Timelines: Empire Period - Earlier - Historical Ephemeris

The Historical Ephemeris

600 BCE - CE 2200

Astrological Cycles in History

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Timelines: Empire Period - Earlier

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Astro-historical timeline 3:
Early Empire Period
Waxing Neptune-Pluto hemicycle 84 BCE - 163 CE

Key:
* = a period of change or a general trend
? = an uncertain date


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-84 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta

84

* ROME: civil war in Rome

-84 UR -ssq PL Ar Ta

-84 UR Ar

-

MIDEAST: Romans beat Mithridates of Pontus, who had seized Asia province 88

-84 UR -ssq NE Pi Ta

83

MIDEAST: Romans invade Pontus & Cappadocia; Mithridates of Pontus fights back; treaty 81

-83 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta

-83 UR Ar

-

MIDEAST: collapse of Parthia as a viable strong nation

-83 UR -ssq PL Ar Ta

82

ROME: Sulla elected dictator for life, forces order on Rome and empire

-83 UR -ssq NE Ar Ta

-

 

81

ROME: Sulla's reforms, mainly legal (abandoning the Twelve Tables, laying new foundations)

 

-

 

80

* C AMERICA: Arawak peoples (from Venezuela) occupy Caribbean islands

-80 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

-

 

79

ROME: Sulla voluntarily steps down from dictatorship

-79 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

-

 

78

CHINA: first cataloguing of Imperial library by Lin Hsiang

-78 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

-78 NE Ge

-

 

77

 

-77 NE Ge

-

 

-77 UR Ta

76

 

-76 UR Ta

-

 

75

INDIA: Greek principalities in Punjab invaded by Sakas (Afghan), then Parthians

 

-

 

74

ROME: Rome annexes Cyrene (W Egypt) to suppress piracy in Med'n; war with Pontus (Black Sea)

 

-

MIDEAST: Mithridates of Pontus & Tigranes of Armenia seize Cappadocia & Syria from Rome

 

73

ROME: uprising of slaves led by Spartacus, suppressed by Pompey & Crassus

 

-

 

72

W EUROPE: Germanic Suevi invade Gaul

 

-

 

71

 

-71 PL Ge

-

 

70

ROME: CONSULATE OF POMPEY & CRASSUS (reforms and liberalisation)

-70 UR CONJ PL Ge Ge

-70 PL Ge

-

 

-70 UR Ge

69

MIDEAST: Romans defeat Tigranes I of Armenia (who becomes a vassal of Rome)

-69 UR CONJ PL Ge Ge

-69 UR Ge

-

 

-69 PL Ge

68

MED'N: Rome defeats Mediterranean pirates

-

 

67

MED'N: Rome annexes Crete to suppress piracy

-

 

66

 

-

 

65

MIDEAST: Romans under Pompey finally beat Mithridates (Pontus, who commits suicide in Crimea)

 

-

 

64

ROME: Pompey conquers Syria & Palestine, terminates Seleucid state, reorganises East empire

 

-64 NE Cn

-

 

63

ROME: Pompey conquers Jerusalem, annexes Palestine

-63 NE Cn

-

 

-63 UR Cn

62

ITALY: founding of Florence

-62 UR CONJ NE Cn Cn

-62 UR Cn

-

 

61

IBERIA: first victories of Julius Caesar in Spain

-61 UR CONJ NE Cn Cn

-

 

60

ROME: FIRST TRIUMVIRATE of Julius Caesar, Pompey & Crassus (start of carve-up of Empire)

 

-

 

59

ASIA: MAXIMUM EXTENT OF HAN EXPANSION, reaching Tarim Basin, overcoming SE & SW China

 

-

 

58

FRANCE: Julius Caesar conquers Gaul (58-49)

-

 

57

E ASIA: founding of state of Silla in Korea

-57 UR +ssq PL Le Ge

-57 UR Le

-

 

56

-56 Sa CONJ UR Le Le

-56 UR Le

-

-56 UR +ssq PL Cn Ge

55

BRITAIN: Caesar attacks Britain, extracts tribute, then retires (opening Britain to trade)

 

-

 

54

ROME: breakup of the Triumvirate (54-51) (Crassus dies on defeat by Parthians)

 

-

 

53

MIDEAST: Parthians in Armenia halt Romans, stalling Romans to +114 (only state doing so)

 

-

 

