Timelines: Empire Period - Early - Historical Ephemeris

The Historical Ephemeris

600 BCE - CE 2200

Astrological Cycles in History

Go to content

Timelines: Empire Period - Early

Timelines

PRINT PDF

Historical Ephemeris

Astro-historical timeline 3:
Early Empire Period
Waxing Neptune-Pluto hemicycle 84 BCE - 163 CE

Key:
* = a period of change or a general trend
? = an uncertain date


If the text disappears at the bottom of a section on these tables, try reducing the text size on your browser by doing a text-only zoom-out.
If this doesn't work, click at the top-right of the page for a PDF version.

-84 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta

84

* ROME: civil war in Rome

-84 UR -ssq PL Ar Ta

-84 UR Ar

-

MIDEAST: Romans beat Mithridates of Pontus, who had seized Asia province 88

-84 UR -ssq NE Pi Ta

83

MIDEAST: Romans invade Pontus & Cappadocia; Mithridates of Pontus fights back; treaty 81

-83 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta

-83 UR Ar

-

MIDEAST: collapse of Parthia as a viable strong nation

-83 UR -ssq PL Ar Ta

82

ROME: Sulla elected dictator for life, forces order on Rome and empire

-83 UR -ssq NE Ar Ta

-

 

81

ROME: Sulla's reforms, mainly legal (abandoning the Twelve Tables, laying new foundations)

 

-

 

80

* C AMERICA: Arawak peoples (from Venezuela) occupy Caribbean islands

-80 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

-

 

79

ROME: Sulla voluntarily steps down from dictatorship

-79 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

-

 

78

CHINA: first cataloguing of Imperial library by Lin Hsiang

-78 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

-78 NE Ge

-

 

77

 

-77 NE Ge

-

 

-77 UR Ta

76

 

-76 UR Ta

-

 

75

INDIA: Greek principalities in Punjab invaded by Sakas (Afghan), then Parthians

 

-

 

74

ROME: Rome annexes Cyrene (W Egypt) to suppress piracy in Med'n; war with Pontus (Black Sea)

 

-

MIDEAST: Mithridates of Pontus & Tigranes of Armenia seize Cappadocia & Syria from Rome

 

73

ROME: uprising of slaves led by Spartacus, suppressed by Pompey & Crassus

 

-

 

72

W EUROPE: Germanic Suevi invade Gaul

 

-

 

71

 

-71 PL Ge

-

 

70

ROME: CONSULATE OF POMPEY & CRASSUS (reforms and liberalisation)

-70 UR CONJ PL Ge Ge

-70 PL Ge

-

 

-70 UR Ge

69

MIDEAST: Romans defeat Tigranes I of Armenia (who becomes a vassal of Rome)

-69 UR CONJ PL Ge Ge

-69 UR Ge

-

 

-69 PL Ge

68

MED'N: Rome defeats Mediterranean pirates

-

 

67

MED'N: Rome annexes Crete to suppress piracy

-

 

66

 

-

 

65

MIDEAST: Romans under Pompey finally beat Mithridates (Pontus, who commits suicide in Crimea)

 

-

 

64

ROME: Pompey conquers Syria & Palestine, terminates Seleucid state, reorganises East empire

 

-64 NE Cn

-

 

63

ROME: Pompey conquers Jerusalem, annexes Palestine

-63 NE Cn

-

 

-63 UR Cn

62

ITALY: founding of Florence

-62 UR CONJ NE Cn Cn

-62 UR Cn

-

 

61

IBERIA: first victories of Julius Caesar in Spain

-61 UR CONJ NE Cn Cn

-

 

60

ROME: FIRST TRIUMVIRATE of Julius Caesar, Pompey & Crassus (start of carve-up of Empire)

 

-

 

59

ASIA: MAXIMUM EXTENT OF HAN EXPANSION, reaching Tarim Basin, overcoming SE & SW China

 

-

 

58

FRANCE: Julius Caesar conquers Gaul (58-49)

-

 

57

E ASIA: founding of state of Silla in Korea

-57 UR +ssq PL Le Ge

-57 UR Le

-

 

56

-56 Sa CONJ UR Le Le

-56 UR Le

-

-56 UR +ssq PL Cn Ge

55

BRITAIN: Caesar attacks Britain, extracts tribute, then retires (opening Britain to trade)

 

-

 

54

ROME: breakup of the Triumvirate (54-51) (Crassus dies on defeat by Parthians)

 

-

 

