Timelines: Light/Dark Ages - Early - Historical Ephemeris

The Historical Ephemeris

600 BCE - CE 2200

Astrological Cycles in History

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Timelines: Light/Dark Ages - Early


Historical Ephemeris

Astro-historical timeline 5:
Age of Light and Dark - Early
Waxing Neptune-Pluto hemicycle  411-657 CE

* = a period of change or a general trend
? = an uncertain date

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ROME: Augustine's book "City of God" (written on fall of Rome)

411 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta


IBERIA: Sueves found a kgdm in Galicia (411-585)

411 Sa CONJ NE Ta Ta


ITALY: Alaric dies en route to Tunisia, to find Visigoth home; Ataulf leads Visigoths to Spain


412 NW EUROPE: withdrawal of many troops and weakening of Roman administration in Britain & Gaul

411 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

412 UR Pi


* C AMERICA: building begins of TEOTIHUACAN CIVILISATION (Mexico, 400-600)

412 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta


JAPAN: Japan opens direct relations with China (adopting Chinese calligraphy & cultural ways)



414 NE Ge



415 NE Ge



IBERIA: Visigoths conquer Vandal kingdom in Spain





* FRANCE: Franks & Visigoths move into parts of France

418 PL Ge



FRANCE: Visigoths found Kingdom of Toulouse under Theodoric I (419-51) (by treaty with Romans)

419 UR Ar


419 PL Ge


CHINA: Liu Sung Dynasty (420-79) succeeds Eastern Chin at Nanking

420 UR -sxt PL Pi Ta

420 PL Ge


CHINA: Wei dynasty of Toba kingdom predominates

420 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar

420 UR Ar


421 UR -sxt PL Ar Ge


421 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar


422 Sa OPPN UR Li Ar





PERSIA: Council of Dad-Ishu: Eastern Church declares independence of Rome & Byzantium



425 UR -sxt NE Ar Ge


425 UR -ssq PL Ar Ge


426 UR -sxt NE Ar Ge


426 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge


MED'N: Imperial protection of Jews ends; pogroms follow, many Jews retreat to Persia

426 UR -ssq PL Ar Ge

427 UR Ta


427 UR -sxt NE Ar Ge


IBERIA: Gaiseric, king of the African Vandals (428-477)

427 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge

428 UR Ta


C ASIA: Hsiung Nu (Ephthalites) invade Transoxiana & Khorasan (threatening Persia) (428-50)

428 NE Cn


BRITAIN: Picts & Scots ejected from England by Saxons, Jutes & Angles, invited by Vortigern

429 Sa OPPN NE Cp Cn

429 NE Cn


N AFRICA: Vandals invade Tunisia: wealthy Vandal kingdom lasts 429-533; Gaiseric takes Carthage 439


INDIA: foundation of Nalanda, principal Buddhist seminary (university) (430-988)

430 UR -ssx PL Ta Ge


ROME: Aetius, minister to Velentinian III (virtual ruler of Western Empire) (429-454)


MIDEAST: 2nd Council of Ephesus rejects teachings of Nestorius (on human nature of Christ)



BRITAIN: St Patrick begins his mission to Ireland (converting many chiefs, building churches)



C EUROPE: Attila (the Hun) becomes chief of the Hsiung-Nu (Huns, 433-53)

433 UR -ssq NE Ta Cn



434 UR -ssq NE Ta Cn

434 UR Ge



435 UR Ge



FRANCE: Hsiung Nu destroy Worms & kingdom of Burgundians; Burgundians settle in Savoie 443

436 NE +ssx PL Cn Ge



437 NE +ssx PL Cn Ge



438 NE +ssx PL Cn Ge



* JAPAN: clans & chiefs lose power to centralising Emperor (influx of Chinese ideas & Koreans)

439 UR CONJ PL Ge Ge


N AFRICA: Gaiseric the Vandal takes Carthage from the Romans (making it his capital)