52

ROME: anarchy in Rome, rivalry between supporters of Pompey & Caesar

 

-51 NE Le

-

FRANCE: Gaul revolts under Vercingetorix; Caesar surrounded; eventual suppression by 51

 

51

 

-51 UR Vi

-

 

50

INDIA: 5 tribes of Yueh-Chi invade and unite to form KUSHANA EMPIRE in N India

 

-50 NE Le

-

 

-50 UR Vi

49

ROME: civil war, Pompey (power from East) against Julius Caesar (power from West)

 

-

 

48

 

-

 

47

 

-

 

46

 

-

 

45

ROME: Julius Caesar becomes sole dictator (for life)

-45 PL Cn

-

 

44

ROME: Rome controls the whole Mediterranean world; only Parthia remains a threat

-44 UR +SQR PL Li Cn

-44 PL Cn

-

ROME: Caesar murdered (for lack of trustworthy subordinates)

-44 UR Li

43

ROME: reign of terror under Second Triumvirate (Antony, Lepidus, Octavian)

-43 UR +SQR PL Li Cn

-43 UR Li

-

* E ASIA; small kingdoms form in non-Chinese parts of Korea (Koguryo, Han)

-43 UR +ssq NE Li Le

42

-42 NE +ssq PL Le Cn

-

-42 UR +ssq NE Vi Le

41

* ROME: cultural ascendancy: Cicero (orator), Horace (poet), Virgil (poet)

-42 NE +ssq PL Le Cn

-

 

40

ROME: partition of Empire between Triumvirate (Octavian West, Antony East, Lepidus Africa)

-40 NE +ssq PL Le Cn

-

 

39

MIDEAST: Rome appoints Herod the Great as King of Jews (39BCE-+4CE)

-39 NE +ssq PL Le Cn

-

 

38

-38 UR +sxt NE Li Le

-38 UR Sc

-

 

37

MIDEAST: Herod takes control of Jerusalem

-37 UR +sxt NE Li Le

-37 UR Sc

-

 

36

N AFRICA: marriage of Antony & Cleopatra, merging Antony's E Roman & Egyptian powers

 

-36 NE Vi

-

 

35

ROME: disastrous expedition to Azerbaijan by Romans (Mark Anthony) against Parthians

 

-35 NE Vi

-

 

34

ASIA: destruction of Hsiung-Nu empires in Turkestan & Dzungaria by the Chinese

-34 UR +tri PL Sc Cn

-

 

33

E EUROPE: Dalmatia becomes Roman province

-33 UR +tri PL Sc Cn

-

 

-33

MIDEAST: 30,000 people killed in a major earthquake

-32 UR +tri PL Sc Cn

-

-32 Sa OPPN UR Ta Sc

-31

ROME: Battle of Actium: Octavian establishes dominance over Rome

-31 Sa OPPN UR Ta Sc

-31 UR Sg

-

C AMERICA: earliest known inscription of the Olmec Long Count calendar comes from this date.

 

-30

N AFRICA: death of Anthony & Cleopatra (last of Ptolemies): Egypt becomes Roman province

 

-30 UR Sg

-

 

-29

ROME: Octavian closes Temple of Janus (symbolising end of wars of magnates since Sulla)

 

-

 

-28

CHINA: first observation of sunspots, star maps & sundials, by Chinese astronomers

-28 UR +sqt PL Sg Cn

-

 

-27

ROME: OCTAVIAN BECOMES AUGUSTUS, (first emperor, bringing Roman order and gov't until +235)

-27 UR +sqt PL Sg Cn

-

 

-26

-26 UR +sqt PL Sg Le

-26 PL Le

-

 

-25

EUROPE: reorganisation of Gaul & Spain by Romans

-25 PL Le

-

 

-24

-24 UR +SQR NE Sg Vi

-24 NE Li

-

 

-23

ROME: major Augustinian construction program in Empire, directed by engineer Agrippa (-63-+12)

-23 UR +SQR NE Cp Li

-23 NE Li

-

 

-23 UR Cp

-22

-22 UR +SQR NE Cp Li

-22 NE Li

-

 

-21

 

-

 

-20

MIDEAST: Rome renounces further expansion in East in treaty with Parthians

 

-

 

-19

 

-

 

-18

 

-

 

-17

ROME: secular celebration of City of Rome and proclamation of world peace (Pax Augusta)

 

-

 

-16

GERMANY: massing of Roman forces in Germany after defeat by Germans

 