53

MIDEAST: Parthians in Armenia halt Romans, stalling Romans to +114 (only state doing so)

 

-

 

52

ROME: anarchy in Rome, rivalry between supporters of Pompey & Caesar

 

-51 NE Le

-

FRANCE: Gaul revolts under Vercingetorix; Caesar surrounded; eventual suppression by 51

 

51

 

-51 UR Vi

-

 

50

INDIA: 5 tribes of Yueh-Chi invade and unite to form KUSHANA EMPIRE in N India

 

-50 NE Le

-

 

-50 UR Vi

49

ROME: civil war, Pompey (power from East) against Julius Caesar (power from West)

 

-

 

48

 

-

 

47

 

-

 

46

 

-

 

45

ROME: Julius Caesar becomes sole dictator (for life)

-45 PL Cn

-

 

44

ROME: Rome controls the whole Mediterranean world; only Parthia remains a threat

-44 UR +SQR PL Li Cn

-44 PL Cn

-

ROME: Caesar murdered (for lack of trustworthy subordinates)

-44 UR Li

43

ROME: reign of terror under Second Triumvirate (Antony, Lepidus, Octavian)

-43 UR +SQR PL Li Cn

-43 UR Li

-

* E ASIA; small kingdoms form in non-Chinese parts of Korea (Koguryo, Han)

-43 UR +ssq NE Li Le

42

-42 NE +ssq PL Le Cn

-

-42 UR +ssq NE Vi Le

41

* ROME: cultural ascendancy: Cicero (orator), Horace (poet), Virgil (poet)

-42 NE +ssq PL Le Cn

-

 

40

ROME: partition of Empire between Triumvirate (Octavian West, Antony East, Lepidus Africa)

-40 NE +ssq PL Le Cn

-

 

39

MIDEAST: Rome appoints Herod the Great as King of Jews (39BCE-+4CE)

-39 NE +ssq PL Le Cn

-

 

38

-38 UR +sxt NE Li Le

-38 UR Sc

-

 

37

MIDEAST: Herod takes control of Jerusalem

-37 UR +sxt NE Li Le

-37 UR Sc

-

 

36

N AFRICA: marriage of Antony & Cleopatra, merging Antony's E Roman & Egyptian powers

 

-36 NE Vi

-

 

35

ROME: disastrous expedition to Azerbaijan by Romans (Mark Anthony) against Parthians

 

-35 NE Vi

-

 

34

ASIA: destruction of Hsiung-Nu empires in Turkestan & Dzungaria by the Chinese

-34 UR +tri PL Sc Cn

-

 

33

E EUROPE: Dalmatia becomes Roman province

-33 UR +tri PL Sc Cn

-

 

-33

MIDEAST: 30,000 people killed in a major earthquake

-32 UR +tri PL Sc Cn

-

-32 Sa OPPN UR Ta Sc

-31

ROME: Battle of Actium: Octavian establishes dominance over Rome

-31 Sa OPPN UR Ta Sc

-31 UR Sg

-

C AMERICA: earliest known inscription of the Olmec Long Count calendar comes from this date.

 

-30

N AFRICA: death of Anthony & Cleopatra (last of Ptolemies): Egypt becomes Roman province

 

-30 UR Sg

-

 

-29

ROME: Octavian closes Temple of Janus (symbolising end of wars of magnates since Sulla)

 

-

 

-28

CHINA: first observation of sunspots, star maps & sundials, by Chinese astronomers

-28 UR +sqt PL Sg Cn

-

 

-27

ROME: OCTAVIAN BECOMES AUGUSTUS, (first emperor, bringing Roman order and gov't until +235)

-27 UR +sqt PL Sg Cn

-

 

-26

-26 UR +sqt PL Sg Le

-26 PL Le

-

 

-25

EUROPE: reorganisation of Gaul & Spain by Romans

-25 PL Le

-

 

-24

-24 UR +SQR NE Sg Vi

-24 NE Li

-

 

-23

ROME: major Augustinian construction program in Empire, directed by engineer Agrippa (-63-+12)

-23 UR +SQR NE Cp Li

-23 NE Li

-

 

-23 UR Cp

-22

-22 UR +SQR NE Cp Li

-22 NE Li

-

 

-21

 

-

 

-20

MIDEAST: Rome renounces further expansion in East in treaty with Parthians

 

-

 

-19

 

-

 

-18

 

-

 

-17

ROME: secular celebration of City of Rome and proclamation of world peace (Pax Augusta)

 

-

 

