Timelines: Light/Dark Ages - Earlier - Historical Ephemeris

The Historical Ephemeris

600 BCE - CE 2200

Astrological Cycles in History

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Timelines: Light/Dark Ages - Earlier

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Astro-historical timeline 5:
Age of Light and Dark - Earlier
Waxing Neptune-Pluto hemicycle  411-657 CE

Key:
* = a period of change or a general trend
? = an uncertain date


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+411

ROME: Augustine's book "City of God" (written on fall of Rome)

411 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta

+

IBERIA: Sueves found a kgdm in Galicia (411-585)

411 Sa CONJ NE Ta Ta

+

ITALY: Alaric dies en route to Tunisia, to find Visigoth home; Ataulf leads Visigoths to Spain

+

412 NW EUROPE: withdrawal of many troops and weakening of Roman administration in Britain & Gaul

411 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

412 UR Pi

+

* C AMERICA: building begins of TEOTIHUACAN CIVILISATION (Mexico, 400-600)

412 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta

+413

JAPAN: Japan opens direct relations with China (adopting Chinese calligraphy & cultural ways)

+

+414

414 NE Ge

+

+415

415 NE Ge

+

+416

IBERIA: Visigoths conquer Vandal kingdom in Spain

+

+417

+

+418

* FRANCE: Franks & Visigoths move into parts of France

418 PL Ge

+

+419

FRANCE: Visigoths found Kingdom of Toulouse under Theodoric I (419-51) (by treaty with Romans)

419 UR Ar

+

419 PL Ge

+420

CHINA: Liu Sung Dynasty (420-79) succeeds Eastern Chin at Nanking

420 UR -sxt PL Pi Ta

420 PL Ge

+

CHINA: Wei dynasty of Toba kingdom predominates

420 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

420 UR Ar

+421

421 UR -sxt PL Ar Ge

+

421 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

+422

422 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

+

+423

+

+424

PERSIA: Council of Dad-Ishu: Eastern Church declares independence of Rome & Byzantium

+

+425

425 UR -sxt NE Ar Ge

+

425 UR -ssq PL Ar Ge

+426

426 UR -sxt NE Ar Ge

+

426 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge

+427

MED'N: Imperial protection of Jews ends; pogroms follow, many Jews retreat to Persia

426 UR -ssq PL Ar Ge

427 UR Ta

+

427 UR -sxt NE Ar Ge

+428

IBERIA: Gaiseric, king of the African Vandals (428-477)

427 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge

428 UR Ta

+

C ASIA: Hsiung Nu (Ephthalites) invade Transoxiana & Khorasan (threatening Persia) (428-50)

428 NE Cn

+429

BRITAIN: Picts & Scots ejected from England by Saxons, Jutes & Angles, invited by Vortigern

429 Sa OPPN NE Cp Cn

429 NE Cn

+

N AFRICA: Vandals invade Tunisia: wealthy Vandal kingdom lasts 429-533; Gaiseric takes Carthage 439

+430

INDIA: foundation of Nalanda, principal Buddhist seminary (university) (430-988)

430 UR -ssx PL Ta Ge

+

ROME: Aetius, minister to Velentinian III (virtual ruler of Western Empire) (429-454)

+431

MIDEAST: 2nd Council of Ephesus rejects teachings of Nestorius (on human nature of Christ)

+

+432

BRITAIN: St Patrick begins his mission to Ireland (converting many chiefs, building churches)

+

+433

C EUROPE: Attila (the Hun) becomes chief of the Hsiung-Nu (Huns, 433-53)

433 UR -ssq NE Ta Cn

+

+434

434 UR -ssq NE Ta Cn

434 UR Ge

+

+435

435 UR Ge

+

+436

FRANCE: Hsiung Nu destroy Worms & kingdom of Burgundians; Burgundians settle in Savoie 443

436 NE +ssx PL Cn Ge

+

+437

437 NE +ssx PL Cn Ge

+

+438

438 NE +ssx PL Cn Ge

+

+439

* JAPAN: clans & chiefs lose power to centralising Emperor (influx of Chinese ideas & Koreans)

439 UR CONJ PL Ge Ge

+

N AFRICA: Gaiseric the Vandal takes Carthage from the Romans (making it his capital)

+440

BRITAIN: Angles and Saxons occupy coasts of East & SE England; last Romans leave England 436

440 UR CONJ PL Ge Ge

+

ROME: Pope Leo I (440-461) (first authentic Pope, establishes Roman primacy & prestige)

440 UR -ssx NE Ge Cn

+441

E EUROPE: Attila the Hun becomes sole ruler of Hsiung-Nu (441-53), advancing on E Roman empire

441 UR -ssx NE Ge Cn

441 UR Cn

+

EUROPE: final withdrawal of Roman legions & admin from Britain & Gaul

441 NE Le

+442

N AFRICA: Vandal king Gaiseric recognised as legit independent ruler of Carthage by Imp gov't

442 NE Le

+

N AFRICA: Berber revolts against Arian Vandals, suppressed

+443

FRANCE: Germanic Alemanni settle in Alsace

443 Sa CONJ PL Ge Ge

+

+444

EUROPE: epidemic of bubonic plague

444 Sa CONJ UR Cn Cn

+

+445

445 PL Cn

+

+446

CHINA: brief persecution of Buddhists by Northern Wei (Taoist-Confucian resistance)

446 Sa CONJ NE Le Le

446 PL Cn

+

+447

GREECE: Attila the Hun & Hsiung-Nu stopped at Thermopylae

447 UR Le

+

+448

BRITAIN: isolation from Med'n brings reversion of Irish Church to Celtic/Druidic ways

448 UR +ssx PL Le Cn

+

+449

+

+450

* AMERICAS: Moshica culture of Chimic indians in Peru; Mississippi valley culture

+

* W EUROPE: migration of Britons to Brittany, to escape Saxon invasions in Britain

+451

MIDEAST: Council of Chalcedon imposes relig orthodoxy (alienating Nestorians & Monophysites)