-

 

-15

 

-15 UR Aq

-

 

-14

 

-

 

-13

 

-

 

-12

-12 HALLEY'S COMET

-12 PL Vi

-

 

-11

 

-11 PL Vi

-

 

-10

 

-10 NE Sc

-

 

-9

EUROPE: Romans under Tiberius conquer much of Germany

-9 NE Sc

-

ROME: dedication of Altar of Peace, to celebrate PAX AUGUSTA ('business as usual')

 

-8

-8UR +tri NE Pi Sc

-8 UR Pi

-

-8 Sa CONJ UR Aq Aq

-7

-7 UR +tri NE Pi Sc

-7 UR Pi

-

 

-6

MIDEAST: Rome annexes Judaea

-6 UR +tri NE Pi Sc

-

* C AMERICA: colonisation of south Caribbean islands by farming peoples from mainland

-6 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

-5

? MIDEAST : likely year of BIRTH OF JESUS OF NAZARETH in Palestine (disputed)

-5 UR +tri NE Pi Sc

-

-5 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

-4

ROME: Augustus adopts Tiberius as successor

-4 UR +tri NE Pi Sc

-

-4 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

-3

* N AMERICA: rise of complex gatherer-hunter societies on Oregon and BC coasts

-3 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

-

 

-2

* EURASIA: direct maritime trading between Rome and India starts

-2 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

-

* INDIAN OCEAN: Madagascar settled by Micronesian seafarers from Indonesia

-1

-1 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

-

 


Neptune conjunct Pluto 84-83 BCE
Battle for the future of Rome (civil war); zenith in Armenia; collapse of Parthia; reform in imperial China; expansion of the Germans (Suevi and others); Hopewell culture, Ohio; stability and trade across Asia


Uranus conjuct Pluto 70-69 BCE
Reforms & liberalisation in Rome (Pompey & Crassus); Suevi Germans invade Gaul; Rome spreads into Middle East; Arawak people of Venezuela occupy Caribbean islands


Uranus conjunct Neptune 62-61 BCE
Founding of Florence; founding of state of Silla, Korea; rise of Julius Caesar; Romans conquer Syria & Palestine; Parthians block Romans in Armenia


Uranus square Pluto 44-43 BCE
Julius Caeser dictator of Rome; cultural upswing in Rome, now controlling Mediterranean world; growth of Korean kingdoms


Uranus opposition Pluto 6 BCE - CE 1
Pax Augusta - stability across Roman empire; Rome trades with India; birth of Jesus (5-6 BCE) - dawn of Christian era; end of Early Han dynasty in China, rise of reformer Wang Mang

 

+ 1

CHINA: Wang Mang serves as regent to child-emperors (1-8 CE)

+1 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

+1 PL Li

+

* ROME: growth of Mithraism throughout Roman empire

+1 UR +sqt NE Ar Sc

+ 2

CHINA: first Buddhist missionaries in China, from Central Asia

+2 UR +sqt NE Ar Sc

+2 PL Li

+

 

+ 3

* MIDEAST: early boyhood travels of Jesus of Nazareth

+3 UR +sqt NE Ar Sc

+3 PL Li

+

 

+ 4

EUROPE: Romans secure frontier at Danube, build roads & towns under Tiberius

+4 UR +sqt NE Ar Sc

+

GERMANY: Tiberius subdues Langobards (who later become competitors for power in Italy)

 

+ 5

BRITAIN: Cymbeline recognised as tributary and 'Rex Brittonum'

+5 UR +sqt NE Ar Sc

+5 NE Sg

+

 

+ 6

MIDEAST: Judaea becomes a Roman province

+6 NE Sg

+

CHINA: all candidates for state office required to take civil service examinations

 

+ 7

 

+

 

+ 8

 

8 UR Ta

+

 

+ 9

CHINA: Imperial regent Wang Mang's reforming Hsin Dynasty CE 9-23 (unsuccessful)

 

9 UR Ta

+

EUROPE: Germans beat Romans back to Rhine frontier; Romans fight back +15

 

+ 10

10 Sa CONJ PL Li Li

+

 

+ 11

11 Sa CONJ PL Li Li

+

 

+ 12

CHINA: Wang Mang nationalises all land; change of status for slaves; tax reform

 

+

 

+ 13

13 Sa OPPN UR Sc Ta

13 PL Sc

+

 