-16

GERMANY: massing of Roman forces in Germany after defeat by Germans

 

-

 

-15

 

-15 UR Aq

-

 

-14

 

-

 

-13

 

-

 

-12

-12 HALLEY'S COMET

-12 PL Vi

-

 

-11

 

-11 PL Vi

-

 

-10

 

-10 NE Sc

-

 

-9

EUROPE: Romans under Tiberius conquer much of Germany

-9 NE Sc

-

ROME: dedication of Altar of Peace, to celebrate PAX AUGUSTA ('business as usual')

 

-8

-8UR +tri NE Pi Sc

-8 UR Pi

-

-8 Sa CONJ UR Aq Aq

-7

-7 UR +tri NE Pi Sc

-7 UR Pi

-

 

-6

MIDEAST: Rome annexes Judaea

-6 UR +tri NE Pi Sc

-

* C AMERICA: colonisation of south Caribbean islands by farming peoples from mainland

-6 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

-5

? MIDEAST : likely year of BIRTH OF JESUS OF NAZARETH in Palestine (disputed)

-5 UR +tri NE Pi Sc

-

-5 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

-4

ROME: Augustus adopts Tiberius as successor

-4 UR +tri NE Pi Sc

-

-4 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

-3

* N AMERICA: rise of complex gatherer-hunter societies on Oregon and BC coasts

-3 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

-

 

-2

* EURASIA: direct maritime trading between Rome and India starts

-2 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

-

* INDIAN OCEAN: Madagascar settled by Micronesian seafarers from Indonesia

-1

-1 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

-

 


Neptune conjunct Pluto 84-83 BCE
Battle for the future of Rome (civil war); zenith in Armenia; collapse of Parthia; reform in imperial China; expansion of the Germans (Suevi and others); Hopewell culture, Ohio; stability and trade across Asia


Uranus conjuct Pluto 70-69 BCE
Reforms & liberalisation in Rome (Pompey & Crassus); Suevi Germans invade Gaul; Rome spreads into Middle East; Arawak people of Venezuela occupy Caribbean islands


Uranus conjunct Neptune 62-61 BCE
Founding of Florence; founding of state of Silla, Korea; rise of Julius Caesar; Romans conquer Syria & Palestine; Parthians block Romans in Armenia


Uranus square Pluto 44-43 BCE
Julius Caeser dictator of Rome; cultural upswing in Rome, now controlling Mediterranean world; growth of Korean kingdoms


Uranus opposition Pluto 6 BCE - CE 1
Pax Augusta - stability across Roman empire; Rome trades with India; birth of Jesus (5-6 BCE) - dawn of Christian era; end of Early Han dynasty in China, rise of reformer Wang Mang

 

+ 1

CHINA: Wang Mang serves as regent to child-emperors (1-8 CE)

+1 UR OPPN PL Pi Vi

+1 PL Li

+

* ROME: growth of Mithraism throughout Roman empire

+1 UR +sqt NE Ar Sc

+ 2

CHINA: first Buddhist missionaries in China, from Central Asia

+2 UR +sqt NE Ar Sc

+2 PL Li

+

 

+ 3

* MIDEAST: early boyhood travels of Jesus of Nazareth

+3 UR +sqt NE Ar Sc

+3 PL Li

+

 

+ 4

EUROPE: Romans secure frontier at Danube, build roads & towns under Tiberius

+4 UR +sqt NE Ar Sc

+

GERMANY: Tiberius subdues Langobards (who later become competitors for power in Italy)

 

+ 5

BRITAIN: Cymbeline recognised as tributary and 'Rex Brittonum'

+5 UR +sqt NE Ar Sc

+5 NE Sg

+

 

+ 6

MIDEAST: Judaea becomes a Roman province

+6 NE Sg

+

CHINA: all candidates for state office required to take civil service examinations

 

+ 7

 

+

 

+ 8

 

8 UR Ta

+

 

+ 9

CHINA: Imperial regent Wang Mang's reforming Hsin Dynasty CE 9-23 (unsuccessful)

 

9 UR Ta

+

EUROPE: Germans beat Romans back to Rhine frontier; Romans fight back +15

 

+ 10

10 Sa CONJ PL Li Li

+

 

+ 11

11 Sa CONJ PL Li Li

+

 

+ 12

CHINA: Wang Mang nationalises all land; change of status for slaves; tax reform

 

+

 

+ 13

13 Sa OPPN UR Sc Ta

13 PL Sc

+

 