BRITAIN: Angles and Saxons occupy coasts of East & SE England; last Romans leave England 436

440 UR CONJ PL Ge Ge


ROME: Pope Leo I (440-461) (first authentic Pope, establishes Roman primacy & prestige)

440 UR -ssx NE Ge Cn


E EUROPE: Attila the Hun becomes sole ruler of Hsiung-Nu (441-53), advancing on E Roman empire

441 UR -ssx NE Ge Cn

441 UR Cn


EUROPE: final withdrawal of Roman legions & admin from Britain & Gaul

441 NE Le


N AFRICA: Vandal king Gaiseric recognised as legit independent ruler of Carthage by Imp gov't

442 NE Le


N AFRICA: Berber revolts against Arian Vandals, suppressed


FRANCE: Germanic Alemanni settle in Alsace

443 Sa CONJ PL Ge Ge



EUROPE: epidemic of bubonic plague

444 Sa CONJ UR Cn Cn



445 PL Cn



CHINA: brief persecution of Buddhists by Northern Wei (Taoist-Confucian resistance)

446 Sa CONJ NE Le Le

446 PL Cn



GREECE: Attila the Hun & Hsiung-Nu stopped at Thermopylae

447 UR Le



BRITAIN: isolation from Med'n brings reversion of Irish Church to Celtic/Druidic ways

448 UR +ssx PL Le Cn





* AMERICAS: Moshica culture of Chimic indians in Peru; Mississippi valley culture


* W EUROPE: migration of Britons to Brittany, to escape Saxon invasions in Britain


MIDEAST: Council of Chalcedon imposes relig orthodoxy (alienating Nestorians & Monophysites)



EUROPE: Huns (Hsiung Nu) stopped in Greece 447 (Thermopylae), by Franks in France at Chalons


EUROPE: Hsiung-Nu (Attila) attack N Italy

452 UR CONJ NE Le Le


ITALY: Venice founded by refugees from Attila the Hun's campaigns

452 NE +ssq PL Le Cn


E EUROPE: on death of Attila, Hsiung-Nu retreat to Russian plains, disturbing Ostrogoths

452 UR +ssq PL Le Cn

453 UR Vi


* INNOVN: invention of the foot stirrup in China or Korea

453 UR CONJ NE Le Le


C EUROPE: revolt against Hsiung Nu (Huns) by Hungarian subjects

453 UR +ssq PL Le Cn

454 UR Vi


453 NE +ssq PL Le Cn


INDIA: Skandagupta, Gupta emperor of India (455-467) (repulses Hsiung-Nu from India)

454 NE +ssq PL Le Cn

455 NE Vi


ROME: Rome raided by Gaeseric and the African Vandals


E EUROPE: Ostrogoths begin migration from Danube, through Greece to Italy

456 NE Vi


* E EUROPE: slow migration of Slavs into the Balkans (from Belarus)


BRITAIN: Britons beaten by Saxon Jutes, Hengist & Horsa, Britons abandoning Kent

457 UR +sxt PL Vi Cn


BYZANTIUM: Leo I, East Roman Emperor (457-474)


458 UR +sxt PL Vi Cn





IBERIA: Vandals destroy Roman fleet off Spanish coast

460 Sa OPPN PL Cp Cn

460 UR Li


* C ASIA: Ephthalite (White) Huns destroy Kushan lands, raid Sasanid Persia and attack NW India


FRANCE: Burgundy establishes a capital at Lyons







464 UR +ssx NE Li Vi



465 Sa OPPN NE Pi Vi

465 PL Le


465 UR +ssx NE Li Vi


@ CHINA: T'su Ch'ung-chi calculates first accurate value of Pi

466 UR +SQR PL Sc Le

466 UR Sc



*INDIA: repeating Ephthalite Hun invasions of N India (460-528)