+ 14

ROME: Augustus Caesar dies (age 76), succeeded by Tiberius (Emperor 14-37)

14 Sa OPPN UR Sc Ta

14 PL Sc

+

 

+ 15

EUROPE: Roman campaigns against German tribes

15 UR Ge

+

CHINA: establishment of price controls & mercantile regulations (leads to merchants' revolt 66)

 

+ 16

16 Sa CONJ NE Sg Sg

16 UR Ge

+

 

+ 17

 

+

 

+ 18

18 NE +ssq PL Sg Sc

+

 

+ 19

MIDEAST: Syria devastated by a major earthquake, 120,000 killed

19 NE +ssq PL Sg Sc

19 NE Cp

+

 

+ 20

* S AMERICA: est of city of Moche, capital of MOCHE CULTURE (-200 to +700, coastal Peru)

20 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

20 NE Cp

+

21 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

+ 21

22 UR OPPN NE Cn Cp

+

22 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

+ 22

* INDIA: rivalry for trade with Rome between S Indian states Pandhya, Chola & Kerala

22 UR -sqt PL Cn Sc

22 UR Cn

+

23 UR OPPN NE Cn Cp

+ 23

CHINA: Restoration: LATER HAN DYNASTY (25-220), capital Loyang; Kuang Wu Ti, Han Emp (25-57)

23 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

+

23 UR -sqt PL Cn Sc

+ 24

24 UR OPPN NE Cn Cp

+

24 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

+ 25

C ASIA: expansion of united Kushana tribes in Bactria & N Afghanistan (prelude to India invasion)

24 UR -sqt PL Cn Sc

+

25 UR OPPN NE Cn Cp

+ 26

ROME: Tiberius retires, leaving rome in hands of Praetorian prefect Sejanus

25 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

26 PL Sg

+

25 UR -sqt PL Cn Sc

+ 27

MIDEAST: baptism of Jesus of Nazareth by John the Baptist

26 UR -sqt PL Cn Sc

27 PL Sg

+

26 UR OPPN NE Cn Cp

+ 28

MIDEAST: TEACHING MINISTRY OF JESUS OF NAZARETH in Palestine

26 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

28 UR Le

+

27 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+ 29

28 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

29 UR Le

+

29 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+ 30

? MIDEAST: crucifixion of Jesus by Romans, outside Jerusalem

29 UR -tri PL Le Sg

+

29 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg

+ 31

30 UR -tri PL Le Sg

+

30 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg

+ 32

30 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+

31 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+ 33

MIDEAST: dispersal of earliest Christians around W Asia and Mediterranean

31 UR -tri PL Le Sg

33 NE Aq

+

32 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+ 34

33 Sa OPPN NE Cn Cp

34 NE Aq

+

33 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

34 UR Vi

+ 35

34 Sa OPPN NE Le Aq

35 UR Vi

+

34 NE +ssq PL Aq Sg

+ 36

35 NE +ssq PL Aq Sg

+

36 Sa CONJ UR Vi Vi

+ 37

ROME: Caligula succeeds Tiberius, establishes ambitious monarchy in Rome; murdered 41

 

+

? BRITAIN: legendary arrival of Joseph of Arimathaea at Glastonbury (Ancient British Church)

 

+ 38

 

+

 

+ 39

 

+

 

+ 40

GREECE: early Christian church established at Corinth

40 UR -SQR PL Vi Sg

+

 

+ 41

ROME: Claudius (42-54) re-establishes Augustan order in Rome

41 UR -SQR PL Vi Sg

41 UR Li

+

41 UR -sqt NE Li Aq

+ 42

42 UR -SQR PL Li Cp

42 PL Cp

+

42 UR -sqt NE Li Aq

+ 43

BRITAIN: Roman invasion under Plautius & Claudius; British Caradoc (Caractacus) beaten at Medway

43 UR -sqt NE Li Aq

+

BRITAIN: London founded as a Roman trading city

 

+ 44

N AFRICA: Morrocco annexed by Rome

44 UR -sqt NE Li Aq

+

CHINA: Tonkin & Annam (N Vietnam) annexed by Han Ma Yuan (Annamese adopt Confucian customs)

 

+ 45

MIDEAST: Paul of Tarsus sets out on missionary travels with Barnabas (Anatolia, Greece, Rome, to +62)

 

+

 

+ 46

 

+

 

