Mysore War (1767-69); British gain control of Bengal

+

IDEAS: Rousseau moves to England; Neville Maskelyne (1732-1811) "Nautical Almanack"

1768

PACIFIC: Cook exploration of Pacific, discovers N Z & E Australia; circumnavigation of world

1768 UR -tri NE Ta Vi

1768 UR Ta

+

INDIA: British acquisitions along E coast of India; Ghurka tribes conquer Nepal

1768 Sa OPPN PL Cn Cp

+

E EUROPE: first Russo-Turkish War: Russians occupy Moldavia & Wallachia (seeking Black Sea access)

1768 CH -ssq UR Pi Ta

+

MIDEAST: reappearance of Mamluks: Ali Bey becomes Sultan of Egypt (1768-73)

+

FRANCE: France buys Corsica from Genoa

1769

* N AMERICA: frictions between colonies & England escalate

1769 UR -tri NE Ta Vi

+

BRITAIN: corruption scandals involving many officials – "Letters of Junius"

1769 Sa OPPN PL Cn Cp

+

IDEAS: foundation of British Royal Academy; Encyclopaedia Britannica starts

+

EUROPE: INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION growing (fostered by int'l free trade, civil libs, technol devels)

+

JAPAN: Ieharu, Jap Shogun (1761-86) (indebtedness, sinking morale, decline of Shogunate)

1770

* EUROPE: SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Priestley, Lavoisier, Bolta, Watt, Arkwright

1770 UR -tri NE Ta Vi

+

E EUROPE: Bt of Chesme, Russia defeats Ottomans in naval battle (Turks lose power in Black Sea)

1770 PL on S Node

+

N AMERICA: unrest in Boston, Mass, against British taxes and restrictions

+

WORLD: Capt Cook explores Botany Bay (Sydney) Australia; James Bruce discs source of Blue Nile

+

* BRITAIN: canal-building period; FRANCE: world's first public restaurant opened in Paris

1771

MIDEAST: Ali Bey & Mamluk Egyptians conquer Damascus, Syria

1771 UR -tri NE Ta Vi

1771 CH Ar

+

INNOVN: Arkwright opens first spinning mill in England; barrel-organ first made, London

1771 UR +tri PL Ta Cp

+

* RISE OF GERMAN IDENTITY (1770-1800): Goethe, Schiller, Grimm, Fichte, Niebuhr, Eichendorff

+

* AFRICA: Ethiopian empire in decline; rebellions (reported by explorer James Bruce)

+

1772

E EUROPE: first partition of Poland (others in 1793 & 1795, Russia gains access to West)

1772 UR +tri PL Ta Cp

1772 CH Ar

+

PACIFIC: Cook sails Pacific seeking southern continent, visits New Zealand

+

N AMERICA: Boston Assembly demands rights, threatens secession; Committees of Correspondence

+

FRANCE: Inquisition abolished; BRITAIN: slaves become free on landing in England

+

AFRICA: James Bruce explores confluence of Blue & White Nile

1773

RUSSIA: Pugachev uprising of peasants and Cossacks in southern khanates (against Russian influence)

1773 UR +tri PL Ta Cp

+

N AMERICA: Boston Tea Party (protest against English monopolies, martial law imposed)

1773 Sa CONJ NE Vi Vi

+

INDIA: E India Co becomes Brit admin agency; Warren Hastings governor (overcomes Indian opp'n)

1773 CH Aph 4Ar

+

E EUROPE: Duchy of Oldenburg ceded from Denmark to Russia

+

INNOVN: cast-iron bridge at Coalbrookdale, England; waltz becomes fashionable in Vienna

1774

E EUROPE: Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji (Ottoman decline, Russian ascendancy)

1774 Sa OPPN CH Li Ar

1774 UR Ge

+

RUSSIA: Tatar wars (1174-92), Catherine II destroys Tatar khanates (Russia reaches Black Sea)

+

N AMERICA: first Continental Congress of Thirteen Colonies (Philadelphia), suspends trade with Britain

+

FRANCE: Louis XVI, king of France (1774-92) (attempts to make reforms, confounded by nobility)

+

INNOVN: manganese, chlorine & baryta isolated; Wilkinson's boring mill (making steam cylinders)

1775

AMERICA: AMERICAN REVOLUTION (1775-83) (battles at Lexington & Concord Ma; Amer army

1775 Sa OPPN CH Li Ar

1775 UR Ge

+

founded, with G Washington as C-in-C; Paul Revere's ride; 2nd Continental Congress, Philadelphia)

+

INNOVN: Girard invents water turbine; Priestley discs hydrochloric & sulphuric acids

+

INNOVN: James Watt produces perfected steam engine; 1st banks' clearing house, City of London

+

INDIA: first Anglo-Maratha war (E India Co extends control in Central India)

1776

N AMERICA: American Declaration of Independence (crafted by Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1826)

1776 Sa OPPN CH Li Ar

+

S AMERICA: Sp Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata (Argentina-Uruguay-Paraguay); Port. Brazil united

+

IDEAS: Adam Smith (1723-90) "Wealth of Nations", Tom Paine (1737-1809) "Common Sense"

+

PACIFIC: Cook discovers Hawaii, visits Bering Strait (ests no northern passage to Atlantic)

+

INDIA: British expand in Ganges valley, taking holy city of Benares

1777

N AMERICA: much warfare, German & French mercenaries; Americans beat British at Bt of Saratoga

1777 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

1777 PL Aq

+

S AMERICA: agreement between Spain & Portugal over disputes in S American colonies

1777 UR on N Node

+

INNOVN: Lavoisier identifies composition of air; torpedo (USA) & torsion balance (Fr) invented

1777 UR +sqt PL Ge Cp

+

INNOVN: 1st cooperative workshop, for tailors, B'ham, Eng; modern water closet by Bramah, Yorks

+

1778

N AMERICA: Franco/Dutch-American alliance against British; Indian massacres in PA & NY

1778 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

1778 PL Aq

+

GERMANY: War of Bavarian Succession

1778 UR +sqt PL Ge Aq

1778 NE Li

+

IDEAS: Franz Mesmer experiments with hypnotism in Paris

+

USA: import of slaves into USA banned; Spiritualist revivalism in New York city

+

INNOVN: first velocipedes (bicycles) appear in Paris

1779

N AMERICA: British surrender at Vincennes; US Congress sends army to fight Indians

1779 NE -tri PL Li Aq

1779 NE Li

+

INDIA: British war against Mahrattas (1779-82)

1779 UR +sqt PL Ge Aq

1779 CH Ta

+

IDEAS: Italian Spallanzani proves that semen is necessary for conception

1779 CH -qcx NE Ar Vi

+

IDEAS: Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) "Principles of Morals & Legislation" (liberalism)

+

INNOVN: Gervinus invents circular saw; Scheller invs fountain pen; Fontana prods water gas

1780

BRITAIN: Henry Grattan (1746-1820) demands home rule for Ireland; 1st Building Soc est in B'ham

1780 NE -tri PL Li Aq

1780 CH Ta

+

N AMERICA: continued fighting between British and Americans (with French help)

1780 CH +SQR PL Ta Aq

+

AUSTRIA: Joseph II, Emp of Aust (1780-90); serfdom abol'd, relig freedom, education in Aust Emp

1780 CH -qcx NE Ta Li

+

INDIA: 2nd Mysore War (1780-4) (British expansion in India); Hastings deposes Rajah of Benares

+

S AMERICA: rebellion in Peru against Spanish rule (independence movement in S America growing)

1781

N AMERICA: Washington (1732-99) forces British Yorktown surrender; Franciscan monks est LA, Calif

1781 NE -tri PL Li Aq

1781 UR Cn

+

IDEAS: Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) "Critique of Pure Reason"

1781 CH +SQR PL Ta Aq

+

CHINA: rebellion of Chinese Muslims in Kansu (1781-4) (growing resentment against Manchus)

1781 CH -qcx NE Ta Li

+

INNOVN: Herschel discovers planet Uranus; tungsten discovered by Scheele

+

FRANCE: public finance crisis publicised in "Compte Rendu" by finance minister Necker, sacked

1782

N AMERICA: British accept Am victory; Bank of N America est'd; Span complete conq of Florida

1782 NE -tri PL Li Aq

1782 UR Cn +

+

MED'N: Spanish capture Menorca from British, Brits hold Gibraltar

1782 CH +SQR PL Ta Aq

+

INNOVN: Fr Montgolfier bros build hot-air balloon; Watt's double-acting rotary steam engine

1782 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

+

GERMANY: Beethoven's first works published

1782 UR +qcx PL Cn Aq

+

SE ASIA: Rama I establishes new dynasty in Siam, builds capital Bangkok

1782 CH -qcx NE Ta Li

1783

E EUROPE: Russia annexes Crimea; Potemkin's 'New Russia' (establishment of new towns, trade, navy)

1783 NE -tri PL Li Aq

+

N AMERICA: Treaty of Versailles: Britain recognises American independence

1783 UR -SQR NE Cn Li

+

BRITAIN: William Pitt the Younger, prime minister (age 24, 1783-1801)

1783 Sa OPPN UR Cp Cn

+

JAPAN: famine in Japan (weather plus political obstruction)

1783 UR +qcx PL Cn Aq

+

GERMANY: Moses Mendelssohn campaigns for freedom of conscience & rights of Jews

1784

BRITAIN: Pitt's India Act (basis for later British rule of all India, govt controls E India Co)

1784 NE -tri PL Li Aq

+

AUSTRIA: rising resistance to reform (owing to disregard of national differences in Empire)

1784 UR -SQR NE Cn Li

+

BRITAIN: Wesley writes Deed of Declaration, founding Methodist Church

1784 UR +qcx PL Cn Aq

+

INNOVN: Swiss Argand invs oil burner; Eng Bramah's patent lock; Scot Meikle's threshing machine