451 HALLEY'S COMET

+

EUROPE: Huns (Hsiung Nu) stopped in Greece 447 (Thermopylae), by Franks in France at Chalons

+452

EUROPE: Hsiung-Nu (Attila) attack N Italy

452 UR CONJ NE Le Le

+

ITALY: Venice founded by refugees from Attila the Hun's campaigns

452 NE +ssq PL Le Cn

+453

E EUROPE: on death of Attila, Hsiung-Nu retreat to Russian plains, disturbing Ostrogoths

452 UR +ssq PL Le Cn

453 UR Vi

+

* INNOVN: invention of the foot stirrup in China or Korea

453 UR CONJ NE Le Le

+454

C EUROPE: revolt against Hsiung Nu (Huns) by Hungarian subjects

453 UR +ssq PL Le Cn

454 UR Vi

+

453 NE +ssq PL Le Cn

+455

INDIA: Skandagupta, Gupta emperor of India (455-467) (repulses Hsiung-Nu from India)

454 NE +ssq PL Le Cn

455 NE Vi

+

ROME: Rome raided by Gaeseric and the African Vandals

+456

E EUROPE: Ostrogoths begin migration from Danube, through Greece to Italy

456 NE Vi

+

* E EUROPE: slow migration of Slavs into the Balkans (from Belarus)

+457

BRITAIN: Britons beaten by Saxon Jutes, Hengist & Horsa, Britons abandoning Kent

457 UR +sxt PL Vi Cn

+

BYZANTIUM: Leo I, East Roman Emperor (457-474)

+458

458 UR +sxt PL Vi Cn

+

+459

+

+460

IBERIA: Vandals destroy Roman fleet off Spanish coast

460 Sa OPPN PL Cp Cn

460 UR Li

+

* C ASIA: Ephthalite (White) Huns destroy Kushan lands, raid Sasanid Persia and attack NW India

+461

FRANCE: Burgundy establishes a capital at Lyons

+

+462

+

+463

+

+464

464 UR +ssx NE Li Vi

+

+465

465 Sa OPPN NE Pi Vi

465 PL Le

+

465 UR +ssx NE Li Vi

+466

@ CHINA: T'su Ch'ung-chi calculates first accurate value of Pi

466 UR +SQR PL Sc Le

466 UR Sc

+

+467

*INDIA: repeating Ephthalite Hun invasions of N India (460-528)

467 UR +SQR PL Li Cn

467 PL Le

+

+468

* RUSSIA: rise of the Khazar Khanate in Ukraine

468 UR +SQR PL Sc Le

468 NE Li

+

468 Sa OPPN UR Ta Sc

+469

BYZANTIUM: Constantinople inundated by rain & floods, hundreds die

469 Sa OPPN UR Ta Sc

469 NE Li

+

+470

EUROPE: Hsiung Nu withdraw from Europe

470 Sa OPPN UR Ta Sc

470 NE Li

+

* AMERICAS: growth of Mayan city civilisation in S Mexico

+471

C EUROPE: Theodoric becomes King of Ostrogoths (with ambitions of Roman power)

471 UR +ssq NE Sc Li

+

+472

+

+473

473 UR Sg

+

+474

474 UR Sg

+

+475

GREECE: Theodoric & the Ostrogoths settle Macedonia (forcing Roman consent)

+

EUROPE: climatic extremes bring plague of locusts to Europe, followed by famine

+476

ROME: END OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE; last emperor deposed & executed by Germans

476 Sa CONJ PL Le Le

+

GREECE: Proclus, philosopher, heads Platonic Academy in Athens (leading Neo-Platonist)

+477

BRITAIN: kingdom of Sussex founded; Wessex founded 495

+

ITALY: Vandal Gaiseric sells E Sicily to Ostrogothic Theodoric

+478

JAPAN: first Shinto shrines are built (effect of Buddhism on indigenous nature religion)

478 UR +sxt NE Sg Li

+

INDIA: Budhagupta, emperor (477-95) (Gupta decline, later Guptas become rulers of Maghada, to 700s)

+479

CHINA: Southern Ch'i dynasty (479-502) succeeds Liu Sung dynasty at Nanking

479 UR +sxt NE Sg Li

+

479 UR +tri PL Sg Le

+480

INDIA: Hsiung Nu tribes destroy the Gupta empire in north India

480 UR +tri PL Sg Le

+

+481

MIDEAST: Mamikonian gains political & religious freedom for Armenia (481-4)

481 UR +tri PL Sg Le

481 UR Cp

+

W EUROPE: Clovis ascends throne of Franks at age 15, founder of Frankish Merovingian line

481 Sa CONJ NE Li Li

481 PL Vi

+482

482 Sa CONJ NE Li Li

482 PL Vi

+483

PERSIA: Nestorian Christians tolerated in Persia, Persian Church draws exiles from Byzantium

482 NE Sc

+

PERSIA: Bar-Soma ests Nestorian doctrine of two natures in Christ (human & divine)

483 NE Sc

+

ROME: Ostrogoth Theodoric appointed Magister, then Consul

+484

PERSIA: Hsiung Nu (White Huns) kill Sassanid Emperor in Persia, but Persian empire survives

+

EUROPE: Schism between Church in East & West: Pope Felix III excommunicates Patriarch Acacius

+485

+

+486

W EUROPE: Frankish Merovingian kgdm founded by Clovis (486-511, filling vacuum of Roman empire)

+

FRANCE: Frankish Clovis defeats last Roman governor of Gaul

+487

ITALY: Ostrogoths under Theodoric begin invasion of N Italy

487 UR +sqt PL Cp Vi

+

+488

488 UR +sqt PL Cp Vi

488 UR Aq

+

+489

MIDEAST: Nestorians ejected forcibly from Edessa by Byzantines; settle in Persia 498

489 UR +sqt PL Aq Vi

+

+490

RUSSIA: Khazar khanate attacked by Persians (stimulating growth of Khazars until Viking times)

490 UR +sqt PL Aq Vi

+

* PERSIA: Zoroastran Mazdak preaches zealous communal & ascetic doctrines (deep future infl)