467 UR +SQR PL Li Cn

467 PL Le



* RUSSIA: rise of the Khazar Khanate in Ukraine

468 UR +SQR PL Sc Le

468 NE Li


468 Sa OPPN UR Ta Sc


BYZANTIUM: Constantinople inundated by rain & floods, hundreds die

469 Sa OPPN UR Ta Sc

469 NE Li



EUROPE: Hsiung Nu withdraw from Europe

470 Sa OPPN UR Ta Sc

470 NE Li


* AMERICAS: growth of Mayan city civilisation in S Mexico


C EUROPE: Theodoric becomes King of Ostrogoths (with ambitions of Roman power)

471 UR +ssq NE Sc Li





473 UR Sg



474 UR Sg



GREECE: Theodoric & the Ostrogoths settle Macedonia (forcing Roman consent)


EUROPE: climatic extremes bring plague of locusts to Europe, followed by famine


ROME: END OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE; last emperor deposed & executed by Germans

476 Sa CONJ PL Le Le


GREECE: Proclus, philosopher, heads Platonic Academy in Athens (leading Neo-Platonist)


BRITAIN: kingdom of Sussex founded; Wessex founded 495


ITALY: Vandal Gaiseric sells E Sicily to Ostrogothic Theodoric


JAPAN: first Shinto shrines are built (effect of Buddhism on indigenous nature religion)

478 UR +sxt NE Sg Li


INDIA: Budhagupta, emperor (477-95) (Gupta decline, later Guptas become rulers of Maghada, to 700s)


CHINA: Southern Ch'i dynasty (479-502) succeeds Liu Sung dynasty at Nanking

479 UR +sxt NE Sg Li


479 UR +tri PL Sg Le


INDIA: Hsiung Nu tribes destroy the Gupta empire in north India

480 UR +tri PL Sg Le



MIDEAST: Mamikonian gains political & religious freedom for Armenia (481-4)

481 UR +tri PL Sg Le

481 UR Cp


W EUROPE: Clovis ascends throne of Franks at age 15, founder of Frankish Merovingian line

481 Sa CONJ NE Li Li

481 PL Vi


482 Sa CONJ NE Li Li

482 PL Vi


PERSIA: Nestorian Christians tolerated in Persia, Persian Church draws exiles from Byzantium

482 NE Sc


PERSIA: Bar-Soma ests Nestorian doctrine of two natures in Christ (human & divine)

483 NE Sc


ROME: Ostrogoth Theodoric appointed Magister, then Consul


PERSIA: Hsiung Nu (White Huns) kill Sassanid Emperor in Persia, but Persian empire survives


EUROPE: Schism between Church in East & West: Pope Felix III excommunicates Patriarch Acacius




W EUROPE: Frankish Merovingian kgdm founded by Clovis (486-511, filling vacuum of Roman empire)


FRANCE: Frankish Clovis defeats last Roman governor of Gaul


ITALY: Ostrogoths under Theodoric begin invasion of N Italy

487 UR +sqt PL Cp Vi



488 UR +sqt PL Cp Vi

488 UR Aq



MIDEAST: Nestorians ejected forcibly from Edessa by Byzantines; settle in Persia 498

489 UR +sqt PL Aq Vi



RUSSIA: Khazar khanate attacked by Persians (stimulating growth of Khazars until Viking times)

490 UR +sqt PL Aq Vi


* PERSIA: Zoroastran Mazdak preaches zealous communal & ascetic doctrines (deep future infl)


BRITAIN: Saxons attack Britain at Pevensey, Sussex



492 Sa CONJ UR Aq Aq



ITALY: Ostrogothic kingdom established in Italy & Malta under Theodoric the Great (489-526)

493 UR +SQR NE Aq Sc

493 PL Li



494 UR +SQR NE Aq Sc

494 PL Li



PERSIA: zealous Magian priest Mazdak preaches ascetism & communism (unrest follows)