+

IDEAS: 1st school for Blind, Paris; Bengal Asiatic Soc studies Sanskrit

1785

SE ASIA: Burma attacks Arakan, Manipur & Assam; Emerald Buddha Temple, Bangkok, built

1785 NE -tri PL Li Aq

1785 CH Ge

+

GERMANY: League of German Princes (Prussian infl grows, Austrian declines, in Germany)

1785 UR -SQR NE Cn Li

+

FRANCE: Diamond Necklace Affair (monarchy and church discredited, Ancien Regime stalling)

1785 UR +qcx PL Cn Aq

+

INNOVN: Berthollet's chemical bleaching; Salsano invs seismograph; educational reforms, Germany

1785 CH -sqt NE Ta Li

+

INNOVN: Watt & Boulton's steam-driven cotton factory; Cartwright's power-driven loom

1786

SE ASIA: British acquire Penang (Malaya) from Sultan of Kedah as trading station

1786 Sa CONJ PL Aq Aq

1786 CH Ge

+

IDEAS: Robbie Burns' "Poems chiefly in the Scottish dialect"

1786 CH -sqt NE Ta Li

+

INNOVN: Klaproth discs uranium; Rumsey (USA) designs 1st mechanically driven boat

+

INNOVN: advent of internal gas lighting (Eng & Ger); Herschel's "Catalog of Nebulae"

+

N AMERICA: emigration of Mennonites to Canada; rebellion of Daniel Shays (loyalist)

1787

BENELUX: uprisings in Austrian Netherlands against Austrian central admin reforms

1787 CH -sqt NE Ge Li

+

AUSTRIA: unrest in Hungary against forced reforms (rise of Hungarian nationalism)

1787 CH -ssq UR Ge Cn

+

USA: Constitutional Convention ests US constitution (world's first modern democracy); US$ introduced

+

FRANCE: dissention, urgent calls for reform & calling of States General; regime delays

+

INNOVN: Fitch (USA) launches steamboat; Lavoisier's chemical nomenclature

1788

OCEANIA: British colony in Australia founded; AFRICA: Sierra Leone founded (for freed slaves)

1788 CH +tri PL Ge Aq

1788 UR Le

+

FRANCE: public bankruptcy leads to elections and call for limited monarchy & democracy

1788 CH -ssq UR Ge Cn

+

* CHINA: Manchu decline (economic & agricultural difficulties)

1788 CH -tri NE Ge Li

+

ARTS: Mozart's three great symphonies (E-Flat, G-Minor, Jupiter)

+

IDEAS: Hutton's "New Theory of the Earth"; Laplace's "Laws of the Planetary System"

1789

FRANCE: FRENCH REVOLUTION: abolition of feudal system and proclamation of 'Rights of Man'

1789 CH -ssq UR Ge Le

+

FRANCE: emigration of nobility, est of city Communes, army dissolved, econ breakdown, violence

+

USA: George Washington becomes first President of the USA (1789-97)

+

* BRITAIN: spread of power-driven manufacturing (work-mechanisation, flight from countryside)

+

GERMANY: Brandenburg Gate built, Berlin

1790

* EUROPE: PEAK OF ORCHESTRAL MUSIC: Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven

1790 CH +sqt PL Cn Aq

1790 CH Cn

+

FRANCE: Church secularised, King loses power; Jacobins (Robespierre, St Just) reorganise nation

1790 CH -tri NE Ge Li

+

N AFRICA: Islamic proselytising holy wars in N Africa

+

CHINA: rising of Yao peoples of Kwangsi; beginning of opium trade by foreign powers in China

+

BENELUX: secession of Republic of United Belgian Provinces (from Austrian empire)

1791

E EUROPE: Russia gains the Black Sea steppes, Austrians take Belgrade from Ottomans

1791 CH +sqt PL Cn Aq

+

FRANCE: proclamation of new (model) constitution, election of Legislative Assembly

1791 CH -ssx UR Cn Le

+

IRELAND: Wolf Tone's rebellion, seeking alliance with France, quickly defeated

+

N AMERICA: organisation of Canada into Lower (French-speaking) & Upper (English) Canada

+

C AMERICA: slave revolt of Toussaint L'Ouverture on Haiti against French rule

+

GERMANY: world's first general strike, Hamburg

1792

FRANCE: French Republic proclaimed: beginning of the Revolutionary Wars

1792 UR OPPN PL Le Aq

1792 NE Sc

+

INNOVN: Cartwright invents steam-powered weaving loom; gas first used for lighting

1792 CH -SQR NE Cn Li

1792 CH Le

+

INDIA: 1792-99 major British acquisitions in India

1792 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li

+

SCANDNVA: Denmark first nation to abolish slave trade

1792 CH +qcx PL Cn Aq

+

USA: Republican (Jefferson) & Federalist (Hamilton & Adams) political parties formed

1792 CH -ssx UR Cn Le

+

OCEANIA: first white settlers arrive in New Zealand (Bay of Islands)

1793

OTTOMANS: Selim III attempts to reform the Ottoman empire

1793 UR OPPN PL Le Aq

1793 NE Sc

+

FRANCE: Louis XVI executed; "Reign of Terror"; dictatorship (Robespierre & Danton)

1793 CH -SQR NE Cn Li

1793 CH Le

+

INNOVN: Whitney's cotton 'gin' invented in USA

1793 Sa OPPN NE Ta Sc

+

USA: Washington DC founded as capital of USA (becomes seat of Presidents & Congress 1800)

+

W EUROPE: French conquer Belgium; Batavian Republic declared in Holland; widespread war

1794

RUSSIA: foundation of Odessa, Russian port on the Black Sea, recently acquired

1794 UR OPPN PL Le Aq

1794 UR Vi

+

E EUROPE: uprising in Poland behind Tadeusz Kosciuszko against foreign intervention

1794 CH OPPN PL Le Aq

+

GERMANY: Prussian Law Code ests const state, equality before law, freedom of thought & religion

+

FRANCE: declaration of "Cult of Reason"; fall of Robespierre, relaxing of the "Terror"

+

S AMERICA: Francisco de Miranda (1754-1816) founds Freemasonry lodges (focus for ind'ce mvmnts)

1795

CHINA: rising of Miao peoples; secret societies: White Lotus rebellion; Ch'ing corruption rife

1795 UR -sxt NE Vi Sc

1795 UR Vi

+

SE ASIA: British occupy Dutch colonies (esp Malacca) while Holland was invaded by France

1795 CH OPPN PL Le Aq

1795 CH Vi

+

E EUROPE: dissolution of the state of Poland (bet Pr, Russ & Aust: Polish nat'lism born)

1795 CH CONJ UR Vi Vi

+

FRANCE: new constitution under the Directory; rise of bourgeoisie, haute couture & Napoleon

1795 CH -sxt NE Vi Sc

+

INNOVN: 1st horse-drawn railway, England; Metric System introd, 1st technical college, France

1796

INDIA: British conquer Ceylon & Cape Town

1796 UR -sxt NE Vi Sc

1796 CH Li

+

W EUROPE: Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) invades Italy, raises money & treasures for France

1796 CH -qcx PL Vi Aq

+

USA: George Washington's Farewell Address (after 2 Pres terms); Whiskey Insurrection in Penn'a

1796 CH -ssq NE Vi Sc

+

IDEAS: Cambaceres "Project de Code Civil"; Fichte "Grundlage des Naturrechts" (on lawgiving)

+

CHINA: end of era: death of Chien Lung (1736-96); Kia King, Emp (1796-1820, incompetent rule)

1797

ITALY: fall of (1000 yr) Rep of Venice; est of "daughter republics" by Napoleon

1797 UR -sxt NE Vi Sc

1797 PL Pi

+

PERSIA: Fath Ali Shah, Persian Shah (1797-1834) (weakening of Persia, conservatism)

1797 CH Peri 4Li

1797 CH Li

+

BRITAIN: naval mutiny at Spithead (over conditions); Nelson defeats Spanish navy

1797 CH +ssx UR Li Vi

+

E EUROPE: final partition of Poland

1797 CH -qcx PL Vi Aq

+

OCEANIA: sheep introduced to Australia

1797 CH -sqt PL Li Aq

1798

W EUROPE: French est Helvetian (Switzerland) & Roman Republics, attempt invasion of Ireland

1797 CH -ssx NE Li Sc

1798 PL Pi

+

MED'N: Napoleon takes Malta, attacks Egypt, defeating Mamluks; British est control of Med'n

1798 CH -tri PL Li Aq

1798 CH Sc

+

IDEAS: Malthus (1766-1834) "Essay on the Principle of Population"

+

INDIA: Lord Wellesley Gov-Gen India (defeats Nizam & Mysore 99, Karnatic 1801, Brit hegemony)

+

BRITAIN: 10% income tax on incomes over £200 introduced (to finance war)

+

IRELAND: Wolfe Tone's nationalist rebellion, fails

1799

FRANCE: Napoleon returns, overthrows Directory (coup d'etat 18 Brumaire), becomes First Consul

1799 CH CONJ NE Sc Sc

+

FRANCE: Napoleonic constitution (dictatorship in democratic wraps, rational standardisation)

1799 CH +ssq UR Sc Vi

+

INDIA: Ranjit Singh (1799-1839), Sikh leader (expands Sikh military tradition)

+

N AFRICA: Rosetta Stone found (enabling deciphering of heiroglyphics); Egyptian Inst, Cairo

+

BRITAIN: Mungo Park's "Travels in the Interior of Africa" (broadening Euro horizons)


Uranus conjunct Pluto 1710
Union of England & Scotland; Swedish decline as a power; European 'cabinet politics' (Treaty of Utrecht); Mughal decline, India; first Indian Wars, N America; Rococo period; Europe at peace; Prussian ascendancy; Afghan independence (from Persians); Peter the Great, Russia (modernisation, newbuilt St Petersburg becomes capital); Swiss civil war