+491

BRITAIN: Saxons attack Britain at Pevensey, Sussex

+

+492

492 Sa CONJ UR Aq Aq

+

+493

ITALY: Ostrogothic kingdom established in Italy & Malta under Theodoric the Great (489-526)

493 UR +SQR NE Aq Sc

493 PL Li

+

+494

494 UR +SQR NE Aq Sc

494 PL Li

+

+495

PERSIA: zealous Magian priest Mazdak preaches ascetism & communism (unrest follows)

495 UR +SQR NE Aq Sc

+

CHINA: Northern Wei (Toba Tatars) move capital of N China to Loyang

495 Sa OPPN PL Ar Li

+496

FRANCE: Conversion-baptism of Merovingian king Clovis and Frankish nation

496 UR +SQR NE Aq Sc

496 UR Pi

+

496 Sa OPPN PL Ar Li

496 NE Sg

+497

ITALY: Roman Emperor recognises Ostrogothic rule in Italy

496 UR +qcx PL Pi Li

497 NE Sg

+

497 UR +qcx PL Pi Li

+498

* SE ASIA: Hindu cultural influences reach Indonesia

498 UR +qcx PL Pi Li

+

+499

INDIA: scientist Aryabhata teaches of rotation of earth and value of Pi=3.1416

499 UR +qcx PL Pi Li

+


Neptune conjunct Pluto 407-412
Rome sacked by Visigoths; Roman withdrawal from much of empire; barbarian settlement of Europe (Franks & Vandals expand in France); Jerome translates Bible into Latin; divisions between Eastern & Western Christian churches; Nestorian Christians migrate to Central Asia; building of Teotihuacan, Mexico; Mochica culture, coastal Peru; Japan opens relations with China


Uranus conjunct Pluto 439-40
Final withdrawal of Roman legions; European breakdown, bubonic plague; Attila the Hun rampaging in Europe; centralising emperor in Japan; first Pope in Rome; Celtic Christianity at peak - St Patrick; Vandal barbarians from Spain take Carthage (Tunisia)


Uranus conjunct Neptune 452-53
Council of Chalcedon - orthodoxy in Christianity; Huns attack Greece & Italy; migration of Slavs into Balkans; Franks block & defeat Huns - Hunnish threat declines; Venice founded; Rome raided; British defeated by invading Saxons; establishment of Byzantium; Mississippi Valley culture


Uranus square Pluto 466-68
Huns withdraw from Europe, destroying Gupta empire in India; rise of Khazar Khanate, Kazakhstan; growth of Mayan cities & culture; final end of western Roman empire


Uranus square Neptune 493-96
Roots of European states - foundation of Frankish & Ostrogothic states - Franks (Clovis) adopt Christianity; zenith of Tiahuanacu, Peru, & Huari, Bolivia; mythical king Arthur stops Saxon advance in Britain; radical Zoroastrian preacher Mazduk active in Persia; Hindus reach Indonesia

 

+500

* AMERICAS: ZENITH OF CLASSICAL TIAHUANACO & HUARI (Bolivia-Peru, 500-1000)

500 Sa OPPN NE Ge Sg

+

GERMANY: Marcomanni tribe move from Bohemia to Bavaria; Czechs occupy Bohemia

500 UR +qcx PL Pi Li

+

BRITAIN: British (Arthurian?) victory over expanding Saxons, at Bt of Mt Badon

501 UR +qcx PL Pi Li

+501

* C AMERICA: decline of Teotihuacan influence (regionalisation of Mexican city states)

501 Sa OPPN NE Ge Sg

+502

CHINA: Liang Dynasty (502-557) succeeds Ch'i in Nanking; Wu Ti, Nanking Emperor (502-49)

502 UR +qcx PL Pi Li

+

+503

INDIA: rise of Vishnu Hindu Chalukya dynasty in Maharashtra (peak of prosperity 630)

503 UR Ar

+

+504

* EUROPE: FOUNDATION OF EUROPEAN PROTO-STATES (in Germany, France, Italy)

504 PL Peri 24Li

504 UR Ar

+

+505

* S AMERICA: decline of Moche state (after catastrophic floods)

505 PL Sc

+

+506

506 PL Sc

+

+507

FRANCE: Frankish Clovis annexes Visigoth Toulouse; Visigoths re-establish in Castile

+

IBERIA: Visigothic kingdom of Spain (507-711) (weak and poor)

+508

+

+509

509 UR +tri NE Ar Sg

+

+510

FRANCE: Italian Ostrogoths occupy Provence (roots of kingdom of Savoy)

510 UR +tri NE Ar Sg

510 UR Ta

+

+511

FRANCE: Merovingian realm subdivided amongst Clovis' sons (by tradition) on his death

511 UR +tri NE Ta Cp

511 NE Cp

+

511 Sa OPPN UR Sc Ta

511 UR Ta

+512

512 UR +tri NE Ta Cp

+

512 Sa OPPN UR Sc Ta

+513

MIDEAST: Basra cathedral built (Syria) (prototype for the Byzantine architectural style)

513 Sa OPPN UR Sc Ta

+

513 Sa CONJ PL Sc Sc

+514

+

+515

* INDIA: Aryabhata, Hindu astronomer & mathematician, at work

516 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

+

516 UR OPPN PL Ta Sc

+516

* CHINA: great pagoda-building period (516-60) (eg Yung-ning-su 516, Sung-yueh 523)

517 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc

+

517 UR OPPN PL Ta Sc

+517

CHINA: Emperor Wu Ti becomes a Buddhist (introducing Buddhism to C China)

517 UR +sqt NE Ta Cp

517 UR Ge

+

518 UR OPPN PL Ge Sg

517 PL Sg

+518

? * BRITAIN: zenith of legendary High King Arthur (chivalry, security, Grail quest)

518 UR +sqt NE Ge Cp

518 UR Ge

+

518 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

518 PL Sg

+519

EUROPE: reconciliation of Schism between East & West Christian Churches

519 UR OPPN PL Ge Sg

+

519 Sa CONJ NE Cp Cp

+520

INNOVN: decimal system invented by mathematicians Varamihara & Aryabhata in India