+ 47

47 UR -tri NE Li Aq

47 NE Pi

+

47 Sa CONJ PL Cp Cp

47 UR Sc

+ 48

MIDEAST: Council of the Apostles at Jerusalem, starts missionary activity

48 UR -tri NE Sc Pi

48 NE Pi

+

BRITAIN: Thames valley flooded by storms, 10,000 die

48 UR Sc

+ 49

49 UR -tri NE Sc Pi

+

 

+ 50

RUSSIA: Goths set up a kingdom in Vistula valley

50 UR -tri NE Sc Pi

+

* AFRICA: expansion of Axum (Ethiopia) begins

 

+ 51

MIDEAST: St Paul's journeyings and writing of Paul's Epistles (51-55)

51 UR -sxt PL Sc Cp

+

PERSIA: revival of the Parthian nation (51-77) under Vologesus I

+

BRITAIN: British leader Caradoc captured; Roman conquest complete to Lincoln, Chester, Caerleon

 

+ 52

SE ASIA: founding of Funan state (Cambodia)

52 UR -sxt PL Sc Cp

+ 53

53 Sa CONJ NE Pi Pi

+

 

+ 54

ROME: Nero becomes emperor, to CE 68; good times in Rome during 50s

 

54 UR Sg

+

 

+ 55

* CHINA: widening of horizons under Ming Ti (extension of Chinese links and trade throughout Asia)

 

55 UR Sg

+

 

+ 56

56 UR -ssq PL Sg Cp

+

 

+ 57

57 UR -ssq PL Sg Cp

+

 

+ 58

CHINA: Emperor Ming Ti allows Buddhism into China; Chinese maritime trading throughout Asia

58 NE +sxt PL Pi Cp

+

 

+ 59

CHINA: Kung Fu-tse deified (Confucianism made a popular state religion, to counteract Buddhism)

59 NE +sxt PL Pi Cp

+

59 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg

+ 60

ROME: journey of Peter & Paul to Rome (invited by British residents)

60 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

60 PL Aq

+

BRITAIN: British revolt against the Roman occupation, led by Boudicca of the Iceni

60 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg

60 NE Ar

+ 61

BRITAIN: uprisings in Britain suppressed by Romans under Suetonius Paullinus

61 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

61 PL Aq

+

61 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg

61 NE Ar

+ 62

* C ASIA: growth of KUSHANA EMPIRE under Kushans &Tocharians (Yueh-chi Asian nomads)

62 UR -SQR NE Cp Ar

62 UR Cp

+

ROME: the burning of ROME: Nero's reign becomes corrupt & arbitrary ("Caesar madness")

 

+ 63

63 UR -SQR NE Cp Ar

+

63 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq

+ 64

ROME: first persecution of Christians, beheading of St Paul (67); Christianity spreads wide & fast

64 UR -SQR NE Cp Ar

+

INDIA: KUSHAN (Yueh-chi) INVASION OF NW INDIA (50-75) from Bactria under Vima Kadphises

 

+ 65

65 UR -SQR NE Cp Ar

+

 

+ 66

MIDEAST: Jewish uprising against Rome in Palestine; St Peter executed in Rome 67

66 HALLEY'S COMET

+

 

+ 67

 

+

 

+ 68

ROME: Flavius Josephus' 'History of the Jewish War' (major source on Jesus)

 

+

ROME: Nero commits suicide; chaos in Rome, four emperors in one year

+

MIDEAST: destruction of Qumran, centre of Essenes for 300 years (site of Dead Sea Scrolls)

 

+ 69

ROME: chaos in Rome and civil war in empire (Rhineland & Palestine); new emperor Vespasian (69-79)

69 Sa OPPN NE Li Ar

69 UR Aq

+

 

+ 70

ROME: Vespasian strengthens control in Rome

70 Sa OPPN NE Li Ar

70 UR Aq

+

MIDEAST: Romans destroy Jewish Temple in Jerusalem and much of city, to suppress revolts

 

+

* MIDEAST: New Testament gospels written: 70-88 Mark; 85-95 Matthew & Luke; 90> John

 

+ 71

INDIA: Scythian (Saka) occupation of NW Indian coast (Rajasthan area)

 

+

 

+ 72

 

+

 

+ 73

MIDEAST: last stand of Jewish Zealots against Rome at Masada, Judaea

 

+

 