Uranus opposition Neptune 1737-38
Ch'ing emperor Ch'ien Lung, China; Wahhabi Islamic reform movement in Mecca; chaos in Persia; early seeds of industrial revolution in Europe; growth of European Enlightenment; Nadir Shah, reformer, Persia; rise of Prussia over Habsburg Austrian influence in Germany


Uranus square Pluto 1755-58
Seven Years War (global); British inroads in N America & India; Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, Hume; Alaungpaya reunites Burma; setbacks for expansionist Prussia; Bach, Mozart, Haydn; British take territory in India, overpowering French (Robert Clive); British take Montreal & Quebec from France; Wedgwood's pottery; first woman doctor, Germany


Uranus trine Neptune trine Pluto 1771
Capt Cook in Australia & NZ; Priestley, Lavoisier, Bolta, Watt, Arkwright; German identity - Goethe, Schiller, Grimm, Niebuhr, Eichendorff; decline of Ethiopian kgdm; Inquisition abolished; buildup to American Revolution; Warren Hastings, growing British takeover in India; industrial revolution taking off


Uranus square Neptune 1783-84
American Revolution (independence & constitution); gas lighting; orchestral music; Potemkin's 'New Russia' development; conservatism in Habsburg empire & France; florescence in Thailand; inventions, canal-building, factories, static steam engines


Uranus opposition Pluto 1792-94
French Revolutiion & revolutionary wars, rise of Napoleon; George Washington, 1st president of USA; British hegemony in India; corruption & rebellions in China; age of reform begins in Europe; slave revolt in Haiti (L'Ouverture); Washington DC founded; organisation of Canada

1800

* IDEAS: RISE OF ROMANTICISM: Byron, Shelley, Keats, Hugo, Sand, Manzoni, Andersen, Pushkin

1800 CH -SQR PL Sg Pi

1800 UR Li

+

EUROPE: Napoleon beats Austrians; appoints commission of jurists to formulate Code Napoleon

1800 CH +sxt UR Sg Li

1800 CH Sg

+

BRITAIN: Robert Owen buys New Lanark mills (setting new social & industrial standards)

+

INNOVN: Volta makes electricity from zinc-copper cell; Trevithick's steam engine

+

IDEAS: astronomer Herschel at work (infrared rays, binary stars); Lalande's Star Catalogue

1801

EUROPE: Austria & Russia make peace with Napoleon; Britain isolated, master of seas

1801 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

1801 UR Li

+

GERMANY: German princes neutralised by treaty, loyalty and reform enforced by Napoleon

1801 CH -SQR PL Sg Pi

+

AFRICA: Hausa kingdoms overcome by Islamic Tukulor tribes, founding kingdom of Sokoto

1801 UR -qcx PL Li Pi

+

INDIA: British defeat French-Russian plan to gain India; French leave, Brits enter Egypt

1801 UR -ssq NE Li Sc

+

BRITAIN: United Kingdom formed in Act of Union (uniting Ireland with England, Wales & Scotland)

1802

EUROPE: Peace of Amiens: pause in wars, Napoleon at a peak of power

1802 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

+

AMERICAS: British beat French attempt to establish a Caribbean empire

1802 UR -qcx PL Li Pi

+

RUSSIA: Alexander I, Czar (1801-25) (initially liberal, later arch-reactionary)

1802 UR -ssq NE Li Sc

+

WORLD: von Humboldt explores in Equador; Truter & Somerville in Bechuanaland

1802 CH +ssx NE Sg Sc

+

IDEAS: Dalton's atomic theory in chemistry; Treviranus creates "biology"; Fulton's steamboat

1803

USA: Louisiana Purchase nearly doubles size of USA (opens Miss'pi & West, gains USA compliance)

1803 UR -qcx PL Li Pi

1803 CH Cp

+

INDIA: Mughal emperor asks for protection of British general Wellesley: British supremacy est'd

+

GERMANY: Germany reorganised: Baden, Prussia, Wurttemburg & Bavaria gain land & pop'n

+

IDEAS: Swiss Pestalozzi (1746-1827), educationalist, at work (natural gifts of children)

+

N AFRICA: Albanian Mohammed Ali, Egyptian Pasha (on French withdrawal, modern Egypt grows)

+

N AMERICA: Louisiana Purchase – Napoleon sells Louisiana to USA

1804

EUROPE: Napoleon defeats Austria, attempts invasion of Britain

1804 CH +ssq NE Cp Sc

+

FRANCE: Napoleon I, Emperor of the French; CODE NAPOLEON (legal reforms, rational organisation)

1804 CH -sxt PL Cp Pi

+

W AFRICA: Fulanis (Usman dan Fodio) conquer the Hausa in N Nigeria (creating a large Islamic state)

+

BRITAIN: British & Foreign Bible Soc founed (missionary organisation)

+

1805

EUROPE: Napoleon enters Vienna; Bt of Trafalgar: English isolate French on continent

1805 Sa CONJ UR Li Li

+

EUROPE: Germany & Prussia neutralised, Austria beaten

1805 CH +SQR UR Cp Li

+

AUSTRIA: Count Stadion (1763-1824) favours nobility (to bind multiple nationalities in empire)

1805 UR -sqt PL Li Pi

+

USA: Thomas Jefferson, US President (1801-9); USA-British break relations

+

1806

EUROPE: AGE OF REFORM (both within and without Napoleonic sphere, recognition of public voice)

1806 CH +SQR UR Cp Li

1806 NE Sg

+

EUROPE: Napoleon ests Continental System at Berlin (standardising European gov't; abol'n of

1806 UR -sqt PL Li Pi

+

serfdom, est of law, cent control, education, trade control, etc; 'revolution from above')

1806 CH -ssq PL Cp Pi

+

EUROPE: Napoleon bans trading with Britain (Berlin Decrees) – Britain in crisis, turns to seas & colonies

+

GERMANY: dissolution of the German Holy Roman Empire (laying seed of German nat'l state)

+

S AFRICA: Cape Colony passes into British control (strategic seaway, begn of white S Africa)

+

E AFRICA: Sayyid Said reasserts Omani Arabic power and trading ports in E Africa

1807

E EUROPE: collapse of Prussia, major reform & abol'n of serfdom; Russia joins Cont System

1807 CH +SQR UR Aq Sc

1807 UR Sc

+

British empire: slave trade abolished within empire (William Wilberforce)

1807 UR -ssx NE Sc Sg

1807 NE Sg

+

C ASIA: rebellion of Tibetans in Kokonor, against Chinese domination

1807 UR -sqt PL Li Pi

1807 CH Aq

+

IBERIA: French invade Portugal (still trading with British) & Spain 1808-9 (Brit incursions)

1807 CH +sxt NE Aq Sg

+

OCEANIA: Britain opens up Cape Colony for immigration of whites

1808

S AMERICA: independence movements in Spanish & Portuguese America (13 new states by 1828)

1808 CH +SQR UR Aq Sc

+

RUSSIA: Russia gains land & power as partner of Napoleon (incl Finland 1809)

1808 UR -ssx NE Sc Sg

+

IDEAS: Malus researches polarisation of light; 1st war correspondent in Spain for "The Times"

1808 CH +sxt NE Aq Sg

+

* JAPAN: Azuma Maro (1768-1830) revives Shinto movement & Tenno cult

+

1809

EUROPE: Napoleon's 1st defeat by Aust Archduke Charles; rebellion in Tyrol; both defeated

1809 Sa CONJ NE Sg Sg

+

EUROPE: Austria & Prussia join Napoleonic Continental System; Metternich reorganises Austria

1809 CH -ssx PL Aq Pi

+

IBERIA: guerilla war against French (led by clergy & nobility); ITALY: Pope arrested

+

EUROPE: all Teutonic Knights' property confiscated

+

1810

EUROPE: Napoleon marries Marie-Louise of Austria, to bind empires

1810 UR -tri PL Sc Pi

+

BRITAIN: economic crisis from loss of European markets (unemployment & famine)

1810 CH -ssx PL Aq Pi

+

GERMANY: Berlin University founded (academic freedom, Fichte, Niebuhr, Savigny, Schleiermacher)

+

RUSSIA: econ difficulties cause Russia to leave Continental System, (opening to Brit influence)

+

S AMERICA: revolts in New Granada, Mexico & Rio de la Plata (against Spain & Napoleon)

1811

BRITAIN: "Great Schism" in Wales (60% leave Anglican Church); Baptist Union formed

1811 UR -tri PL Sc Pi

+

CHINA: rising of secret sect of Heavenly Principle; failed coup d'etat 1814

+

* BRITAIN: only 33% of people work on land: large industrial take-up; Luddite riots

+

S AMERICA: rise of independence movements: Venezuela, Paraguay, Chile declare independence

+

USA: Americans defeat Indian tribes under Tecumseh in Indiana

1812

EUROPE: GREATEST EXTENT of NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE; Napoleon invades Russia

1812 CH Pi

+

INNOVN: cylinder printing press invented and adopted by The Times, London

+

N AMERICA: Anglo-American war (Madison attacks Canada, Washington destroyed, stalemate by 1814)

+

IBERIA: Madrid liberated; Brit Wellesley & Wellington invade Spain

+

E EUROPE: Napoleon invades Russia (largest army ever ); Moscow falls; tragic winter retreat

1813

IBERIA: Bt of Vittoria, Wellington beats Napoleon, Spain freed, SW France attacked

1813 UR Sg

+

EUROPE: Wars of Liberation: Prussia, then Austria; Bt of Nations at Leipzig, Napoleon defeated

1813 CH Pi

+

MIDEAST: Mohammed Ali & Ibrahim Pasha (Egypt) attack Wahhabists, occupying Mecca-Riyadh 1813-20

+

OCEANIA: Britain opens up New Zealand for white immigration

+

1814

EUROPE: allies enter Paris, Napoleon deposed; Louis XVIII, K of France (1814-24) (lib const'n)