519 UR on UR NNode

+

JAPAN: revolt in Kyushu (dissention in Japan against Korean campaigns & economic conditions)

519 UR +sqt NE Ge Cp

+521

BRITAIN: est of Irish schools at Aranmore & Clonard draws scholars from Europe

519 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+

W EUROPE: major Irish scholastic & missionary influence in Europe (monasteries & schools)

520 UR OPPN PL Ge Sg

+522

520 UR +sqt NE Ge Cp

+

520 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+523

521 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+

522 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

+524

ROME: Boethius (480-524), philosopher, theologian, musician, executed for treason

522 NE on NE SNode

524 NE Aq

+

BRITAIN: Dalriada Scots from N Ireland settle in Argyll (SW Scotland)

523 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

524 UR Cn

+525

MIDEAST: Abyssinia under Caleb invades the Yemen

524 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

525 NE Aq

+

* INDIA: Ajanta caves, adorned with Buddhist carvings

524 UR +qcx NE Ge Cp

525 UR Cn

+526

ITALY: death of Theodoric the Great, Ostrogoth king (471-526)

525 NE +ssq PL Aq Sg

+

MIDEAST: Antioch and area destroyed by an earthquake, killing 250,000 (May 26)

525 UR +qcx NE Cn Aq

+527

BYZANTIUM: Justinian, Byz Emp (527-65); dominates Church, starts long Church-State friction

526 UR +qcx NE Cn Aq

+

BRITAIN: creation of Saxon kingdoms of Essex & Middlesex

+528

ITALY: Italian Dark Ages (depopulation, desecration, disintegration)

+

INDIA: Ephthalite Huns driven out of India by a coalition of Hindu states

+529

GREECE: Justinian closes Athens Sch of Philosophy to counter paganism (Syria & Persia inherit)

529 UR -qcx PL Cn Sg

+

ITALY: Benedictus founds Benedictine order at Monte Cassino (to regulate western monasticism)

+

BYZANTIUM: Justinian's "Codex Vitus" (Code of Civil Laws) (replaced 534 by revised Codex)

530 UR -qcx PL Cn Sg

+530

*INDIA: fragmentation of N India as Gupta empire declines

530 HALLEY'S COMET

+531

PERSIA: PEAK OF SASANID INFLUENCE & PROSPERITY (Khosrau I Anohshirvan, Shah 531-79)

531 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg

531 UR Le

+

531 UR -qcx PL Cn Sg

+532

BYZANTIUM: insurrection in Constantinople, defeated (city destroyed, later rebuilt in style)

532 Sa OPPN PL Cn Cp

532 UR Le

+

FRANCE: Franks overthrow kingdom of Burgundy

532 UR -qcx PL Le Cp

532 PL Cp

+533

BYZANTIUM: Justinian reconquest of Roman territories by Belisarius; Vandal N Africa kgdm taken

533 PL on PL SNode

533 PL Cp

+

BYZANTIUM: bldg of St Sophia Basilica in Constantinople (533-8) (zenith of Byz architecture)

+534

MED'N: Malta, Ostrogothic Italy and Naples taken (534-6) by Byzantium (under Belisarius)

534 UR -sqt PL Le Cp

+

CHINA: Persian Bodhidharma founds Ch'an (Zen) school of Buddhism at Loyang

535 UR OPPN NE Le Aq

+

CHINA: Eastern Wei Dynasty (534-50, at An-yang), Western Wei (535-56, at Ch'ang-an)

535 Sa CONJ UR Le Le

+535

* BRITAIN: devel of Celtic monasticism & evangelism by Columba, to Europe 563; Book of Kells

535 Sa OPPN NE Le Aq

+

SE ASIA: explosion of Krakatoa volcano darkens and chills the world for five years

+536

* C AMERICA: economic & political crisis (534-93) in MAYAN CIVILISATION (cultural hiatus)

535 UR -sqt PL Le Cp

+

536 UR OPPN NE Le Aq

+537

? BRITAIN: death of legendary King Arthur at Bt of Camlan (killed by his illegitimate son)

536 UR -sqt PL Le Cp

537 UR Vi

+

536 Sa OPPN NE Le Aq

+538

537 UR OPPN NE Le Aq

538 UR Vi

+

537 UR -sqt PL Le Cp

538 NE Pi

+539

MIDEAST: war between Byzantium and Persia (539-562)

538 UR OPPN NE Le Aq

539 NE Pi

+

539 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi

+540

ITALY: Ostrogoths reclaim Ostrogoth Italy territories, entering Rome

540 UR -tri PL Vi Cp

+

* BRITAIN: zenith of Welsh epic poetry: Taliesin, Aneirin, Llywarch Hen

+541

* E AFRICA: Christianity introduced to Nubia

541 UR -tri PL Vi Cp

+

SE ASIA: Viets rebel against Chinese rule (541-547)

+542

* EUROPE: plague halves population of Europe in 50 yrs (origin Syria & Egypt, to Britain 547)

542 UR -tri PL Vi Cp

+

BRITAIN: Gildas' "History of Britain"

+543

543 UR Li

+

+544

544 UR Li

+

+545

+

+546

C EUROPE: scandinavian Langobards (Lombards) est Lombard dynasty in Moravia under Audoin

+

ITALY: Rome forcefully emptied of all inhabitants by the Goths

+547

548 UR -qcx NE Li Pi

+548

* SE ASIA: decline of Funan trading kingdom (Cambodia) and takeover by Chen-la (Laos)

549 UR -SQR PL Li Cp

+549

BYZANTIUM: Justinian of Byzantium obtains silkworms from China

549 Sa CONJ PL Cp Cp

+550

CHINA: Northern Ch'i Dynasty (550-77) rule at An-yang (overthrown 577 by N Chou of Ch'ang-an)