+ 14

ROME: Augustus Caesar dies (age 76), succeeded by Tiberius (Emperor 14-37)

14 Sa OPPN UR Sc Ta

14 PL Sc

+

 

+ 15

EUROPE: Roman campaigns against German tribes

15 UR Ge

+

CHINA: establishment of price controls & mercantile regulations (leads to merchants' revolt 66)

 

+ 16

16 Sa CONJ NE Sg Sg

16 UR Ge

+

 

+ 17

 

+

 

+ 18

18 NE +ssq PL Sg Sc

+

 

+ 19

MIDEAST: Syria devastated by a major earthquake, 120,000 killed

19 NE +ssq PL Sg Sc

19 NE Cp

+

 

+ 20

* S AMERICA: est of city of Moche, capital of MOCHE CULTURE (-200 to +700, coastal Peru)

20 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

20 NE Cp

+

21 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

+ 21

22 UR OPPN NE Cn Cp

+

22 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

+ 22

* INDIA: rivalry for trade with Rome between S Indian states Pandhya, Chola & Kerala

22 UR -sqt PL Cn Sc

22 UR Cn

+

23 UR OPPN NE Cn Cp

+ 23

CHINA: Restoration: LATER HAN DYNASTY (25-220), capital Loyang; Kuang Wu Ti, Han Emp (25-57)

23 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

+

23 UR -sqt PL Cn Sc

+ 24

24 UR OPPN NE Cn Cp

+

24 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

+ 25

C ASIA: expansion of united Kushana tribes in Bactria & N Afghanistan (prelude to India invasion)

24 UR -sqt PL Cn Sc

+

25 UR OPPN NE Cn Cp

+ 26

ROME: Tiberius retires, leaving rome in hands of Praetorian prefect Sejanus

25 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

26 PL Sg

+

25 UR -sqt PL Cn Sc

+ 27

MIDEAST: baptism of Jesus of Nazareth by John the Baptist

26 UR -sqt PL Cn Sc

27 PL Sg

+

26 UR OPPN NE Cn Cp

+ 28

MIDEAST: TEACHING MINISTRY OF JESUS OF NAZARETH in Palestine

26 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

28 UR Le

+

27 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+ 29

28 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

29 UR Le

+

29 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+ 30

? MIDEAST: crucifixion of Jesus by Romans, outside Jerusalem

29 UR -tri PL Le Sg

+

29 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg

+ 31

30 UR -tri PL Le Sg

+

30 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg

+ 32

30 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+

31 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+ 33

MIDEAST: dispersal of earliest Christians around W Asia and Mediterranean

31 UR -tri PL Le Sg

33 NE Aq

+

32 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+ 34

33 Sa OPPN NE Cn Cp

34 NE Aq

+

33 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

34 UR Vi

+ 35

34 Sa OPPN NE Le Aq

35 UR Vi

+

34 NE +ssq PL Aq Sg

+ 36

35 NE +ssq PL Aq Sg

+

36 Sa CONJ UR Vi Vi

+ 37

ROME: Caligula succeeds Tiberius, establishes ambitious monarchy in Rome; murdered 41

 

+

? BRITAIN: legendary arrival of Joseph of Arimathaea at Glastonbury (Ancient British Church)

 

+ 38

 

+

 

+ 39

 

+

 

+ 40

GREECE: early Christian church established at Corinth

40 UR -SQR PL Vi Sg

+

 

+ 41

ROME: Claudius (42-54) re-establishes Augustan order in Rome

41 UR -SQR PL Vi Sg

41 UR Li

+

41 UR -sqt NE Li Aq

+ 42

42 UR -SQR PL Li Cp

42 PL Cp

+

42 UR -sqt NE Li Aq

+ 43

BRITAIN: Roman invasion under Plautius & Claudius; British Caradoc (Caractacus) beaten at Medway

43 UR -sqt NE Li Aq

+

BRITAIN: London founded as a Roman trading city

 

+ 44

N AFRICA: Morrocco annexed by Rome

44 UR -sqt NE Li Aq

+

CHINA: Tonkin & Annam (N Vietnam) annexed by Han Ma Yuan (Annamese adopt Confucian customs)

 

+ 45

MIDEAST: Paul of Tarsus sets out on missionary travels with Barnabas (Anatolia, Greece, Rome, to +62)

 

+

 

+ 46

 

+

 