1814 UR Sg

+

EUROPE: Napoleon exiled to Elba; tensions between allies at Congress of Vienna

+

EUROPE: downward business trends (1815-20) (unemployment, poverty, wages falling)

+

INNOVN: Stephenson's first railway locomotive, "Rocket"

+

INDIA: Ghurka Wars (Nepal becomes Brit protectorate, Ghurkas work as warriors for Brits)

1815

EUROPE: Napoleon returns, defeated at Bt of Waterloo, exiled to St Helena; France occup'd 5 yrs

+

EUROPE: Congress of Vienna (Metternich's work) creates new European order

+

EUROPE: Holy Alliance (Russia, Austria, Prussia) (authoritarian "alliance of throne & altar")

+

GERMANY: German Confederation (1815-66), 39 member states (guaranteeing autonomy & defence)

+

BRITAIN: Corn Laws passed (against imported grain, anti-free trade, widespread price rises)

1816

EUROPE: RESTORATION: Period of Conservative Reaction (1815-30) (royalism, religious patrimony)

1816 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

+

GERMANY: reforms in Prussia stopped; Friedrich Wilhelm III (1797-1840) (reactionary)

+

GERMANY: Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) at work (statesman, scholar, educationalist)

+

S AMERICA: Argentina (La Plata) declares independence (Spanish exile leaders, war lasts four years)

+

BRITAIN: est of Soc of Friends of Peace (first pacifist group)

+

S AFRICA: Shaka, Zulu king, begins to expand the Zulu empire

1817

INDIA: foundation of Hindu College, Calcutta (first major centre of western influence in India)

1817 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

+

E EUROPE: uprisings in Serbia secure autonomy from Ottomans

1817 UR on S Node

+

IDEAS: David Ricardo (1772-1823) at work (on liberal capitalism); Ritter, geographer, at work

+

ARTS: Byron, Coleridge, Shelley, Keats, Austen; Goya, Turner, Landseer, Constable, at work

+

GERMANY: constitutions proclaimed in Saxe-Weimar, Bavaria & Baden (elsewhere reaction)

1818

INDIA: Britain defeats Marathas; British become effective rulers of India

1818 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

+

S AFRICA: Shaka forms Zulu kingdom in SE Africa (prelude to Boer-Zulu Wars)

1818 CH +SQR UR Pi Sg

+

GERMANY: repression of liberal-nationalist movements in Germany (persecution of 'demagogues')

1818 CH +SQR NE Pi Sg

+

INNOVN: first steamship to cross Atlantic ('Savannah', 26 days)

+

IDEAS: Berzelius researches atomic weights, selenium & lithium

1819 Sa CONJ CH Pi Pi

1819

SE ASIA: British (Lord Raffles) found Singapore as a free trade port

1819 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

+

AMERICAS: USA buys Florida from Spain; independence of Gran Colombia (under Simon Bolivar)

1819 Sa CONJ PL Pi Pi

+

IDEAS: Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) at work (on reason, freedom, historical process)

1819 CH +SQR UR Pi Sg

+

BRITAIN: 'Peterloo Massacre' of workers; Six Acts (censorship & restricted rights of assembly)

1819 CH +SQR NE Pi Sg

+

WORLD: AGE OF IMPERIALISM (1814-1914): Euro powers vie for world domination during 1800s

1819 CH CONJ PL Pi Pi

1820

* EUROPE: ROMANTICISM: Byron, Chateaubriand, Turner, Heine, Delacroix

1820 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

1820 NE Cp

+

IDEAS: Clausewitz (1780-1831) "Vom Kriege" (creator of modern theories of warfare)

1820 UR -SQR PL Sg Pi

1820 CH Ar

+

EUROPE: Congress of Aachen (intervention over uprisings agreed, Britain separates from Europe)

1820 CH CONJ PL Pi Pi

+

IBERIA: liberal revolts in Spain & Italy, suppressed by France & Austria 1823

1820 CH +SQR UR Pi Sg

+

BRITAIN: political swing, moderate young Tories gain power (Peel, Canning)

1820 CH +SQR NE Ar Cp

+

S AFRICA: British settlers arrive in the Cape Colony in larger numbers

1821

SE EUROPE: Greek War of liberation from Ottomans (1821-9) (Turkish fleet sunk by Eng, Fr & Rus)

1821 UR CONJ NE Cp Cp

1821 UR Cp

+

INNOVN: electric motor and generator invented by Faraday in Britain

1821 CH +SQR UR Ar Cp

1821 CH Ar

+

FRANCE: reactionary upswing (church power increased, reforms countered)

1821 CH +SQR NE Ar Cp

+

S AMERICA: independence of Mexico, Peru, Brazil, Dominican Rep, U Provs of C Am (Bolivia 1825)

1821 CH Aph 4Ar

+

N AFRICA: Mohammed Ali (Egypt) subjegates Nubia, ests Khartoum

1822

W AFRICA: Liberia founded as a colony for freed slaves (upswing of anti-slavery movement)

1822 CH +SQR UR Ar Cp

1822 PL Ar

+

* EUROPE: LIBERAL WEST (France & England) & REACTIONARY EAST (Austria, Russia, Prussia)

1822 CH +SQR NE Ar Cp

+

BRITAIN: relaxation of penal laws & death penalty; Bottle Riots in Dublin (anti-English)

+

EUROPE: Congress of Verona (to discuss European issues); SE EUROPE: Ottomans invade Greece

+

BRITAIN: Royal Asiatic Soc (language study) & Royal Academy of Music founded

1823

USA: Monroe Doctrine ("America to the Americans", anti-intervention & hemispheric integrity)

1823 CH +SQR UR Ar Cp

1823 PL Ar

+

C AMERICA: United Provinces of C America formed (Nicaragua-Hondrs-C Rica-Guatemala-S Salvador)

+

AMERICAS: Brazil becomes ind of Portugal; Mexico becomes a republic

+

INNOVN: Macintosh's waterproof fabric; Faraday's liquid chlorine; "The Lancet" first issued

+

1824

S ASIA: British occupy Assam & Burma (safeguarding NE India), returning Sumatra to Dutch

1824 CH +SQR UR Ar Cp

+

BRITAIN: local trades unions & assembly permitted (France 1864, Germany 1869)

+

WORLD: frontier agreements between Russia and Britain & USA (over NW N America)

+

GERMANY: beginning of German emigration to S America

+

BRITAIN: foundation of Royal Soc for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

+

W AFRICA: Britain fights two unsuccessful wars against the warrior Asante

1825

BRITAIN: first passenger steam railway, Stockton & Darlington, England

1825 CH +SQR UR Ar Cp

+

SE ASIA: Java War (revolt of Indonesians against Dutch)

+

C ASIA: rebellion of Turkestan (Kashgar, Yarkand, 1825-28) (against Chinese domination)

+

* EUROPE: Industrial Revolution starts in Belgium, Holland, France, Switzerland

+

RUSSIA: Decembrist Uprising (crushed); Nicholas I, Czar (1825-55) (autocrat, secret police)

1826

SE ASIA: Burney treaty ends Siamese encroachment on Malay sultanates

1826 CH +SQR UR Ar Cp

+

AMERICAS: Panama Congress; Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) unsuccessfully proposes a pan-Amer Union

+

OTTOMANS: army & admin reform (to counter disintegration of Ottoman empire)

+

GERMANY: commercial treaty between Prussia & Mecklenburg fuels idea of German Customs Union

+

1827

SE EUROPE: Russ, Fr & Brit intervene against Turks in favour of Greece (Turk fleet destroyed)

1827 Sa OPPN NE Cn Cp

+

MIDEAST: Russia takes Erevan (Armenia) from Persia

1827 CH +SQR UR Ar Cp

+

INNOVN: Ohm's Law; Ressel's screw propeller; Niepce's metal plate photographs

+

ARTS: Mendelssohn, Weber, Schubert, Bellini, at work; architect Nash at work

+

1828

INDIA: Brahmo-Samaj (Hindu revivalist movement) founded; suttee (widows' suicide) abolished

1828 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

1828 UR Aq

+

* CHINA: opium imports into China reach excess proportions (draining economy, rotting society)

1828 Sa OPPN NE Cn Cp

1828 CH Ta

+

E EUROPE: Russo-Turkish war (Russia gains mouth of Danube); Greece gains independence

1828 CH +SQR UR Ta Aq

+

N AMERICA: "American Dictionary of Eng Language" by Webster; liberal takeover in Mexico

+

1829

SE EUROPE: Greece becomes independent; Otto of Bavaria made king (1833-62)

1829 Sa OPPN UR Le Aq

1829 CH Ta

+

BRITAIN: emancipation of Catholics by English & lessening of Irish tax burden

1829 CH +SQR UR Ta Aq

+

S AMERICA: military coup in Mexico; Venezuela leaves Gran Colombia; Uruguay leaves Brazil 1828

+

BRITAIN: Metropolitan police force started in London

+

IDEAS: Lyell's geological typology; Brown discovers cell nucleus in plants

1830

C ASIA: Russia begins conquest of Kazakhstan (1830-1854)

1830 UR -sxt PL Aq Ar

+

EUROPE: revolutionary movements in France, Germany, Poland, Italy; Belgium gains independence

1830 CH +SQR UR Ta Aq

+

FRANCE: July Revolution (rise of bourgeois power); French conquest of Algeria & repression

1830 CH +ssx PL Ta Ar

+

INNOVN: Liverpool-Manchester railway (1st viable public railway); friction matches first made

+

EUROPE: British Whig gov't (1830-48) & Fr Louis Philippe (reforms, golden age of bourgeoisie)

1831

E EUROPE: Russians crush the Warsaw Uprising, making Poland a province

1831 CH +SQR UR Ta Aq

+

ROME: Pope Gregory XVI (1831-46) (reactionary, rejects moves to separate church & state)

1831 CH +ssx PL Ta Ar

+

OTTOMANS: Mohammed Ali obtains Egypt & Syria from Ottomans (Egyptian dynasty 1833-1952)