495 UR +SQR NE Aq Sc


CHINA: Northern Wei (Toba Tatars) move capital of N China to Loyang

495 Sa OPPN PL Ar Li


FRANCE: Conversion-baptism of Merovingian king Clovis and Frankish nation

496 UR +SQR NE Aq Sc

496 UR Pi


496 Sa OPPN PL Ar Li

496 NE Sg


ITALY: Roman Emperor recognises Ostrogothic rule in Italy

496 UR +qcx PL Pi Li

497 NE Sg


497 UR +qcx PL Pi Li


* SE ASIA: Hindu cultural influences reach Indonesia

498 UR +qcx PL Pi Li



INDIA: scientist Aryabhata teaches of rotation of earth and value of Pi=3.1416

499 UR +qcx PL Pi Li


Neptune conjunct Pluto 407-412
Rome sacked by Visigoths; Roman withdrawal from much of empire; barbarian settlement of Europe (Franks & Vandals expand in France); Jerome translates Bible into Latin; divisions between Eastern & Western Christian churches; Nestorian Christians migrate to Central Asia; building of Teotihuacan, Mexico; Mochica culture, coastal Peru; Japan opens relations with China

Uranus conjunct Pluto 439-40
Final withdrawal of Roman legions; European breakdown, bubonic plague; Attila the Hun rampaging in Europe; centralising emperor in Japan; first Pope in Rome; Celtic Christianity at peak - St Patrick; Vandal barbarians from Spain take Carthage (Tunisia)

Uranus conjunct Neptune 452-53
Council of Chalcedon - orthodoxy in Christianity; Huns attack Greece & Italy; migration of Slavs into Balkans; Franks block & defeat Huns - Hunnish threat declines; Venice founded; Rome raided; British defeated by invading Saxons; establishment of Byzantium; Mississippi Valley culture

Uranus square Pluto 466-68
Huns withdraw from Europe, destroying Gupta empire in India; rise of Khazar Khanate, Kazakhstan; growth of Mayan cities & culture; final end of western Roman empire

Uranus square Neptune 493-96
Roots of European states - foundation of Frankish & Ostrogothic states - Franks (Clovis) adopt Christianity; zenith of Tiahuanacu, Peru, & Huari, Bolivia; mythical king Arthur stops Saxon advance in Britain; radical Zoroastrian preacher Mazduk active in Persia; Hindus reach Indonesia




500 Sa OPPN NE Ge Sg


GERMANY: Marcomanni tribe move from Bohemia to Bavaria; Czechs occupy Bohemia

500 UR +qcx PL Pi Li


BRITAIN: British (Arthurian?) victory over expanding Saxons, at Bt of Mt Badon

501 UR +qcx PL Pi Li


* C AMERICA: decline of Teotihuacan influence (regionalisation of Mexican city states)

501 Sa OPPN NE Ge Sg


CHINA: Liang Dynasty (502-557) succeeds Ch'i in Nanking; Wu Ti, Nanking Emperor (502-49)

502 UR +qcx PL Pi Li



INDIA: rise of Vishnu Hindu Chalukya dynasty in Maharashtra (peak of prosperity 630)

503 UR Ar




504 PL Peri 24Li

504 UR Ar



* S AMERICA: decline of Moche state (after catastrophic floods)

505 PL Sc



506 PL Sc



FRANCE: Frankish Clovis annexes Visigoth Toulouse; Visigoths re-establish in Castile


IBERIA: Visigothic kingdom of Spain (507-711) (weak and poor)




509 UR +tri NE Ar Sg



FRANCE: Italian Ostrogoths occupy Provence (roots of kingdom of Savoy)

510 UR +tri NE Ar Sg

510 UR Ta



FRANCE: Merovingian realm subdivided amongst Clovis' sons (by tradition) on his death

511 UR +tri NE Ta Cp

511 NE Cp


511 Sa OPPN UR Sc Ta

511 UR Ta


512 UR +tri NE Ta Cp


512 Sa OPPN UR Sc Ta


MIDEAST: Basra cathedral built (Syria) (prototype for the Byzantine architectural style)