+ 47

47 UR -tri NE Li Aq

47 NE Pi

+

47 Sa CONJ PL Cp Cp

47 UR Sc

+ 48

MIDEAST: Council of the Apostles at Jerusalem, starts missionary activity

48 UR -tri NE Sc Pi

48 NE Pi

+

BRITAIN: Thames valley flooded by storms, 10,000 die

48 UR Sc

+ 49

49 UR -tri NE Sc Pi

+

 

+ 50

RUSSIA: Goths set up a kingdom in Vistula valley

50 UR -tri NE Sc Pi

+

* AFRICA: expansion of Axum (Ethiopia) begins

 

+ 51

MIDEAST: St Paul's journeyings and writing of Paul's Epistles (51-55)

51 UR -sxt PL Sc Cp

+

PERSIA: revival of the Parthian nation (51-77) under Vologesus I

+

BRITAIN: British leader Caradoc captured; Roman conquest complete to Lincoln, Chester, Caerleon

 

+ 52

SE ASIA: founding of Funan state (Cambodia)

52 UR -sxt PL Sc Cp

+ 53

53 Sa CONJ NE Pi Pi

+

 

+ 54

ROME: Nero becomes emperor, to CE 68; good times in Rome during 50s

 

54 UR Sg

+

 

+ 55

* CHINA: widening of horizons under Ming Ti (extension of Chinese links and trade throughout Asia)

 

55 UR Sg

+

 

+ 56

56 UR -ssq PL Sg Cp

+

 

+ 57

57 UR -ssq PL Sg Cp

+

 

+ 58

CHINA: Emperor Ming Ti allows Buddhism into China; Chinese maritime trading throughout Asia

58 NE +sxt PL Pi Cp

+

 

+ 59

CHINA: Kung Fu-tse deified (Confucianism made a popular state religion, to counteract Buddhism)

59 NE +sxt PL Pi Cp

+

59 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg

+ 60

ROME: journey of Peter & Paul to Rome (invited by British residents)

60 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

60 PL Aq

+

BRITAIN: British revolt against the Roman occupation, led by Boudicca of the Iceni

60 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg

60 NE Ar

+ 61

BRITAIN: uprisings in Britain suppressed by Romans under Suetonius Paullinus

61 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

61 PL Aq

+

61 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg

61 NE Ar

+ 62

* C ASIA: growth of KUSHANA EMPIRE under Kushans &Tocharians (Yueh-chi Asian nomads)

62 UR -SQR NE Cp Ar

62 UR Cp

+

ROME: the burning of ROME: Nero's reign becomes corrupt & arbitrary ("Caesar madness")

 

+ 63

63 UR -SQR NE Cp Ar

+

63 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq

+ 64

ROME: first persecution of Christians, beheading of St Paul (67); Christianity spreads wide & fast

64 UR -SQR NE Cp Ar

+

INDIA: KUSHAN (Yueh-chi) INVASION OF NW INDIA (50-75) from Bactria under Vima Kadphises

 

+ 65

65 UR -SQR NE Cp Ar

+

 

+ 66

MIDEAST: Jewish uprising against Rome in Palestine; St Peter executed in Rome 67

66 HALLEY'S COMET

+

 

+ 67

 

+

 

+ 68

ROME: Flavius Josephus' 'History of the Jewish War' (major source on Jesus)

 

+

ROME: Nero commits suicide; chaos in Rome, four emperors in one year

+

MIDEAST: destruction of Qumran, centre of Essenes for 300 years (site of Dead Sea Scrolls)

 

+ 69

ROME: chaos in Rome and civil war in empire (Rhineland & Palestine); new emperor Vespasian (69-79)

69 Sa OPPN NE Li Ar

69 UR Aq

+

 

+ 70

ROME: Vespasian strengthens control in Rome

70 Sa OPPN NE Li Ar

70 UR Aq

+

MIDEAST: Romans destroy Jewish Temple in Jerusalem and much of city, to suppress revolts

 

+

* MIDEAST: New Testament gospels written: 70-88 Mark; 85-95 Matthew & Luke; 90> John

 

+ 71

INDIA: Scythian (Saka) occupation of NW Indian coast (Rajasthan area)

 

+

 

+ 72

 

+

 

+ 73

MIDEAST: last stand of Jewish Zealots against Rome at Masada, Judaea

 

+

 

+ 74

ROME: Vespasian forces imp economies; Latin law in Spain; Colosseum erected

74 UR CONJ PL Aq Aq

74 NE Ta

+

C ASIA: stirrings amongst Asian nomads against Chinese incursions into their space

 