+

FRANCE: foundation of French Foreign Legion (African colonial expansion)

+

IDEAS: Faraday researches induction & electrolysis; Gauss & Weber electromagnetic telegraph

1832

ITALY: Mazzini founds Giovine Italia (Italian Youth, for unification & independence of Italy)

1832 CH +SQR UR Ta Aq

+

BRITAIN: first parliamentary Reform Bill (majority gov't, extended franchise, public opinion)

+

GERMANY: political revolts (led by liberal-nationalist students & intellectuals)

+

IDEAS: term 'socialism' first used in France (class struggle, social reform, revolution)

+

1833

INDIA: death of Rahman Roy (1772-1833) (father of modern Indian nationalism)

1833 CH +SQR UR Ta Aq

+

GERMANY: formation of German Zollverein (customs union) (first step to unification)

+

BRITAIN: Factory Act (working conditions), Poor Laws (municipal reform), abolition of slavery in empire

+

WORLD: Burnes explores Hindu Kush & C Asia; Ross returns from Arctic discovery of magn N Pole

+

S AMERICA: Britain takes Falkland Is (Malvinas) from Argentina; Mexico near civil war

+

N AFRICA: Egypt gains independence from Ottomans

1834

INNOVN: McCormick's mechanical reaper patented, USA; Jacobi devels electric motor

1834 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

1834 NE Aq

+

EUROPE: Vienna Congress (increased reactionism); intellectual emigrants to Paris & London

1834 CH +SQR UR Ta Aq

1834 CH Ge

+

RUSSIA: Caucasian wars (1830-59) against resistant mountain people

1834 CH +ssq PL Ta Ar

+

IBERIA: Spanish Inquisition finally suppressed; Carlist Wars begin (royalists vs Republicans)

1834 CH +tri NE Ge Aq

+

INNOVN: Babbage's 'analytical engine' (prototype of computer)

+

C AMERICA: indentured Indian workers replace slave labour in W Indies

1835

* S AFRICA: Great Trek of Boers (1835-44): foundation of Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal

1835 HALLEY'S COMET

1835 UR Pi

+

INDIA: intro of British educational system & language (leading to Indian Mutiny 1857)

1835 UR -ssq PL Aq Ar

1835 CH Ge

+

BRITAIN: revolutionary local government reform

1835 CH +ssq PL Ta Ar

+

INNOVN: Colt's (USA) revolver; Chubb's burglar-proof safe; 1st German railway (Nurnberg-Furth)

1835 CH +tri NE Ge Aq

+

1836

N AMERICA: secession of Texas from Mexico (Bt of the Alamo, Davy Crockett; becomes republic)

1836 CH +tri NE Ge Aq

1836 UR Pi

+

BRITAIN: People's Charter by Lovett & Chartists (seeking universal suffrage & social reform)

+

FRANCE: Louis Napoleon Bonaparte attempts revolt in Strasbourg (banished to USA)

+

INNOVN: Needle gun (making breech-loading possible)

+

1837

BRITAIN: Queen Victoria (1837-1901) (model constitutional monarch, presiding over an era)

1837 UR +ssx NE Pi Aq

+

IDEAS: Pitman's shorthand (stenographic soundhand); Morse invents telegraph, USA

1837 CH +sqt NE Ge Aq

+

USA: financial panic in USA (speculation, high land values); strife over slavery (Gag Law)

1837 CH +sxt PL Ge Ar

+

IDEAS: Froebel's pioneering kindergarten in Germany; Mann's educational reforms, Massachusetts

+

1838

PERSIA: revolt of Ismaeli Aga Khan (flees to India, reforms follow, Shi'ite pop infl grows)

1838 UR +ssx NE Pi Aq

1838 CH Cn

+

INNOVN: first electric telegraph, Britain

1838 CH +sqt NE Ge Aq

+

IDEAS: Charles Dickens' (1812-70) "Oliver Twist" & "Nicholas Nickleby" (radical social comment)

+

BRITAIN: Anti-Corn Law League (education, tolerance & reform, 'laissez-faire' social policies)

+

S AFRICA: Boers defeat Zulu tribes, Bt of Blood River, Natal

1839

MED'N: Eastern Crisis (Ottoman instability, Russian expansion, bal of power concerns)

1839 NE on S Node

1839 CH Cn

+

OTTOMANS: Abdul Mejid I, Ottoman Sultan (1839-61) (judicial & admin modern'n, foreign infl)

1839 CH +sqt NE Ge Aq

+

INNOVN: separate development of photography by Daguerre & Talbot; Macmillan invents bicycle

+

C ASIA: first Afghan War (British intervention to counter Russian C Asian influence, mostly unsuccessful)

+

1840

OCEANIA: Britain annexes New Zealand; James Brooke takes Sarawak, becomes Rajah; Aden taken

1840 CH +SQR PL Cn Ar

+

INNOVN: first postage stamp, the 'Penny Black', Britain; Kew Botanical Gardens opened

1840 UR -ssx PL Pi Ar

+

CHINA: Opium Wars (foreign powers force access to China & markets, China fights opium imports)

1840 CH +qcx NE Cn Aq

+

FRANCE: conspiracy by Louis Napoleon Bonaparte for French throne (then imprisoned in England)

1840 CH +tri UR Cn Pi

+

N AMERICA: mass immigrations to USA start (Germans, Irish, Swedes)

1841

BRITAIN: Thomas Cook's first excursion; Bradshaw's "Railway Guide"

1841 CH +SQR PL Cn Ar

1841 CH Le

+

IBERIA: Gen Espartero becomes Span regent (rules with iron hand)

1841 UR -ssx PL Pi Ar

+

USA: USS Creole, slave-carrier, captured by slaves, sailed to Bahamas (to become free)

1841 CH +qcx NE Cn Aq

+

IDEAS: Kolliker & Bischoff research sperm & ova; Liebig researches agricultural chemistry

1841 CH +tri UR Cn Pi

+

C EUROPE: Lajos Kossuth (1802-94) becomes Hungarian nationalist leader

+

W AFRICA: growth of Ibadan empire (Nigeria)

1842

CHINA: UK annexes Hong Kong (foreign powers gain ports & privileges); China weakening

1842 CH +sqt UR Le Pi

1842 CH Le

+

S AFRICA: Boers set up the Orange Free State; EUROPE: Czech Polka becomes fashionable

+

N AMERICA: USA-Canada border defined in Webster-Ashburton Treaty

+

S AMERICA: Pedro II (1831-89) (interior colon'n, Euro immigration, plantation exports)

+

IDEAS: Doppler Effect (measuring distances of stars); von Meyer on thermodynamics

1843

INDIA: British conquer Sind

1843 CH OPPN NE Le Aq

1843 UR Ar

+

IBERIA: military revolt in Spain, Isabella II, age 13, declared Queen (Espartero falls)

1843 CH +qcx UR Le Pi

1843 CH Vi

+

BRITAIN: British Archaeological Society founded; I K Brunel, engineer, at work

1843 CH +sqt UR Le Ar

+

USA: Fremont crosses Rockies to Calif; BRITAIN: 1st propeller-driven ship to cross Atlantic

1843 CH +tri PL Le Ar

+

USA: prediction of end of world by Wm Miller (NY farmer, popular movement for 3 years)

1844

ASIA: first Euros in Tibet (Fr missionaries Huc & Gabet); Chinese-American peace-trade treaty

1844 NE -sxt PL Aq Ar

1844 UR Ar

+

BRITAIN: Rochdale Pioneers (first consumers' coop) & YMCA (soc services in slums) founded

1844 CH +qcx UR Le Pi

1844 CH Vi

+

C AMERICA: military takeover in Mexico

1844 CH +sqt PL Vi Ar

+

INNOVN: Keller devels wood-pulp paper, Germany; Morse's 1st long-distance telegraph, USA

+

INNOVN: Grundtvig's 1st Inst for Adult Education, Denmark; 1st public bath houses, England

1845

INDIA: British invade Punjab & Kashmir (1845-9); OCEANIA: Maori wars against British

1845 NE -sxt PL Aq Ar

1845 CH Li

+

IRELAND: Great Famine (1m die, hostility against England, mass emigration to USA)

1845 UR +ssq NE Ar Aq

+

IDEAS: Engels' "Condition of the Working Class in England" (published Leipzig)

1845 CH +qcx PL Vi Ar

+

INNOVN: submarine cable laid across English Channel; hydraulic crane; carpet power loom

1845 CH -qcx NE Vi Aq

+

INNOVN: 1st artistic photo portraits by D O Hill (1802-70)

1846

BRITAIN: repeal of Corn Laws (moving toward free trade, triumph of industrialists' lobby)

1846 Sa CONJ NE Aq Aq

+

N AMERICA: Mexican War (USA gains New Mexico & Calif); Oregon Treaty (on USA/Canada boundary)

1846 CH OPPN UR Li Ar

+

EUROPE: economic crisis (potato blight, overproduction, unemployment, low profits, bankruptcy)

1846 CH Peri 5Li

+

E EUROPE: revolts in Poland (suppressed by Russia & Austria, Austria takes Krakow)

1846 UR +ssq NE Ar Aq

+

INNOVN: 1st painted christmas card, Britain; Zeiss optical factory, Jena; Smithsonian Inst USA

1846 CH -sqt NE Li Aq

+

INDIA: Britain annexes Sindh & Punjab (much of Pakistan) in NW India

1847

EUROPE: Swiss Sonderbund war (between Catholic & Protestant cantons)

1847 CH OPPN UR Li Ar

1847 NE Pi

+

USA: California Gold Rush starts (opening up California); Mormons found Salt Lake City

1847 CH OPPN PL Li Ar

1847 CH Sc

+

W AFRICA: Liberia becomes independent (estd for freed American black slaves)

1847 UR +ssq NE Ar Aq

+

N AMERICA: US forces capture Mexico City (Mexicans submit to expansive US demands)