513 Sa OPPN UR Sc Ta


513 Sa CONJ PL Sc Sc




* INDIA: Aryabhata, Hindu astronomer & mathematician, at work

516 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc


516 UR OPPN PL Ta Sc


* CHINA: great pagoda-building period (516-60) (eg Yung-ning-su 516, Sung-yueh 523)

517 NE +ssq PL Cp Sc


517 UR OPPN PL Ta Sc


CHINA: Emperor Wu Ti becomes a Buddhist (introducing Buddhism to C China)

517 UR +sqt NE Ta Cp

517 UR Ge


518 UR OPPN PL Ge Sg

517 PL Sg


? * BRITAIN: zenith of legendary High King Arthur (chivalry, security, Grail quest)

518 UR +sqt NE Ge Cp

518 UR Ge


518 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

518 PL Sg


EUROPE: reconciliation of Schism between East & West Christian Churches

519 UR OPPN PL Ge Sg


519 Sa CONJ NE Cp Cp


INNOVN: decimal system invented by mathematicians Varamihara & Aryabhata in India

519 UR on UR NNode


JAPAN: revolt in Kyushu (dissention in Japan against Korean campaigns & economic conditions)

519 UR +sqt NE Ge Cp


BRITAIN: est of Irish schools at Aranmore & Clonard draws scholars from Europe

519 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg


W EUROPE: major Irish scholastic & missionary influence in Europe (monasteries & schools)

520 UR OPPN PL Ge Sg


520 UR +sqt NE Ge Cp


520 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg


521 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg


522 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg


ROME: Boethius (480-524), philosopher, theologian, musician, executed for treason

522 NE on NE SNode

524 NE Aq


BRITAIN: Dalriada Scots from N Ireland settle in Argyll (SW Scotland)

523 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

524 UR Cn


MIDEAST: Abyssinia under Caleb invades the Yemen

524 NE +ssq PL Cp Sg

525 NE Aq


* INDIA: Ajanta caves, adorned with Buddhist carvings

524 UR +qcx NE Ge Cp

525 UR Cn


ITALY: death of Theodoric the Great, Ostrogoth king (471-526)

525 NE +ssq PL Aq Sg


MIDEAST: Antioch and area destroyed by an earthquake, killing 250,000 (May 26)

525 UR +qcx NE Cn Aq


BYZANTIUM: Justinian, Byz Emp (527-65); dominates Church, starts long Church-State friction

526 UR +qcx NE Cn Aq


BRITAIN: creation of Saxon kingdoms of Essex & Middlesex


ITALY: Italian Dark Ages (depopulation, desecration, disintegration)


INDIA: Ephthalite Huns driven out of India by a coalition of Hindu states


GREECE: Justinian closes Athens Sch of Philosophy to counter paganism (Syria & Persia inherit)

529 UR -qcx PL Cn Sg


ITALY: Benedictus founds Benedictine order at Monte Cassino (to regulate western monasticism)


BYZANTIUM: Justinian's "Codex Vitus" (Code of Civil Laws) (replaced 534 by revised Codex)

530 UR -qcx PL Cn Sg


*INDIA: fragmentation of N India as Gupta empire declines




531 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg

531 UR Le


531 UR -qcx PL Cn Sg


BYZANTIUM: insurrection in Constantinople, defeated (city destroyed, later rebuilt in style)

532 Sa OPPN PL Cn Cp

532 UR Le


FRANCE: Franks overthrow kingdom of Burgundy

532 UR -qcx PL Le Cp

532 PL Cp


BYZANTIUM: Justinian reconquest of Roman territories by Belisarius; Vandal N Africa kgdm taken

533 PL on PL SNode

533 PL Cp


BYZANTIUM: bldg of St Sophia Basilica in Constantinople (533-8) (zenith of Byz architecture)


MED'N: Malta, Ostrogothic Italy and Naples taken (534-6) by Byzantium (under Belisarius)