+ 75

CHINA: Pan Ch'ao, Han Emperor (74-94) (gains Turkestan & Silk Roads, stirring Asian nomads)

 

75 NE Ta

+

 

+ 76

 

+

 

+ 77

BRITAIN: Roman conquest extended: Brigantes (Yorkshire) & Silures (Wales) subdued

 

77 UR Pi

+

 

+ 78

INDIA: Kanishka, Kushan Emperor (78-102) (capital Peshawar, rich Buddhist culture)

 

+

 

+ 79

BRITAIN: Roman subjugation of Wales completed (started 48)

+

ITALY: eruption of Mt Vesuvius buries the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum

+ 80

80 UR -sxt NE Pi Ta

+

 

+ 81

ROME: Emperor Domitian (81-96) (initially liberal & benevolent, later autocratic)

81 UR -sxt NE Pi Ta

+

81 Sa CONJ PL Aq Aq

+ 82

CHINA: Han Empress Tou alters succession, rules as dowager (88-97) (line of Empresses 88-159)

82 UR -sxt NE Pi Ta

+

 

+ 83

83 Sa CONJ UR Pi Pi

+

 

+ 84

BRITAIN: Roman conquest of Britain extended into Scotland (defeat of Caledonians)

 

84 PL Pi

+

C ASIA: Kushan (Yueh-chih) & Chinese alliance subjugates Kashgar (opening Silk Roads)

 

84 UR Ar

+ 85

E ASIA: Hsiung-Nu inter-tribal strife, stirred up by Chinese threat

85 PL Pi

+

 

85 UR Ar

+ 86

 

+

 

+ 87

E ASIA: Mongol Sien Pi tribes beat the northern Hsiung-Nu, occupying their lands

 

87 NE Ge

+

 

+ 88

88 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

88 NE Ge

+

88 Sa CONJ NE Ge Ge

+ 89

E ASIA: Chinese under Gen Tu Hsien beat northern Hsiung-Nu (many migrate west to Europe)

89 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

+

89 UR -ssq NE Ar Ge

+ 90

C ASIA: war between China & Kushans in Pamir Mts (over C Asian control – China prevails)

89 UR +ssq PL Ar Pi

+

* W EUROPE: rapid progression of Romanisation in Germany, Gaul & Britain

90 UR +ssq PL Ar Pi

+ 91

ASIA: Chinese defeat Hsiung-Nu (Huns) (stirring up nomads into future movement)

90 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

+

ROME: rule of Domitian lapses into despotism

90 UR -ssq NE Ar Ge

+ 92

91 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

92 UR Ta

+

92 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

+ 93

* S AMERICA: dawn of TAIRONA (Kogi) CULTURE (northern Colombia, zenith 1000CE)

 

93 UR Ta

+

 

+ 94

CHINA: LATER HAN EXPANSION OF BORDERS AND INFLUENCE – prosperity & culture (94-160)

 

+

 

+ 95

* EURASIA: Kushan, Chinese & Roman empires cover Eurasia (Silk Road trade, China-Rome)

95 UR +sxt PL Ta Pi

+

95 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

+ 96

ROME: dynastic inheritance changed to adoptive emperorship, to 176; Domitian unthroned

96 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

+

MIDEAST: Chinese forces under Kan Ying reach Persian Gulf (soon turning back)

 

+ 97

* ROME: historian Tacitus (?55-117) at work: "Histories", "Annals", "Germania"

 

+

* INDIA: peak of growth of classical Sanskrit (in translated Buddhist texts of Kushan India)

 

+ 98

ROME: TRAJAN emperor (98-117) (first of provincial (Spain) origin; strengthens imp control)

 

+

BRITAIN: foundation of Gloucester as city

 

+ 99

 

99 UR Ge

+

 


Uranus opposition Pluto 6 BCE - CE 1
Pax Augusta - stability across Roman empire; Rome trades with India; birth of Jesus (5-6 BCE) - dawn of Christian era; end of Early Han dynasty in China, rise of reformer Wang Mang


Uranus opposition Neptune 22-26 CE
Later Han restoration in China; teaching ministries of John the Baptist & Jesus; growth of Kushans; zenith of Mochica culture, Peru


Uranus square Pluto 40-42 CE
Roman invasion of Britain & Morocco; St Paul & missionaries - founding of early Christian churches; Cluadius, Roman emperor; Sinification of Annam (Vietnam); Goths invade Ukraine; growth of Axum (Ethiopia)