1847 CH -tri NE Li Aq

+

BRITAIN: Factory Act restricts working hours of women & chilren

1848

EUROPE: REVOLUTION IN MOST STATES (bringing changes, unsuccessful, leading to new realism, new

+

bourgeois fear of radicals, emigration, re-est of control & econ endeavour, later dissent)

1848 CH -qcx UR Sc Ar

1848 NE Pi

+

IDEAS: "Communist Manifesto" issued by Karl Marx (1818-83) & Friedrich Engels (1820-95)

+

FRANCE: Second Republic (1848-52); ITALY: nationalist revolts & war (Mazzini, Garibaldi)

+

GERMANY: convocation of an all-German Reichstag, Frankfurt (Ger unity aired, Cath/Prot schisms)

1849

C EUROPE: revolts in Austrian Emp (Hungary, Italy, Bohemia) (failed, mass emigration & dissent)

1849 CH -SQR NE Sg Pi

1849 CH Sg

+

ARTS: height of Romantic music with Berlioz, Liszt, Wagner, Brahms, Verdi

1849 CH -qcx PL Sc Ar

+

INDIA: British defeat militant Sikhs, annex Punjab; AFRICA: Livingstone crosses Kalahari Desert

1849 CH -qcx UR Sc Ar

+

* USA: USA becomes a transcontinental power (gaining N Mex, Calif, Texas, Ariz, Utah, Nev, Col)

+

PERSIA: Nasir Ud-din, Persian Shah (1848-96) (western influence & liberalisation, oil trade)

1850

CHINA: T'ai P'ing Rebellion (1850-55) (with great loss of life); Chinese pop'n 420m

1850 UR CONJ PL Ar Ar

+

OCEANIA: Australian colonies and (1856) New Zealand granted responsible government

1850 CH -SQR NE Sg Pi

+

GERMANY: Industrial Revolution starts; lib const in Prussia; Austria & Prussia vie for primacy

1850 CH -sqt PL Sg Ar

+

USA: Clay Compromise leaves question of slavery to individual states (to prevent secession)

1850 CH -sqt UR Sg Ar

+

INNOVN: Bauer's submarine; Neumann on electromagnetic induction; Singer's sewing machine

1851

BRITAIN: Great Exhibition (1st World Fair) in London

1851 UR CONJ PL Ar Ar

1851 UR Ta

+

AUSTRIA: Franz-Josef I, Aust Emp (1848-1916) (abolition of constitution, return to absolutism)

1851 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

1851 PL Ta

+

FRANCE: coup d'etat by Louis Napoleon (promising new constitution)

1851 CH -sqt UR Sg Ta

+

CHINA: agrarian reforms in China

+

OCEANIA: Gold discovered in New South Wales, immigration rises

+

AMERICAS: Cuba declares independence; USA: Maine & Illinois prohibit liquor

1852

FRANCE: Second Empire: Louis Napoleon III, French Emp (1852-70) ('democratic caesarist')

1852 Sa CONJ UR Ta Ta

1852 PL Ta

+

SE ASIA: second Anglo-Burmese war, Britain occupies prosperous Irrawaddy delta

1852 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

1852 CH Cp

+

ITALY: Cavour (1810-61), PM of Sardinia-Piedmont, launches anti-Aust lib-nat 'Risorgimento'

1852 CH -tri PL Sg Ar

+

OCEANIA: New Zealand given a full constitution; Australian Gold Rush (1851-53)

1852 CH -tri UR Cp Ta

+

1853

AFRICA: Livingstone's explorations begin; Ras Kasa unites Coptic Abyssinia; Basuto War (1851-3)

1853 UR +sxt NE Ta Pi

1853 PL Ta

+

INDIA: first railway and telegraph lines in India; USA: Colt's revolver

1853 CH -sxt NE Cp Pi

+

FRANCE: Housman begins rebuilding of Paris (boulevards, Bois de Boulogne)

1853 CH -tri UR Cp Ta

+

RUSSIA: Crimean War (1853-6) (decline of Ottomans, Austr-Russ rivalry in E Eur, modern warfare)

+

INNOVN: Wood devels hypodermic syringe; vaccination against smallpox compulsory in Britain

1854

JAPAN: opening of Japan to foreign powers & influence (Perry, USA; start of Industrial Revln in Japan)

1854 UR +sxt NE Ta Pi

+

AFRICA: Sudanese theocrat El Hadj Omar fights French encroachment on R Niger

+

E EUROPE: Britain & France join Crimean War against Russia (to stop Russia taking Ottoman lands)

+

INNOVN: Goebel's electric light bulb; Ehrenberg's "Microgeology"; Steinway's pianos

+

ARTS: Thackeray, Tennyson, Thoreau, Kingsley, Melville, at work

1855

OTTOMANS: reform edicts to rescue Ottoman power (foreign powers aid integrity of empire)

1855 UR +sxt NE Ta Pi

+

INNOVN: iron Cunard steamer crosses Atlantic in 10 days; rayon first produced

+

RUSSIA: Russia beaten by Allies at Sebastopol (end of Crimea War)

+

* ARTS: Browning, Dickens, Longfellow, Tennyson, Whitman, Berlioz, Wagner at work

+

BRITAIN: London sewers modernised; Florence Nightingale improves military hospitals

1856

* RUSSIA: reform period: Alexander II, Czar (1851-81) ('revolution from above')

1856 UR +sxt NE Ta Pi

1856 CH Aq

+

* OTTOMANS: 'conquest by western capital' (foreign debt, imports, change, bankruptcy 1875)

1856 CH -SQR PL Aq Ta

+

ASIA: Britain at war with Persia in Afghanistan (Persia recognises Afghan independence 1857)

1856 NE -ssq PL Pi Ta

+

INNOVN: Bessemer process allows mass-production of steel; cocaine extracted from coca leaves

1856 CH -ssq NE Aq Pi

+

WORLD: Britain annexes Oudh, India; makes Natal a crown colony; grants self-govt to Tasmania

1857

INDIA: Indian Mutiny (Indian rebellion against British; attempt to restore Moghul emperor, failed)

1857 NE -ssq PL Pi Ta

+

GERMANY: economic crisis (business demands privileges & unification, Prussia gains power)

+

CHINA: British destroy Chinese navy (China forced to accept foreigners as more than fiefs)

+

EUROPE: financial crises everywhere (speculation in US railroad shares, many collapses)

+

1858

CHINA: Treaty of Tientsin (treaty ports open to foreign trade, Anglo-Chinese war ends)

1858 UR Ge

+

INDIA: India becomes a Vice-Royalty (end of East India Co); peace declared, economic development

+

C AMERICA: Benito Juarez (secularis'n of land, liberalisation); civil war betw libs & cons

+

AFRICA: Burton & Speke explore C Africa (Lakes Tanganyika & Victoria)

+

1859

ITALY: Piedmont-French war against Austria (towards Italian unification)

1859 Sa OPPN CH Le Aq

1859 UR Ge

+

IDEAS: Darwin (1809-82) "The Origin of Species"; Karl Marx (1818-83) "Political Economy"

+

INNOVN: 1st oil well drilled in Pennsylvania, USA; Plante's 1st elec storage battery

+

* IDEAS: great age of the novel: Dickens, Dumas, Flaubert, Turgenev, Dostoievsky, Tolstoi

+

FRANCE: Anthropological Soc of Paris founded; Lourdes appearance of Blessed Virgin Mary 1858

1860

CHINA: Treaty of Peking (est of Euro embassies, opening of trade & missions, Russ border estd)

1860 Sa OPPN CH Le Aq

+

AFRICA: French expansion in W Africa from Senegal

1860 UR +ssx PL Ge Ta

+

ITALY: Garibaldi & Redshirts take Sicily & Naples; V Emmanuel takes Papal States, procl king

+

IDEAS: John Stuart Mill (1806-73) "On Liberty" (on political liberalism)

+

RUSSIA: emancipation of Russian serfs; Russian development of E Siberia, Vladivostok founded

1861

GERMANY: Wilhelm I, Pruss Kaiser (1861-88, 'New Era'); E EUROPE: Warsaw Massacre by Russians

1861 UR on N Node

1861 NE Ar

+

USA: Civil War (1861-5) breaks out (over state powers & abolition of slavery, dividing North & South)

1861 CH -ssx NE Aq Pi

1861 CH Pi

+

INNOVN: Pasteur's germ theory of disease; Reis's early telephone; Foucault on speed of light

+

IDEAS: Women first given the vote, in Australia; E EUROPE: est of state of Rumania

+

ITALY: unification of Italy (plebiscite & force; Garibaldi, Cavour); Victor Emanuel (1861-78)

1862

USA: Homestead Law facilitates new land claims (opening of the West, detriment of Indians)

1862 Sa OPPN NE Li Ar

1862 NE Ar

+

S AMERICA: est of confederal US of Colombia; Venezuelan civil war

1862 CH -ssx NE Aq Pi

1862 CH Pi

+

GERMANY: Otto von Bismarck (1815-98), PM of Prussia (1862-71) (brings German unification 1871)

+

* OTTOMANS: rise of Young Turk Movement (for modern'n, secularisation & liberalisation)

+

IDEAS: Chernyshevsky's "What to Do?" (on overthrow of govts by revolution): ferment in Russia

1863

SE ASIA: France establishes protectorate of Cambodia, Cochin China, Annam, Tonkin & Laos

1863 Sa OPPN NE Li Ar

+

INNOVN: first underground railway in London (Metropolitan Railway)

+

E EUROPE: Polish uprising (suppressed, but reforms follow); ASIA: civil war in Afghanistan

+

C AMERICA: French invasion of Mexico (ends after USA threats); Austrian Maximilian enthroned

+

USA: Abraham Lincoln proclaims emancipation of all slaves; Bt of Gettyburg (North gains)

+

W AFRICA: Asante defeat British in Third Asante War

1864

* BRITAIN: Disraeli (1804-81) & Gladstone (1809-98), rival political leaders (1850s-80s)