549 UR -qcx NE Li Pi

+

* E EUROPE: Slav, Polish and Ukrainian tribes settle in Mecklenburg & Galicia

550 UR -SQR PL Li Cp

550 PL Aq

+

* C ASIA: TURKISH KHANATES DOMINATE CENTRAL ASIA

550 UR -qcx NE Li Pi

550 UR Sc

+

* BRITAIN: Welsh Celtic Christians converted to Catholicism by St David

+

* BYZANTIUM: GOLDEN AGE of BYZANTINE ART, RELIGION and CULTURE

551 PL Aq

+

* INNOVN: beginnings of use of Chess game, in India

551 UR -SQR PL Sc Aq

551 UR Sc

+551

ITALY: Byzantium beats Ostrogoths, annexing Rome & Naples (under Narses, by 554)

551 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

551 NE Ar

+552

JAPAN: Buddhism introduced by Korean priests & Soga Clan; Asuka (historical) period begins

551 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar

552 NE Ar

+

ASIA: Celestial Turks destroy Avar state in E Asia (causing Avar migration to Hungary)

552 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

+553

BYZANTIUM: fifth Christian Council of Constantinople (Justinian's reorganisation of Church)

553 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

+

+554

554 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

+

554 UR -sqt NE Sc Ar

+555

555 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

+

555 Sa CONJ NE Ar Ar

+556

555 UR -sqt NE Sc Ar

+

556 UR -sqt NE Sc Ar

+557

BYZANTIUM: Constantinople damaged by an earthquake, many works destroyed, thousands killed

557 UR -sqt NE Sc Ar

557 UR Sg

+

CHINA: Southern Ch'en Dynasty (557-89, at Nanking), Northern Chou (557-81, at Ch'ang-an)

+558

FRANCE: Frankish kingdoms reunited by Chlothar I, Frankish king (511-561) (son of Clovis)

558 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg

+

EURASIA: bubonic plague kills millions across Old World

558 UR -sqt NE Sg Ar

+559

BYZANTIUM: Bulgar (Hun) & Slav assault on Constantinople repelled by Byzantine Belisarius

559 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg

+

559 UR on UR SNode

+560

E EUROPE: onslaught of Avars drives Slavs into C Europe, Lombards into Italy

560 UR -sxt PL Sg Aq

+

N AFRICA: many cities in Egypt & N Africa damaged by earthquakes, thousands killed

560 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg

+561

C AMERICA: defeat of leading Mayan city of Tikal by city-state of Caracol

561 UR -sxt PL Sg Aq

+

+562

W EUROPE: Avars invade Frankish kingdoms

562 UR -tri NE Sg Ar

+

E ASIA: Japanese driven out of most of Korea by Korean state of Silla

+563

BRITAIN: St Columba founds Iona monastery (beginning of Irish evangelist ministry abroad)

563 UR -tri NE Sg Ar

+

+564

* CHINA: infiltration of N China by many peoples absorbing Chinese culture & custom

564 UR -tri NE Sg Ar

564 UR Cp

+

564 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq

+565

E EUROPE: Avar state (558-803) in Hungary at zenith under Bajan, Avar Kagan (565-602)

565 UR -tri NE Cp Ta

565 NE Ta

+

* BYZANTIUM: decline of Byzantine overseas strength

565 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq

+566

565 UR -ssq PL Cp Aq

566 NE Ta

+

+567

W EUROPE: permanent partition of Frankish kingdom (roots of France & Germany as nations)

566 UR -ssq PL Cp Aq

+

IBERIA: Visigoths under Leovigild the Visigoth (567-86) drive Byzantines out of W Spain

+568

ITALY: rise of Lombard Italy (568-774): overstretched Byz N Italy & Rome occupied by Alboin

+

* C ASIA: zenith of first Turkish empire in Turkestan (emissaries sent to Byzantium)

+569

@ BRITAIN: Columba converts Picts in Scotland to Celtic Church (bringing Med'n cultural infl)

569 NE Peri 10Ta

+

+570

MIDEAST: Persians drive Abyssinians out of Yemen

+

ISLAM: birth of Mohammed the Prophet (570-632) in Arabia

+571

* C ASIA: foundation of first Tibetan state (Yarlung dynasty)

571 Sa OPPN NE Sc Ta

+

571 UR -ssx PL Cp Aq

+572

MIDEAST: war between Persia and Byzantium (until 591, Persian expansionism)

572 Sa OPPN NE Sc Ta

572 UR Aq

+

+573

573 PL Pi

+

+574

ARABIA: Sasanian Persians invade Yemen (to control Red Sea)

574 PL Pi

+

+575

CHINA: T'ien T'ai School of Buddhism founded (incorporating Confucian practices & values)

+

+576

+

+577

CHINA: Northern Chou (557-81, Ch'ang-an) overthrow Northern Ch'i (550-77, An-yang)

+

+578

578 NE Ge

+

+579

* S AMERICA: rise of local Nanteno & Milagro cultures in Equador (500s-1463)

579 UR Pi

+

579 NE Ge

+580

CHINA: SUI DYNASTY (580-618) at CH'ANG-AN; Yang Chien, Emperor (580-604) (ex Chou minister,

580 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge

580 UR Pi

+

+581

581 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge

+

582 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge

+582

582 UR CONJ PL Pi Pi

+

582 Sa CONJ UR Pi Pi

+583

* C AMERICA: slow decline of Teotihuacan as dominant power in Mexico (also Mayan ascendancy)

582 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

+

582 Sa CONJ PL Pi Pi

+584

RUSSIA: Kubrat Dulo (584-642) consolidates Bulgar tribes (ex Finno-Tatars & Huns) in S Russia

583 UR CONJ PL Pi Pi

+

583 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

+585

IBERIA: Visigoths under Leovigild conquer the whole of Spain; end of Sueves kgdm of Galicia

584 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

+

JAPAN: Yomei, Emp of Japan (585-7) adopts Buddhism as Imperial faith

585 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

+586

S AMERICA: abandonment of Moche (Mochica coastal capital) for inland Lambayeque valley

586 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

+

+587

JAPAN: civil war between ruling Buddhist Soga clan & traditionalist Nakatomi & Mononobe clans

587 UR Ar

+

IBERIA: Visigoths convert to Catholicism (beginning of Catholic rule in Spain)