Uranus square Neptune 62-65 CE
British & Jewish revolts against Rome; suppression & growth of Christianity; Rome burns - Nero; growth of Kushan empire, C Asia; Buddhism enters China from Afghanistan; rise of Funan (Cambodia)


Uranus conjunct Pluto 74 CE
Chinese expansion into C Asia/Turkestan - nomads stirred; destruction of Jerusalem by Romans, last stand of Jewish zealots at Masada; completion of Roman invasion of Britain; Kanishka, Kushan emperor in Peshawar, India; Vespasian exerts control in Rome


Neptune square Pluto 88-92 CE
Stirring of Hsiung-Nu (Huns) in Asia by wars between Mongols & with Chinese; cultural zenith & expansion of Later Han (to 160); Silk Roads open - Eurasian trade; stability across Eurasia in China, Kushan and Rome (peak of age of empires); Tairona culture, Colombia

+100

* AFRICA: Camel introduced into Saharan Africa

100 UR Ge

+

* C AMERICA: ZENITH OF TEOTIHUACAN (100-300)

100 NE Cn

+101

C EUROPE: Rome wars with Dacia (Hungary) (inconclusive & dangerous for future)

 

101 NE Cn

+

 

+102

 

+

 

+103

103 UR +SQR PL Ge Pi

+

 

+104

104 UR +SQR PL Ge Pi

+

104 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

+105

* ROME: Apuleius' "Metamorphoses" & "The Golden Ass"

105 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

105 UR Cn

+

CHINA: Han Empress Teng (105-121) (rise in power of eunuch courtiers)

+106

MIDEAST: Romans invade Arabia

106 Sa OPPN NE Cp Cn

106 UR Cn

+

CHINA: eunuch Ts'ai Lun introduces to Court paper made of vegetable fibre (bark, rags, hemp)

 

+107

 

+

 

+108

 

+

 

+109

 

+

 

+110

* INDIA: gradual separation of Theravada & Mahayana Buddhists

110 UR CONJ NE Cn Cn

+

* S AMERICA: ESTABLISHMENT OF STATEHOOD IN TIAHUANACO, upland Peru (culture founded -300)

 

+111

111 UR CONJ NE Cn Cn

+

111 UR +tri PL Cn Pi

+112

112 UR +tri PL Le Ar

112 PL Ar

+

 

112 UR Le

+113

113 UR +tri PL Cn Pi

113 PL Ar

+

113 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

113 UR Le

+114

MIDEAST: Romans (Trajan) annex Parthian Armenia, reconquer Seleucia (Mesopotamia) (114-116)

114 NE +tri PL Le Ar

114 PL Ar

+

 

114 NE Le

+115

115 NE +tri PL Le Ar

115 NE Le

+

115 UR +sqt PL Le Ar

+116

ROME: economic difficulties from huge expense of military operations in MidEast & Europe

116 NE +tri PL Le Ar

+

116 UR +sqt PL Le Ar

+117

ROMAN EMPIRE AT ITS GREATEST EXTENT (to Rhine, Danube, Euphrates); Emp Hadrian (117-138)

117 NE +tri PL Le Ar

+

? ROME: Tacitus' "Historiae"

117 UR +sqt PL Le Ar

+118

 

118 UR Vi

+

 

+119

 

119 UR Vi

+

 

+120

INDIA: dynasty of Ujjain (120-395) in W India (Sanskrit learning & Buddhist philosophy)

 

+

 

+121

EUROPE: Hadrian orders building of fortifications along empire borders in Germany & Syria

 

+

ROME: Hadrian travels the empire 121-5, 126-9 ("the travelling emperor")

+122

BRITAIN: building of Hadrian's Wall (122-7) (outer defence of Roman Empire in N England)

 

+

MIDEAST: Jewish uprisings led by Bar Kokhba (122-133)

+123

123 Sa CONJ NE Le Le +

+124

 

124 UR Li

+

 

+125

* INDIA: zenith of Kushan empire (rajah Kanishka)

125 UR Li

+

 

+126

* ASIA: Ch'iang Tibetans harass western China (Kansu) until 141

126 NE +sqt PL Le Ar

+

CHINA: peasant revolts against landlords (economic injustices)

127 UR OPPN PL Li Ar

+127

127 Sa CONJ UR Li Li

127 NE Vi

+

127 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

+128

127 NE +sqt PL Le Ar

128 NE Vi

+

128 UR OPPN PL Li Ar

+129

MIDEAST: stirrings amongst Jews in Palestine

128 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

+

128 NE +sqt PL Le Ar

+130

128 UR +ssq NE Li Vi

+

129 UR OPPN PL Li Ar

+131

129 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar

131 UR Sc

+

129 UR +ssq NE Li Vi

+132

MIDEAST: Jewish Bar Kochba rebellion against Rome – leads to forced dispersion (diaspora) of Jews