1864 UR +ssq PL Ge Ta

+

RUSSIA: Polish revolt (forced Russification of Poland, Finland, Ukraine); Turkestan annexed

1864 CH -sxt PL Pi Ta

+

FRANCE: Louis Napoleon forced by failures to grant liberal constitution & reforms

+

GERMANY: German-Danish War (over Schleswig-Holstein); est of 1st Socialist Party

+

EUROPE: foundation of Red Cross in Switzerland; INNOVN: Pasteur invents pasteurisation

1865

USA: end of Civil War: slavery abolished (USA industrialising, Union preserved, 600,000 dead)

1865 UR +ssq PL Ge Ta

1865 UR Cn

+

EUROPE: First International (Workingmen's Association, 1864-76, fails over Marxist-Anarchist rivalry)

1865 CH -sxt PL Pi Ta

+

C ASIA: Jakub Beg, Khan of Kashgar (1865-77) establishes a Turkic state to unite all Muslims

+

CHINA: Muslim rebellions (1864-78) (against Chinese domination)

+

BRITAIN: Britain considers abandonment of all African colonies (after end of slave trade)

1866

GERMANY: war in Germany (Prussia vs Austria & Confed'n): Confederation aligns with Prussia

1866 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

1866 UR Cn

+

MED'N: revolts against Ottomans in Crete; E EUROPE: coup d'etat in Roumania

+

BRITAIN: 'Black Friday', London Stock Exchange crash; Dr Barnardos home for destitute children

+

S AMERICA: Paraguayan War (1865-70) (Braz, Arg'a & Urug vs dictator Lopez; 70% Parag popn die)

+

INNOVN: Mendel researches laws of heredity; 1st oil pipeline, PA, USA; ice machine invented

1867

GERMANY: est of N German Confed'n (under Bismarck) & dual monarchy in Austria-Hungary

+

N AMERICA: Russia sells Alaska to USA; Dominion of Canada estd; Mexico becomes republic (Juarez)

+

IDEAS: Marx publishes "Das Kapital, Vol I"; Pan-Slavic feeling grows in Russia (Dostoievsky)

+

S AFRICA: Kimberley diamond fields discovered (annexed by Britain 1871)

+

INNOVN: Lister's antiseptics; Siemens dynamo; Nobel's dynamite; Monier's reinforced concrete

1868

JAPAN: end of Tokugawa Shogunate; Meiji Restoration (adoption of western ways & industrialisation)

1868 UR +SQR NE Cn Ar

1868 CH Ar +

+

BRITAIN: est of Trades Union Congress (TUC) (1st national union org'n); unions legalised 1871

1868 NE -ssx PL Ar Ta

+

S AMERICA: Pres Sarmiento (1868-74) (education, immigration, growth, railways)

+

SE ASIA: Chulalongkorn, K of Siam (1868-1910) ests independent, modernised, neutral Siam

+

C ASIA: Russians take Samarkand

1869

MED'N: Suez Canal opens (built by French de Lesseps)

1869 UR +SQR NE Cn Ar

1869 CH Ar

+

N AMERICA: Prince Rupert's Land, Manitoba (1870) & British Columbia (1871) join Canada

1869 UR +sxt PL Cn Ta

+

INNOVN: first transcontinental railroad completed, USA; clipper 'Cutty Sark' launched, Britain

1869 NE -ssx PL Ar Ta

+

IDEAS: Meyer & Mendeleyev research periodic system of elements

1869 CH -ssq PL Ar Ta

+

USA: Pres Grant (1869-77) (corruption endemic, esp in S states, impotence of State)

1870

W EUROPE: Franco-Prussian war (vying for pre-eminence in W Europe, Germans occupy Paris)

1870 UR +SQR NE Cn Ar

1870 CH Ar

+

ITALY: declaration of Papal infallibility (in morals & faith); Italians occupy Papal States

1870 CH Aph 5Ar

+

FRANCE: Third Republic declared; beginning of colonial Empire Francais

1870 CH -ssq PL Ar Ta

+

WORLD: Nordenskjold explores Greenland; Nachtigal exps Sahara; Stanley & Livingstone at Ujiji

+

CHINA: risings in Tientsin against foreigners

1871

GERMANY: UNIFICATION OF GERMANY (Second Reich) under Wilhelm I & Bismarck (lib reforms)

1871 UR Le

+

FRANCE: uprising of the Paris Commune (rules 2 months, fails, 30,000 people killed)

+

BRITAIN: 'Oceanic', 1st large luxury liner launched; Public Bank Holidays introduced

+

GREECE: beginning of excavations of ancient Greek civilisation (by Germans & British)

+

USA: 'Barnum's 'Greatest Show on Earth', NY; Great Fire in Chicago; Jehova's Witnesses founded

1872

E EUROPE: Three Emperors' League est in Berlin (alliance of Russia, Austria-Hungary & Prussia)

1872 UR Le

+

CHINA: Chancellor Li Hung-Chang restores Imp order in China (partly aided by western powers)

+

IBERIA: civil war in Spain (royalists vs republicans, Don Carlos flees)

+

ARTS: Turgenev, Jules Verne, Saml Butler, Thom Hardy, Tolstoi, Victor Hugo, Emile Zola at work

+

BRITAIN: secret-ballot voting introduced

1873

C EUROPE: Buda & Pest united to become capital of Hungary

+

EUROPE: financial crises throughout Europe, panics in Vienna & NY; Deutschmark adopted in Ger

+

IDEAS: Nietsche (1844-1900) "Untimely Reflections" (on cultural-social decay)

+

INNOVN: Remington produces typewriters; 1st colour photographs; Westinghouse's air brake

+

INDIA: widespread famine in Bengal

1874

BRITAIN: Benjamin Disraeli, PM (1874-80)

1874 Sa OPPN UR Aq Le

1874 NE Ta

+

ARTS: emergence of Impressionism: Monet, Renoir, Degas

+

INNOVN: est of Universal Postal Union in Berne; devel of electric tram; osteopathy (A T Still)

+

USA: est of Soc for Prevention of Cruelty to Children, NY, by E T Gerry

+

USA: rise of Ghost Dance apocalyptic-messianic movement amongst Piute indians (peak in 1890s)

1875

EUROPE: Socialist parties: Germany 1875, Belgium 85, Holland 77, UK 93, Russia 1898

1875 Sa OPPN UR Aq Le

1875 NE Ta

+

N AFRICA: Disraeli buys Suez Canal Co shares (British control of sea route, Egyptian bankruptcy)

1875 CH -ssx PL Ar Ta

+

E EUROPE: Balkan crisis (1875-8) (natlst uprisings, Russian incursion, Turkish shrinkage)

+

FRANCE: major constitutional reform in Third Republic; BRITAIN: major Public Health Act

+

USA: Theosophical Society founded in NY by HP Blavatsky (seed of New Age movement)

+

E ASIA: Japan exchanges Sakhalin with Russia for Kuril Islands

1876

N AMERICA: Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915) gains control of Mexico, until 1911; rebellions in Cuba

1876 UR +SQR PL Le Ta

+

IBERIA: constitutional reform in Spain

1876 CH -ssx PL Ar Ta

+

OTTOMANS: const reform abolished, despotism by Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909); Balkan revolts

+

INNOVN: Bell & Gray develop telephone; Edison invents phonograph

+

INDIA: Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India

+

CHINA: Kuang Hsu, Chinese Emp (1875-1908, powerless last true Emperor of China)

1877

INDIA: Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India; Baluchistan incorporated into British India

1877 UR +SQR PL Le Ta

1877 CH Ta

+

E EUROPE: Russo-Turkish War (Russia takes Roumania & Bulgaria, Ottoman power shrinks)

+

C AMERICA: Porfirio Diaz, Pres of Mexico (1877-80, 84-1911) (stabln, growth, foreign links)

+

S AFRICA: British annex Transvaal (leading to 1880 Boer uprising)

+

* IRELAND: rise of Irish nationalism: Fenians in USA (1858), Irish Land League (1879)

1878

E EUROPE: Treaty of Berlin: Rumania, Montenegro, Bulgaria & Serbia independent of Ottomans

1878 UR Vi

+

INNOVN: first oil tanker built, Russia; electric street-lighting, London; microphone invented

1878 CH Ta

+

GERMANY: anti-Semitic movement started by Treitschke; anti-Socialist laws enacted

+

MED'N: Britain acquires Cyprus as a colony; Russian advance in Asia Minor & Bosporus halted

+

USA: major westward settler migration starts; Wm Booth founds the Salvation Army

1879

C ASIA: Second Afghan war gives Britain temp control of Afghanistan (rivalry with Russia)

1879 CH CONJ NE Ta Ta

+

GERMANY: Dual Alliance between Ger & Aust-Hung; Alsace-Lorraine integrated into Germany

+

S AMERICA: 'Nitrate War' (over saltpetre deposits): Chile, Bolivia, Peru (Bolivia landlocked, Chile gains)

+

INNOVN: F W Woolworth opens first '5c & 10c Store'; Siemens devels electric locomotive

+

S AFRICA: Zulu war between Britain and Bantus; Brit takes Bechuanaland 1885, Rhodesia 1888-91

1880

S AFRICA: Boers declare Transvaal independent of Britain, under Ohm Kruger (Pres 1881-1902)

1880 UR +tri NE Vi Ta

+

* EUROPE: Industrial Revolution starts in Sweden & Russia (also emigration to USA)

1880 CH CONJ NE Ta Ta

+

FRANCE: Jules Grevy, Pres (1879-87): sec & anti-clerical reforms, freedom of press & assembly

1880 CH -tri UR Ta Vi

+

INNOVN: large steel furnaces (Carnegie); canned fruits & meats; Australian frozen meat in Brit

+

* WORLD: ZENITH OF HIGH CAPITALISM (1880-1914); white 'sense of mission' to dominate world