534 UR -sqt PL Le Cp


CHINA: Persian Bodhidharma founds Ch'an (Zen) school of Buddhism at Loyang

535 UR OPPN NE Le Aq


CHINA: Eastern Wei Dynasty (534-50, at An-yang), Western Wei (535-56, at Ch'ang-an)

535 Sa CONJ UR Le Le


* BRITAIN: devel of Celtic monasticism & evangelism by Columba, to Europe 563; Book of Kells

535 Sa OPPN NE Le Aq


SE ASIA: explosion of Krakatoa volcano darkens and chills the world for five years


* C AMERICA: economic & political crisis (534-93) in MAYAN CIVILISATION (cultural hiatus)

535 UR -sqt PL Le Cp


536 UR OPPN NE Le Aq


? BRITAIN: death of legendary King Arthur at Bt of Camlan (killed by his illegitimate son)

536 UR -sqt PL Le Cp

537 UR Vi


536 Sa OPPN NE Le Aq


537 UR OPPN NE Le Aq

538 UR Vi


537 UR -sqt PL Le Cp

538 NE Pi


MIDEAST: war between Byzantium and Persia (539-562)

538 UR OPPN NE Le Aq

539 NE Pi


539 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi


ITALY: Ostrogoths reclaim Ostrogoth Italy territories, entering Rome

540 UR -tri PL Vi Cp


* BRITAIN: zenith of Welsh epic poetry: Taliesin, Aneirin, Llywarch Hen


* E AFRICA: Christianity introduced to Nubia

541 UR -tri PL Vi Cp


SE ASIA: Viets rebel against Chinese rule (541-547)


* EUROPE: plague halves population of Europe in 50 yrs (origin Syria & Egypt, to Britain 547)

542 UR -tri PL Vi Cp


BRITAIN: Gildas' "History of Britain"


543 UR Li



544 UR Li





C EUROPE: scandinavian Langobards (Lombards) est Lombard dynasty in Moravia under Audoin


ITALY: Rome forcefully emptied of all inhabitants by the Goths


548 UR -qcx NE Li Pi


* SE ASIA: decline of Funan trading kingdom (Cambodia) and takeover by Chen-la (Laos)

549 UR -SQR PL Li Cp


BYZANTIUM: Justinian of Byzantium obtains silkworms from China

549 Sa CONJ PL Cp Cp


CHINA: Northern Ch'i Dynasty (550-77) rule at An-yang (overthrown 577 by N Chou of Ch'ang-an)

549 UR -qcx NE Li Pi


* E EUROPE: Slav, Polish and Ukrainian tribes settle in Mecklenburg & Galicia

550 UR -SQR PL Li Cp

550 PL Aq



550 UR -qcx NE Li Pi

550 UR Sc


* BRITAIN: Welsh Celtic Christians converted to Catholicism by St David



551 PL Aq


* INNOVN: beginnings of use of Chess game, in India

551 UR -SQR PL Sc Aq

551 UR Sc


ITALY: Byzantium beats Ostrogoths, annexing Rome & Naples (under Narses, by 554)

551 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

551 NE Ar


JAPAN: Buddhism introduced by Korean priests & Soga Clan; Asuka (historical) period begins

551 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar

552 NE Ar


ASIA: Celestial Turks destroy Avar state in E Asia (causing Avar migration to Hungary)

552 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq


BYZANTIUM: fifth Christian Council of Constantinople (Justinian's reorganisation of Church)

553 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq



554 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq


554 UR -sqt NE Sc Ar


555 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq


555 Sa CONJ NE Ar Ar


555 UR -sqt NE Sc Ar


556 UR -sqt NE Sc Ar


BYZANTIUM: Constantinople damaged by an earthquake, many works destroyed, thousands killed

557 UR -sqt NE Sc Ar

557 UR Sg


CHINA: Southern Ch'en Dynasty (557-89, at Nanking), Northern Chou (557-81, at Ch'ang-an)