130 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar

+

 

+133

SE ASIA: Java becomes a tributary to China

 

+

 

+134

 

+

 

+135

CHINA: rebellions against court eunuchs' murdering of scholars & other excesses

135 UR +sxt NE Sc Vi

+

 

+136

136 UR +sxt NE Sc Vi

+

 

+137

 

+

 

+138

ROME: Antoninus Pius emperor (138-61) (peaceable policies, uneventful reign, yet good times)

 

138 UR Sg

+

 

+139

* N AFRICA: Ptolemy (85-165) (cartographer, astronomer, geographer) at work at Alexandria

 

139 UR Sg

+

 

+140

 

+

 

+141

141 HALLEY'S COMET

+

141 UR -sqt PL Sg Ar

+142

BRITAIN: Brigantes revolt in Yorkshire; Antonine turf wall built in Scotland (Forth-Clyde, against Scots)

142 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li

142 NE Li

+

142 UR -sqt PL Sg Ar

+143

ROME: AGE OF THE ANTONINE EMPERORS (143-235) (centralised imp rule, end of local autonomy,

143 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li

143 PL Ta

+

meritocracy of local classes, large tax burdens, ovrstretched frontiers)

 

+144

144 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

144 PL Ta

+

 

+145

145 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

145 PL Ta

+

 

145 UR Cp

+146

146 UR -tri PL Cp Ta

146 UR Cp

+

 

+147

147 UR -tri PL Cp Ta

+

 

+148

 

+

 

+149

149 UR +SQR NE Cp Li

+

149 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

+150

* C AMERICA: building of Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan, Mexico

150 UR +SQR NE Cp Li

+

150 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

+151

151 UR +SQR NE Cp Li

+

151 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

+152

 

+

 

+153

 

153 UR Aq

+

 

+154

 

+

 

+155

 

155 NE Sc

+

 

+156

156 UR -SQR PL Aq Ta

156 NE Sc

+

 

+157

 

+

 

+158

 

+

 

+159

159 Sa CONJ NE Sc Sc

+

159 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

+160

CHINA: weakening of Later Han state through internal dissension, border wars & peasant distress

160 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

+

 

+161

ROME: Marcus Aurelius, Emperor (161-80) ('philosopher on Imperial throne'; peak of Stoicism)

 

161 UR Pi

+

 

+162

MIDEAST: war between Rome & Parthians, Roman reoccupation of Mesopotamia

 

+

 

+163

163 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta


Uranus conjunct Neptune 110-111
Roman empire at greatest extent; relative peace and prosperity in Eurasia; rise of Tiahuanacu, Mexico; Sanskrit kgdm of Ujjain, W India


Uranus opposition Pluto 127-129
Jewish revolt against Rome - defeat and diaspora of Jews; Tibetans harass China; peasant revolts in China; zenith of Kusham empire (N India & C Asia); Hadrian, the travelling emperor; Jewish Bar Kochba rebellion against Rome


Uranus square Neptune 149-151
Roman empire centralised (Antonine emperors); internal dissension in China, wars with Mongols & Tibetans; building of Pyramid of Sun at Tiahuanacu


Uranus square Pluto 156


Neptune opposition Pluto 163-67
Weakening of Later Han state, China; wars between Parthia & Rome in Iraq & Marcomanni wars against German tribes; smallpox plague in Roman empire - economic decline; 'Crisis in Ancient World' begins; dawn of Anasazi & Mogollon cultures, Arizona; Mochica metalworking period, Peru; rejection of Gnosticism in early Christian church

 

NEXT: Classical Empire Period
BACK: Later Ancient Period

The Historical Ephemeris © Copyright Palden Jenkins 1993-99


The Historical Ephemeris
by Palden Jenkins
Astro-historical tables for 2,500 years
Privacy: I'm not interested in your private data. This site collects stats to observe general traffic only. I'm not into capturing data, giving your data to others or making mailing lists. Any problems, please contact me. And: by necessity (big data tables) this site is not mobile phone friendly! Sorry. Enjoy your visit! Palden.
The Historical Ephemeris
This site is not mobile-friendly because many pages do not format correctly on small screens
Back to content