+ 74

ROME: Vespasian forces imp economies; Latin law in Spain; Colosseum erected

74 UR CONJ PL Aq Aq

74 NE Ta

+

C ASIA: stirrings amongst Asian nomads against Chinese incursions into their space

 

+ 75

CHINA: Pan Ch'ao, Han Emperor (74-94) (gains Turkestan & Silk Roads, stirring Asian nomads)

 

75 NE Ta

+

 

+ 76

 

+

 

+ 77

BRITAIN: Roman conquest extended: Brigantes (Yorkshire) & Silures (Wales) subdued

 

77 UR Pi

+

 

+ 78

INDIA: Kanishka, Kushan Emperor (78-102) (capital Peshawar, rich Buddhist culture)

 

+

 

+ 79

BRITAIN: Roman subjugation of Wales completed (started 48)

+

ITALY: eruption of Mt Vesuvius buries the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum

+ 80

80 UR -sxt NE Pi Ta

+

 

+ 81

ROME: Emperor Domitian (81-96) (initially liberal & benevolent, later autocratic)

81 UR -sxt NE Pi Ta

+

81 Sa CONJ PL Aq Aq

+ 82

CHINA: Han Empress Tou alters succession, rules as dowager (88-97) (line of Empresses 88-159)

82 UR -sxt NE Pi Ta

+

 

+ 83

83 Sa CONJ UR Pi Pi

+

 

+ 84

BRITAIN: Roman conquest of Britain extended into Scotland (defeat of Caledonians)

 

84 PL Pi

+

C ASIA: Kushan (Yueh-chih) & Chinese alliance subjugates Kashgar (opening Silk Roads)

 

84 UR Ar

+ 85

E ASIA: Hsiung-Nu inter-tribal strife, stirred up by Chinese threat

85 PL Pi

+

 

85 UR Ar

+ 86

 

+

 

+ 87

E ASIA: Mongol Sien Pi tribes beat the northern Hsiung-Nu, occupying their lands

 

87 NE Ge

+

 

+ 88

88 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

88 NE Ge

+

88 Sa CONJ NE Ge Ge

+ 89

E ASIA: Chinese under Gen Tu Hsien beat northern Hsiung-Nu (many migrate west to Europe)

89 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

+

89 UR -ssq NE Ar Ge

+ 90

C ASIA: war between China & Kushans in Pamir Mts (over C Asian control – China prevails)

89 UR +ssq PL Ar Pi

+

* W EUROPE: rapid progression of Romanisation in Germany, Gaul & Britain

90 UR +ssq PL Ar Pi

+ 91

ASIA: Chinese defeat Hsiung-Nu (Huns) (stirring up nomads into future movement)

90 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

+

ROME: rule of Domitian lapses into despotism

90 UR -ssq NE Ar Ge

+ 92

91 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

92 UR Ta

+

92 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

+ 93

* S AMERICA: dawn of TAIRONA (Kogi) CULTURE (northern Colombia, zenith 1000CE)

 

93 UR Ta

+

 

+ 94

CHINA: LATER HAN EXPANSION OF BORDERS AND INFLUENCE – prosperity & culture (94-160)

 

+

 

+ 95

* EURASIA: Kushan, Chinese & Roman empires cover Eurasia (Silk Road trade, China-Rome)

95 UR +sxt PL Ta Pi

+

95 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

+ 96

ROME: dynastic inheritance changed to adoptive emperorship, to 176; Domitian unthroned

96 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

+

MIDEAST: Chinese forces under Kan Ying reach Persian Gulf (soon turning back)

 

+ 97

* ROME: historian Tacitus (?55-117) at work: "Histories", "Annals", "Germania"

 

+

* INDIA: peak of growth of classical Sanskrit (in translated Buddhist texts of Kushan India)

 

+ 98

ROME: TRAJAN emperor (98-117) (first of provincial (Spain) origin; strengthens imp control)

 

+

BRITAIN: foundation of Gloucester as city

 

+ 99

 

99 UR Ge

+

 


Uranus opposition Pluto 6 BCE - CE 1
Pax Augusta - stability across Roman empire; Rome trades with India; birth of Jesus (5-6 BCE) - dawn of Christian era; end of Early Han dynasty in China, rise of reformer Wang Mang


Uranus opposition Neptune 22-26 CE
Later Han restoration in China; teaching ministries of John the Baptist & Jesus; growth of Kushans; zenith of Mochica culture, Peru