+588

588 UR Ar

+

+589

EUROPE: Visigoths and Lombards converted to Catholicism (absorption of Barbarians)

+

CHINA: REUNION OF CHINA under Sui dynasty (581-617) (by conquest of S Ch'en dynasty, Nanking)

+590

W EUROPE: Irish St Columban's mission to Europe (founding monasteries in Germany & Italy)

590 Sa CONJ NE Ge Ge

+

ROME: Pope Gregory I the Great (590-604) (1st monastic Pope, growth of worldly Church power)

+591

PERSIA: Khosrau Parviz II (590-628) succeeds to throne & renews war with Byzantium

591 NE Cn

+

+592

592 UR +ssx PL Ar Pi

592 NE Cn

+

+593

JAPAN: Empress Suiko & Prince Shotoku Taishi (593-628) promote Buddhist temple-building, learning,

593 UR +ssx PL Ar Pi

+

Chinese forms of unified central gov't, Confucian moral principles & economic changes

+594

* INNOVN: use of negative-relief block printing and book printing in China

594 UR Ta

+

+595

595 UR Ta

+

+596

BRITAIN: Gregorius I sends Augustine to Britain to convert Anglo-Saxons & counteract Celtic Church

596 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

+

* N AFRICA: zenith of Coptic culture in Egypt; INDIA: cultural, artistic, architectural climax

597 UR -sxt NE Ta Cn

+597

* N AMERICA: approx building of city of Cahokia (Illinois, peak 1050-1250)

597 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

+598

* S AMERICA: HUARI conquests in Peru (expansion of Huari empire)

597 UR +ssq PL Ta Pi

+599

598 UR -sxt NE Ta Cn


Uranus opposition Pluto 516-20
Emperor of China becomes Buddhist, Chinese ascendancy; decimal system invented, India; Irish Christian scholastic tradition; legendary king Arthur, Britain; emperor Justinian, Byzantine ascendancy; zenith of Sasanid Persia; revolts in Japan; mathematical advances in India (Aryabhata)


Uranus opposition Neptune 535-39
Crisis in Mayan civilisation; Byzantine Justinian reconquers many Roman lands; Shah Khosrau, zenith of Sasanid Persia; plagues throughout Europe; monasticism - Benedictus & Benedictine rule; founding of Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism, Loyang, China; Celtic evangelism in Europe (Columba)


Uranus square Pluto 549-51
Golden age of Byzantine art & culture, Justinian's lawmaking & reorganisation of Orthodox church; dawn of Toltec culture, Mexico; Buddhism enters Japan; Avar invasions of Europe; roots of France & Germany; decline of Funan (Cambodia), takeover by Chen-la (Laos); Turkic khanates dominate C Asia


Uranus conjunct Pluto square Neptune 580-85
Sui dynasty reforms & reunites China, capital at Chang-an; decline of Teotihuacan, Mexico, Mayan revival; Visigothic kdgm of Spain; Mochica decline, Huari expansion; zenith in Japan; end of barbarian invasions in Europe; Pope Gregorius (growth of worldly church power); Bulgar tribes united in Ukraine

+600

* BRITAIN: peak of Welsh post-bardic heroic verse (eg "Gododdin" by Aneurin)

598 UR +ssq PL Ta Pi

+

* EUROPE: END of BARBARIAN INVASIONS in EUROPE, settling of peoples

599 UR -sxt NE Ta Cn

600 PL Ar

+

* RUSSIA: GROWTH OF KHAZAR KHANATE (astride Volga & Don rivers, capital Itil, trading city)

+

* BYZANTIUM: development of the Icon as religious artform in Byzantium & Bulgaria

601 PL Ar

+601

FRANCE: widespread famine in France (600-04)

601 UR Ge

+602

CHINA: Huang Ho (Yellow River) changes course as a result of disastrous floods

602 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

602 PL Ar

+

BRITAIN: Augustine establishes Catholic archbishopric in Britain at Canterbury

602 UR Ge

+603

MIDEAST: major war between Persia & Byzantium (ravaging Armenia, Syria, Anatolia)

603 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

+

SE ASIA: revolts in Annam (N Vietnam) & Chams (Cambodia) suppressed by China (over sea trade)

603 UR on UR NNode

+604

JAPAN: Constitution of 17 Articles (Shotoko Taishi code, Buddhist); Japan opening to Chinese influences

604 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

+

ROME: last meeting of the ancient Roman Senate 604 NE on NE NNode

+605

CHINA: opening of the Grand Canal at Loyang (built by a million labourers)

604 UR -ssq NE Ge Cn

605 NE Le

+

CHINA: Yang Ti, Sui Emperor (605-18) (mismanagement & fruitless wars, new capital at Loyang)

605 UR -ssq NE Ge Cn

+606

INDIA: ZENITH OF LATER GUPTA EMPIRE in N India, under Sri Harsha of Thanesar (606-647)

606 UR -ssq NE Ge Cn

606 NE Le

+

CHINA: public examinations instituted for applicants to Mandarin public office in China

+607

JAPAN: opening of Japan to Chinese cultural influences; Japanese ambassadors in China

607 NE +tri PL Le Ar

+

C ASIA: unification of Tibet by the Yarlung dynasty

607 HALLEY'S COMET

+608

* CHINA: major public works, incl Yangtze-Huang Ho canal, Great Wall

608 NE +tri PL Le Ar

608 UR Cn

+

S INDIA: Mahendravarman I, Pallava king (c600-25) (anti-Jain, pro-Shiva; much religious building)

609 NE +tri PL Le Ar

+609

SE ASIA: foundation of Thai Nan Chao state

609 Sa OPPN NE Aq Le

609 UR Cn

+610

MIDEAST: Mohammed the Prophet's vision on Mt Hira

610 NE +tri PL Le Ar

+

BYZANTIUM: Heraclius, Byz Emperor (610-41): BYZANTIUM GROWS as a Greek-speaking, Christian

610 UR +SQR PL Cn Ar

+

civilisation, stretching from Gibraltar to Euphrates (soon to shrink before the Arabs)