1881

N AFRICA: French occupy Tunisia (advance into Sahara); uprisings in Egypt (Arabi Pasha)

1881 UR +tri NE Vi Ta

+

RUSSIA: pogroms against Jews (rise of Zionist dream of a Jewish state in Palestine)

1881 CH -tri UR Ta Vi

+

BRITAIN: modern museums (colonialism & philanthropy) and 'Redbrick' universities

+

RUSSIA: Alexander III, Czar (1881-94) (autocracy & orthodoxy, Okhrana secret police, strikes)

+

EUROPE: "Chat Noir", first cabaret, Paris; first electric-lit theatre by D'Oyly Carte, London

1882

N AFRICA: revolt in Egypt leads to British protectorate; Mahdi Uprising in Sudan against Egypt

1882 UR +tri NE Vi Ta

1882 PL Ge

+

INNOVN: first hydro-electric generating plant, by Edison, in Wisconsin USA

1882 Sa CONJ NE Ta Ta

+

* EUROPE: beginnings of psychoanalysis (use of hypnosis by Breuer, to treat hysteria)

1882 CH -tri UR Ta Vi

+

JAPAN: Bank of Japan founded (world-dominating within 100 years)

+

S AMERICA: systematic extermination of Pampas Indians in Argentina

1883

GERMANY: world's first legislation on social insurance (France 1894, Britain 1908)

1883 UR +tri NE Vi Ta

1883 PL Ge

+

WORLD: abol'n of slavery in Span colonies; Hague Conv'n ests 3-mile marine int'l terr limits

1883 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

1883 CH Ge

+

EUROPE: first Orient Express (Paris-Istanbul); Amsterdam World Exhibition

1883 Sa CONJ CH Ta Ta

+

IDEAS: Kelvin "On the Size of Atoms"; Swan produces synthetic fibre

1883 CH CONJ PL Ge Ge

+

INNOVN: Maxim invents the machine gun; 1st skyscraper, Chicago; WF Cody's 'Wild West Show'

1883 CH -tri UR Ta Vi

1884

AFRICA: Germany acquires SW Africa, Tanganyika, Togoland, Cameroons, some South Sea islands

1884 UR +tri PL Li Ge

1884 PL Ge

+

INNOVN: Daimler, Maybach & Benz devel petrol engine & motor car; Parsons' steam turbine

1884 CH CONJ PL Ta Ta

1884 UR Li

+

BRITAIN: est of Fabian Society (advocating state socialism, later adopted by Labour Party)

1884 CH Ge

+

EUROPE: Berlin Conference (14 nations) divides up Africa between colonial powers

+

S AFRICA: gold discovered in Transvaal (new world economic force, Johannesburg grows)

1885

INDIA: foundation of Indian National Congress (beg of Indian independence movement)

1885 UR +tri PL Li Ge

1885 UR Li

+

AFRICA: King of Belgium acquires the Congo; seige of Khartoum (Brits lose)

+

N AMERICA: completion of Canadian Pacific Railway; Utah Mormons split on polygamy question

+

INNOVN: fingerprint individuality discovered by Galton (criminology)

+

JAPAN: major Japanese migration to Peru, USA, Hawaii

1886

SE ASIA: British annex Lower Burma, south New Guinea, Port Hamilton, Korea

1886 UR +sqt NE Li Ta

+

AFRICA: Germany & Britain partition East Africa; gold discovered in Transvaal: Johannesburg founded

+

USA: est of American Federation of Labour (AFL) by Samuel Gompers

+

BRITAIN: Disraeli's Home Rule (Ireland) Bill fails (Cabinet falls)

+

1887

SE ASIA: French establish Indo-Chinese Union (Annam, Cambodia, Tonkin, Laos 1893)

1887 UR +sqt NE Li Ta

1887 CH Cn

+

ITALY: Italian colonial expansion (Abyssinia, Somaliland, Libya 1900)

1887 CH +ssx NE Ge Ta

+

WORLD: beginning of British Colonial Conferences (later to become Commonwealth)

+

FRANCE: Boulanger attempts coup d'etat in Paris (later exiled)

+

INNOVN: electric lamps (Edison & Swan); celluloid film (Goodwin); Zamenhof devises Esperanto

1888

EUROPE: 2nd International estd in Paris (anarchists expelled 1896, reformism rejected 1904)

1888 UR +sqt NE Li Ta

1888 NE Ge

+

INNOVN: Nikola Tesla's electric motor; Eastman's 'Kodak' box camera

1888 UR +sqt PL Li Ge

1888 CH Cn

+

S AMERICA: Brazil monarchy overthrown (by landowners prot abol'n of slavery); republic decl'd

1888 CH +ssx NE Ge Ta

+

INNOVN: Hertz researches electromagnetic waves; Dunlop invents pneumatic tyre

1888 CH +ssx PL Cn Ge

+

ARTS: Mahler, R-Korsakov, Dvorak, Tchaikovsky, Bruckner, Strauss, Gilbert & Sullivan

1889

USA: north-western states join union (Dakotas, Montana, Washington); Oklahoma Indian Res ended

1889 UR +sqt NE Li Ge

1889 NE Ge

+

FRANCE: Paris World Fair (construction of Eiffel Tower)

1889 UR +sqt PL Li Ge

+

S AFRICA: British S Africa Co (Cecil Rhodes) begins colonisation of Rhodesia

1889 CH +ssq NE Cn Ge

+

ARTS: authors Hardy, Tolstoi, Conan Doyle, Rudyard Kipling, Zola, Jerome K Jerome, WB Yeats

1889 CH +ssq PL Cn Ge

+

INNOVN: 1st movie shows in New York; 1st steel-framed building, Chicago; punch-card systems

1890

GERMANY: dismissal of Bismarck: Wilhelm II begins a new national course; est of Soc Dem Party

1890 CH -SQR UR Cn Li

1890 UR Sc

+

JAPAN: first general election; beginnings of modern literature in Japan, on western lines

1890 CH +ssq NE Cn Ge

1890 CH Le

+

* ARTS: Realistic drama: Ibsen, Strindberg, Chekhov & GB Shaw

1890 CH +ssq PL Cn Ge

+

WORLD: global influenza epidemics; W EUROPE: independence of Luxembourg (from Neths)

+

GERMANY: big industry conc'd in large corporations (AEG, Krupp, Siemens, IG-Farben, Stumm etc)

1891

EUROPE: est of Peace Bureau at Berne (pan-European, leading to Int Court of the Hague)

1891 NE CONJ PL Ge Ge

1891 UR Sc

+

OTTOMANS: atrocities against Armenians (1890-7) (discrediting Ottomans); Young Turk Movement

1891 CH -SQR UR Le Sc

1891 CH Le

+

RUSSIA: construction of trans-Siberian railway begun; famine in Russia

1891 CH +sxt NE Le Ge

+

INNOVN: wireless telegraphy started; zipper devel'd; Langley's "Experiments in Aerodynamics"

+

* ARTS: Gaugin in Tahiti, Toulouse-Lautrec's posters, Monet, Cezanne, Beardsley; Art Nouveau

1892

WORLD: Giolitti Ital Premier; Prince Ito, Jap Premier; Cleveland, US Pres; Gladstone, Eng PM

1892 NE CONJ PL Ge Ge

1892 CH Vi

+

* RUSSIA: modern'n & industrial'n under Count Witte ("hotbed of capitalism", peasant hardship)

1892 UR +qcx NE Sc Ge

+

* USA: economic & indust'l growth (tycoons Carnegie, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, Morgan, Astor)

1892 UR +qcx PL Sc Ge

+

E EUROPE: Pan-Slavic Conference at Cracow; BRITAIN: Keir Hardy becomes first Labour MP

+

INNOVN: Diesel motor, viscose (rayon), auto telephone switchboard, canned pineapples introduced


Neptune square Pluto 1816-20    Uranus conjunct Neptune 1821    Uranus square Pluto 1820
End of Napoleonic Wars; Congress of Vienna redesigns Europe; conservative restoration in East Europe (after Napoleon), liberal West; Romanticism; industrial revolution in Britain, Holland, France, Belgium; beginning of railways; independence of S American colonial nations (Brazil, Argentina, Chile, etc); beginning of European imperialist carve-up of the world, to 1900; electric motor & generator invented; Shaka extends Zulu empire; Liberia founded as colony for freed slaves; Monroe Doctrine, USA; British found Singapore (Raffles); British effective rulers of India


Uranus conjunct Pluto 1850
Revolutions in Europe; industrial revolution in Germany & Russia; USA becomes transcontinental; widespread railway-building & transport acceleration; Victorian era, Great Exhibition, London; Crimean War (Russia v Ottomans); opening of Japan & China to West; rapid gloabalisation & social change worldwide


Uranus square Neptune 1868-70
Meiji Restoration, Japan (westernising); American Civil War ends; unification of Germany (Bismarck); French Third Republic & empire; Marx's Das Kapital; Trades Union Congress, UK; Muslim rebellions in C Asia against China; Russia expands into C Asia; Suez Canal opens; first transcontinental railroad, USA


Uranus square Pluto 1876-77
Balkan crisis; Victoria, Empress of India; Ottomans crumbling; reform movement & modernisation in Russia; zenith of high capitalism; Ghost Dance movement, USA; socialist ideas; Impressionism; Irish nationalism; European seizing of colonies in Africa; telephone, phonograph; Gladstone & Disraeli, UK; Kuang Hsu, last true emperor of China


Neptune conjunct Pluto 1891-92
Emergence of socialism as political force; USA becomes world power; zenith of British world domination; technological development - motor engines, electric lamps etc; Europeans compete for colonies; roots of global integration; rise of corporate power; Russia 'hotbed of capitalism'; Ottoman atrocities against Armenians; Trans-Siberian railway

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The Historical Ephemeris © Copyright Palden Jenkins 1993-99


The Historical Ephemeris
by Palden Jenkins
Astro-historical tables for 2,500 years

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