Uranus square Pluto 40-42 CE
Roman invasion of Britain & Morocco; St Paul & missionaries - founding of early Christian churches; Cluadius, Roman emperor; Sinification of Annam (Vietnam); Goths invade Ukraine; growth of Axum (Ethiopia)


Uranus square Neptune 62-65 CE
British & Jewish revolts against Rome; suppression & growth of Christianity; Rome burns - Nero; growth of Kushan empire, C Asia; Buddhism enters China from Afghanistan; rise of Funan (Cambodia)


Uranus conjunct Pluto 74 CE
Chinese expansion into C Asia/Turkestan - nomads stirred; destruction of Jerusalem by Romans, last stand of Jewish zealots at Masada; completion of Roman invasion of Britain; Kanishka, Kushan emperor in Peshawar, India; Vespasian exerts control in Rome


Neptune square Pluto 88-92 CE
Stirring of Hsiung-Nu (Huns) in Asia by wars between Mongols & with Chinese; cultural zenith & expansion of Later Han (to 160); Silk Roads open - Eurasian trade; stability across Eurasia in China, Kushan and Rome (peak of age of empires); Tairona culture, Colombia

+100

* AFRICA: Camel introduced into Saharan Africa

100 UR Ge

+

* C AMERICA: ZENITH OF TEOTIHUACAN (100-300)

100 NE Cn

+101

C EUROPE: Rome wars with Dacia (Hungary) (inconclusive & dangerous for future)

 

101 NE Cn

+

 

+102

 

+

 

+103

103 UR +SQR PL Ge Pi

+

 

+104

104 UR +SQR PL Ge Pi

+

104 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

+105

* ROME: Apuleius' "Metamorphoses" & "The Golden Ass"

105 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

105 UR Cn

+

CHINA: Han Empress Teng (105-121) (rise in power of eunuch courtiers)

+106

MIDEAST: Romans invade Arabia

106 Sa OPPN NE Cp Cn

106 UR Cn

+

CHINA: eunuch Ts'ai Lun introduces to Court paper made of vegetable fibre (bark, rags, hemp)

 

+107

 

+

 

+108

 

+

 

+109

 

+

 

+110

* INDIA: gradual separation of Theravada & Mahayana Buddhists

110 UR CONJ NE Cn Cn

+

* S AMERICA: ESTABLISHMENT OF STATEHOOD IN TIAHUANACO, upland Peru (culture founded -300)

 

+111

111 UR CONJ NE Cn Cn

+

111 UR +tri PL Cn Pi

+112

112 UR +tri PL Le Ar

112 PL Ar

+

 

112 UR Le

+113

113 UR +tri PL Cn Pi

113 PL Ar

+

113 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

113 UR Le

+114

MIDEAST: Romans (Trajan) annex Parthian Armenia, reconquer Seleucia (Mesopotamia) (114-116)

114 NE +tri PL Le Ar

114 PL Ar

+

 

114 NE Le

+115

115 NE +tri PL Le Ar

115 NE Le

+

115 UR +sqt PL Le Ar

+116

ROME: economic difficulties from huge expense of military operations in MidEast & Europe

116 NE +tri PL Le Ar

+

116 UR +sqt PL Le Ar

+117

ROMAN EMPIRE AT ITS GREATEST EXTENT (to Rhine, Danube, Euphrates); Emp Hadrian (117-138)

117 NE +tri PL Le Ar

+

? ROME: Tacitus' "Historiae"

117 UR +sqt PL Le Ar

+118

 

118 UR Vi

+

 

+119

 

119 UR Vi

+

 

+120

INDIA: dynasty of Ujjain (120-395) in W India (Sanskrit learning & Buddhist philosophy)

 

+

 

+121

EUROPE: Hadrian orders building of fortifications along empire borders in Germany & Syria

 

+

ROME: Hadrian travels the empire 121-5, 126-9 ("the travelling emperor")

+122

BRITAIN: building of Hadrian's Wall (122-7) (outer defence of Roman Empire in N England)

 

+

MIDEAST: Jewish uprisings led by Bar Kokhba (122-133)

+123

123 Sa CONJ NE Le Le +

+124

 

124 UR Li

+

 

+125

* INDIA: zenith of Kushan empire (rajah Kanishka)

125 UR Li

+

 

+126

* ASIA: Ch'iang Tibetans harass western China (Kansu) until 141

126 NE +sqt PL Le Ar

+

CHINA: peasant revolts against landlords (economic injustices)