+611

MIDEAST: Persia conquers (611-26) Antioch, Damascus, Jerusalem, Egypt (618) and Asia Minor

611 NE +tri PL Le Ar

+

611 UR +SQR PL Cn Ar

+612

CHINA: Sui dynasty invasion of Koguryo (Korea) fails, at great cost

611 UR -ssx NE Cn Le

+

612 UR -ssx NE Cn Le

+613

CHINA: revolts around China reduce power of Sui dynasty (empire exhausted by war & excess)

+

+614

MIDEAST: Persians sack Jerusalem (removing relic of the True Cross)

614 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

+

+615

BRITAIN: friction between Saxon England and Gaelic Ireland

615 UR Le

+

INNOVN: petroleum ("burning water") first used in Japan

+

C AMERICA: recorded accession of Maya lord Pacal (615-83) (building of major Maya structures)

+616

+617

CHINA: Sui dynasty ends (burden of public works & Korea invasion), China falls into anarchy

+

MIDEAST: Persians conquer to within one mile of Constantinople

+618

CHINA: T'ANG DYNASTY established (618-907) (retaining Sui admin system, China largely unchanging)

618 NE Vi

+

+619

CHINA: "Ten Classics" (Suan Ching), scientific manuals ; spread of Ch'an & Pure Land Buddhism in China

619 NE Vi

+

+620

* PERSIA: LAST ZENITH OF SASSANID EMPIRE (stretching from Anatolia to Afghanistan)

620 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar

620 NE Vi

+

BRITAIN: first invasions of Ireland by early Vikings from Norway & Denmark

+

* CHINA: porcelain production, formation of orchestras with 100s of players

+621

621 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar

621 UR Vi

+

* INDIA: beginning of Bhakti Vedantist revival in Hinduism (Shiva-Brahma-Vishnu, Krishna)

+622

ISLAM: HEGIRA of Mohammed: Muslim migration from Mecca to Medina (start of Muslim calendar)

622 UR +sqt PL Vi Ar

622 UR Vi

+

BYZANTIUM: start of campaigns of Heraclius to protect Byzantium

622 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar

+623

C ASIA: Nestorian Christians visit Tibet & Dzungaria

623 UR CONJ NE Vi Vi

+624

ISLAM: publication of much of the Quran (Arabia)

623 UR +sqt PL Vi Ar

+

CHINA: China united under the T'ang Dynasty (beginning 618); Eastern Turks raid Ch'ang-An

623 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar

+625

ISLAM: Mohammed the Prophet's mission starts, at Medina, Arabia

624 UR CONJ NE Vi Vi

+

MIDEAST: Persian conquests of Middle East fail (surrounding E Med'n, threatening Byzantium)

624 UR +sqt PL Vi Ar

+

* AMERICAS: ZENITH of MAYAN CIVILISATION (eg building of Palenque temples in Mexico)

625 Sa CONJ NE Vi Vi

+

S INDIA: Pallava Narasimhavarman I (c625-45) (public works, Dravidian temples, consolidation)

626 Sa CONJ UR Vi Vi

+626

BYZANTIUM: Constantinople beseiged by Avars and Persians – repulsed (Europe at risk)

626 PL Aphn 25Ar

+627

BRITAIN: conversion of Northumbria to RC Ch; Edinburgh founded; RC conversion of Wessex ?635

626 UR +qcx PL Vi Ar

627 UR Li

+

MIDEAST: Persians beaten by Byzantines at Nineveh; SASANID PERSIA BEGINS DECLINE

627 UR +qcx PL Vi Ar

+

CHINA: T'AI TSUNG, Emperor (627-49), CHINA AT CLIMAX (tolerance & patronage of arts & letters)

+

BYZANTIUM: sugar reaches Europe (pure Indian sugar discovered by Heraclius' troops in Persia)

628 UR +qcx PL Vi Ar

+628

ISLAM: Mohammed the Prophet takes Mecca, writes to rulers throughout world, announcing Islam

628 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

628 UR Li

+629

MIDEAST: Byzantine Heraclius recovers Jerusalem from Persians

629 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

+

CHINA: Hsuan Tsang, Buddhist scholar, travels to Cambodia & India to study Buddhism

+630

* BRITAIN: major church (Glastonbury, St Albans, Winchester) & castle building period

630 PL Ta

+

* MIDEAST: introduction of cotton to Arab lands (from India)

+631

CHINA: Northern Turks beaten by Chinese; suzerainty extended to Turkestan by 641

631 PL Ta

+

* INDIA: Parsee Zoroastrans settle in W India ("Jews of the East")

+632

ISLAM: DEATH OF MOHAMMED: ARAB EXPANSION BEGINS; "Holy War" declared (Abu Bakr)

632 NE +qcx PL Li Ta

632 PL Ta

+

C ASIA: Buddhism becomes the state religion in Tibet (temporarily)

632 NE Li

+633

MIDEAST: churches of Jerusalem, Antioch & Alexandria closed to Christians by Islamic Arabs

633 NE +qcx PL Li Ta

633 NE Li

+

IBERIA: Visigothic Spain becomes an elective kingdom

+634

ISLAM: Omar I (634-44) 'Ruler of the Faithful' (transforms Arab state into theocratic empire)

634 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta

634 UR Sc

+

BRITAIN: Britain in anarchy (struggles between Northumbria & Mercia, Celtic & Roman Churches)

634 NE +qcx PL Li Ta

+635

ISLAM: Arabs overcome Damascus & Ctesiphon; end of Sassanid empire

635 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta

+

ISLAM: caliphate moves from Medina to Damascus (Islamic empire ceases being purely Arabian)

635 NE +qcx PL Li Ta

+636

* JAPAN: feudal nobility in ascendancy in Japan

635 UR +ssx NE Sc Li

+

* NW EUROPE: Christianity generally accepted in Anglo-Saxon lands (bringing cultural upswing)

636 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta

+

BRITAIN: Irish Celtic Church submits to Papal Roman Catholicism

636 NE +qcx PL Li Ta

+

ISLAM: Arabs take Syria (from Byzantium)

636 UR +ssx NE Sc Li

+637

ISLAM: Persian empire falls to Arabs (637-1258) (Islam replaces Zoroastranism)

+638

ISLAM: Arab Muslims take Jerusalem (from Byzantium)

+

ASIA: Persia warns and appeals to China for help against Arabs

+639

ISLAM: Arabs attack Armenia

+

W EUROPE: death of Dagobert brings effective end of Frankish Merovingian dynasty

+

ASIA: Srong-tsan Gampo, king of Tibet, unifies Tibet and converts to Buddhism

+640

* W EUROPE: gradual separation of French & German languages in old Merovingian lands

+

ISLAM: Arabs conquer Egypt, expanding into North Africa

+641

N AFRICA: destruction of Alexandrian school & library (centre of ancient thought)

641 UR Sg

+

* MIDEAST: peak of Armenian architecture and civic life

+642

* BYZANTIUM: Byzantium loses trade & infl from recently-conqd Arab territories; econ decline

642 UR +ssq NE Sg Li

+

S INDIA: Pallavas pillage Chalukya capital (ending prosperity & upsetting S Indian balance)

643 UR -qcx PL Sg Ta

+

PERSIA: fall of Sasanian Persia to Arabs (end of independent Persia)

+643

ISLAM: Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, first major Islamic mosque; Arabs conquer Tripoli

643 UR on UR SNode

+

CHINA: visit of Byzantine & Persian ambassadors to China

643 UR +ssq NE Sg Li

+644

* CHINA: Hsuang Tsang translates 75 Buddhist books, initiating Pure Land school of Buddhism

644 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li

+645

ASIA: China annexes Korea; Dzungaria & Tarim Basin (645-743) (expansionist policies)

644 UR -qcx PL Sg Ta

+

JAPAN: downfall of Soga clan; "Taika Reform" by Fujiwaras reorganises Japan centrally

645 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li

+

C ASIA: Buddhism introduced in Tibet (on Chinese-Tibetan alliance, first temple 651)

+

ASIA: Nestorian Christians settle in China (missionary activity & monasteries from 678)

+646

MED'N: Byzantine fleet retakes Alexandria (temporarily)

646 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

646 NE Sc

+647

INDIA: end of Later Gupta period in N India, on death of Sri Harsha (since 320AD)

647 NE Sc

+

BRITAIN: Celtic Church gains upper hand in Britain under Aidan of Iona (until 664)

+648

* C ASIA: expansion and growth of Tibetan culture and kingdom under Srongtsen Gampo

648 UR -sqt PL Sg Ta

648 UR Cp

+

* EUROPE: supremacy of Celtic Church in N W Europe (until Boniface)

649 UR +sxt NE Cp Sc

+649

ISLAM: Arabs conquer Cyprus

649 UR -sqt PL Cp Ta

+650

ISLAM: Quran revised to become more 'biblical' by Caliph Othman (murdered 656)

649 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

+

* CHINA: traditional Buddhism challenged by Amida (Pure Land) school, led by Shan Tao

650 UR +sxt NE Cp Sc

+

E EUROPE: Khazars conquer Bulgarian empire in S Russia; Croats & Serbs occupy Bosnia

650 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

+

* SE ASIA: Hindu SRIVIJAYA EMPIRE (Sumatra, Malaya, Borneo) cap Palembang (600-1400)

+651

E EUROPE: Bulgars under Isperikh (643-701) migrate to Lower Danube (after Khazar & Avar force)

651 UR +sxt NE Cp Sc

+652

ISLAM: Arab expansion in Africa stopped by Nubians at Aswan (on the Nile)

+

+653

653 UR -tri PL Cp Ta

+

+654

654 UR -tri PL Cp Ta

+

+655

ISLAM: Arab fleet destroys Byzantine fleet at Lycia (Arabs become maritime power)

+

C ASIA: Arabs invade Khorasan

+656

ISLAM: standardisation of the Quran completed

656 UR Aq

+

+657

* ASIA: Western Turks disperse to Russia-Hungary & some later follow Mahmud of Ghazni to India

657 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta


Uranus square Pluto 610-11
Zeniths in Later Gupta India (Sri Harsha), Sasanid Persia & Byzantium (Heraklius); mission of Mohammed the Prophet, Arabia; first Viking raids in Europe; foundation of Nan Chao (Thailand); Persia invades Syria, Egypt & Anatolia; major public works in China (Gret Wall, Grand Canal); unification of Tibet; first use of petroleum (Japan); Saxon ascendancy, England


Uranus conjunct Neptune 623-24
Zenith of Mayan civilisation (Palenque temples); cultural climax in China (T'ang dynasty); birth of Islam (the Hegira); decline of Sasanid Persia; Christian Saxon England, Celtic decline; Viking invasions (Ireland); zenith of Pallava dynasty, S India; Byzantium beseiged by Avars & Persians (Europe threatened); sugar reaches Europe from India


Uranus opposition Pluto 634-36
Arabic expansion into Egypt, Jerusalem, Syria, Persia (Caliph Omar); anarchy in Britain; Gupta decline, India; Byzantine decline; Fujiwara reforms, Japan; Buddhism adopted in Tibet (Srongtsan Gampo); Irish Celtic church submits to Catholicism; end of Frankish Merovingian dynasty; Persian Parsees settle in India; China extends into Turkestan


Neptune opposition Pluto square Uranus 660-65
Sudden end of Teotihuacan, Mexico; Hindu Srivijaya empire, SE Asia; expansion of Tibet; Umayyad Caliphate, Damascus; Arab invasion of Maghreb (N Africa); decline of Celtic church (Synod of Whitby); Silla period, Korea; Bulgars migrate to lower Danube from Ukraine; reduction of Byzantium (Arab pressure); revision of Quran (Othman); Turks disperse into Russia & India

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The Historical Ephemeris © Copyright Palden Jenkins 1993-99


The Historical Ephemeris
by Palden Jenkins
Astro-historical tables for 2,500 years

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