127 UR OPPN PL Li Ar

+127

127 Sa CONJ UR Li Li

127 NE Vi

+

127 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

+128

127 NE +sqt PL Le Ar

128 NE Vi

+

128 UR OPPN PL Li Ar

+129

MIDEAST: stirrings amongst Jews in Palestine

128 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

+

128 NE +sqt PL Le Ar

+130

128 UR +ssq NE Li Vi

+

129 UR OPPN PL Li Ar

+131

129 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar

131 UR Sc

+

129 UR +ssq NE Li Vi

+132

MIDEAST: Jewish Bar Kochba rebellion against Rome – leads to forced dispersion (diaspora) of Jews

130 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar

+

 

+133

SE ASIA: Java becomes a tributary to China

 

+

 

+134

 

+

 

+135

CHINA: rebellions against court eunuchs' murdering of scholars & other excesses

135 UR +sxt NE Sc Vi

+

 

+136

136 UR +sxt NE Sc Vi

+

 

+137

 

+

 

+138

ROME: Antoninus Pius emperor (138-61) (peaceable policies, uneventful reign, yet good times)

 

138 UR Sg

+

 

+139

* N AFRICA: Ptolemy (85-165) (cartographer, astronomer, geographer) at work at Alexandria

 

139 UR Sg

+

 

+140

 

+

 

+141

141 HALLEY'S COMET

+

141 UR -sqt PL Sg Ar

+142

BRITAIN: Brigantes revolt in Yorkshire; Antonine turf wall built in Scotland (Forth-Clyde, against Scots)

142 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li

142 NE Li

+

142 UR -sqt PL Sg Ar

+143

ROME: AGE OF THE ANTONINE EMPERORS (143-235) (centralised imp rule, end of local autonomy,

143 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li

143 PL Ta

+

meritocracy of local classes, large tax burdens, ovrstretched frontiers)

 

+144

144 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

144 PL Ta

+

 

+145

145 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

145 PL Ta

+

 

145 UR Cp

+146

146 UR -tri PL Cp Ta

146 UR Cp

+

 

+147

147 UR -tri PL Cp Ta

+

 

+148

 

+

 

+149

149 UR +SQR NE Cp Li

+

149 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

+150

* C AMERICA: building of Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan, Mexico

150 UR +SQR NE Cp Li

+

150 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

+151

151 UR +SQR NE Cp Li

+

151 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

+152

 

+

 

+153

 

153 UR Aq

+

 

+154

 

+

 

+155

 

155 NE Sc

+

 

+156

156 UR -SQR PL Aq Ta

156 NE Sc

+

 

+157

 

+

 

+158

 

+

 

+159

159 Sa CONJ NE Sc Sc

+

159 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

+160

CHINA: weakening of Later Han state through internal dissension, border wars & peasant distress

160 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

+

 

+161

ROME: Marcus Aurelius, Emperor (161-80) ('philosopher on Imperial throne'; peak of Stoicism)

 

161 UR Pi

+

 

+162

MIDEAST: war between Rome & Parthians, Roman reoccupation of Mesopotamia

 

+

 

+163

163 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta


Uranus conjunct Neptune 110-111
Roman empire at greatest extent; relative peace and prosperity in Eurasia; rise of Tiahuanacu, Mexico; Sanskrit kgdm of Ujjain, W India


Uranus opposition Pluto 127-129
Jewish revolt against Rome - defeat and diaspora of Jews; Tibetans harass China; peasant revolts in China; zenith of Kusham empire (N India & C Asia); Hadrian, the travelling emperor; Jewish Bar Kochba rebellion against Rome


Uranus square Neptune 149-151
Roman empire centralised (Antonine emperors); internal dissension in China, wars with Mongols & Tibetans; building of Pyramid of Sun at Tiahuanacu


Uranus square Pluto 156


Neptune opposition Pluto 163-67
Weakening of Later Han state, China; wars between Parthia & Rome in Iraq & Marcomanni wars against German tribes; smallpox plague in Roman empire - economic decline; 'Crisis in Ancient World' begins; dawn of Anasazi & Mogollon cultures, Arizona; Mochica metalworking period, Peru; rejection of Gnosticism in early Christian church

 

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The Historical Ephemeris © Copyright Palden Jenkins 1993-99


The Historical Ephemeris
by Palden Jenkins
Astro-historical tables for 2,500 years

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