FRANCE: Frankish kingdoms reunited by Chlothar I, Frankish king (511-561) (son of Clovis)

558 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg


EURASIA: bubonic plague kills millions across Old World

558 UR -sqt NE Sg Ar


BYZANTIUM: Bulgar (Hun) & Slav assault on Constantinople repelled by Byzantine Belisarius

559 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg


559 UR on UR SNode


E EUROPE: onslaught of Avars drives Slavs into C Europe, Lombards into Italy

560 UR -sxt PL Sg Aq


N AFRICA: many cities in Egypt & N Africa damaged by earthquakes, thousands killed

560 Sa OPPN UR Ge Sg


C AMERICA: defeat of leading Mayan city of Tikal by city-state of Caracol

561 UR -sxt PL Sg Aq



W EUROPE: Avars invade Frankish kingdoms

562 UR -tri NE Sg Ar


E ASIA: Japanese driven out of most of Korea by Korean state of Silla


BRITAIN: St Columba founds Iona monastery (beginning of Irish evangelist ministry abroad)

563 UR -tri NE Sg Ar



* CHINA: infiltration of N China by many peoples absorbing Chinese culture & custom

564 UR -tri NE Sg Ar

564 UR Cp


564 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq


E EUROPE: Avar state (558-803) in Hungary at zenith under Bajan, Avar Kagan (565-602)

565 UR -tri NE Cp Ta

565 NE Ta


* BYZANTIUM: decline of Byzantine overseas strength

565 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq


565 UR -ssq PL Cp Aq

566 NE Ta



W EUROPE: permanent partition of Frankish kingdom (roots of France & Germany as nations)

566 UR -ssq PL Cp Aq


IBERIA: Visigoths under Leovigild the Visigoth (567-86) drive Byzantines out of W Spain


ITALY: rise of Lombard Italy (568-774): overstretched Byz N Italy & Rome occupied by Alboin


* C ASIA: zenith of first Turkish empire in Turkestan (emissaries sent to Byzantium)


@ BRITAIN: Columba converts Picts in Scotland to Celtic Church (bringing Med'n cultural infl)

569 NE Peri 10Ta



MIDEAST: Persians drive Abyssinians out of Yemen


ISLAM: birth of Mohammed the Prophet (570-632) in Arabia


* C ASIA: foundation of first Tibetan state (Yarlung dynasty)

571 Sa OPPN NE Sc Ta


571 UR -ssx PL Cp Aq


MIDEAST: war between Persia and Byzantium (until 591, Persian expansionism)

572 Sa OPPN NE Sc Ta

572 UR Aq



573 PL Pi



ARABIA: Sasanian Persians invade Yemen (to control Red Sea)

574 PL Pi



CHINA: T'ien T'ai School of Buddhism founded (incorporating Confucian practices & values)





CHINA: Northern Chou (557-81, Ch'ang-an) overthrow Northern Ch'i (550-77, An-yang)



578 NE Ge



* S AMERICA: rise of local Nanteno & Milagro cultures in Equador (500s-1463)

579 UR Pi


579 NE Ge


CHINA: SUI DYNASTY (580-618) at CH'ANG-AN; Yang Chien, Emperor (580-604) (ex Chou minister,

580 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge

580 UR Pi



581 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge


582 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge


582 UR CONJ PL Pi Pi


582 Sa CONJ UR Pi Pi


* C AMERICA: slow decline of Teotihuacan as dominant power in Mexico (also Mayan ascendancy)

582 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi


582 Sa CONJ PL Pi Pi


RUSSIA: Kubrat Dulo (584-642) consolidates Bulgar tribes (ex Finno-Tatars & Huns) in S Russia

583 UR CONJ PL Pi Pi


583 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi


IBERIA: Visigoths under Leovigild conquer the whole of Spain; end of Sueves kgdm of Galicia

584 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi


JAPAN: Yomei, Emp of Japan (585-7) adopts Buddhism as Imperial faith

585 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi


S AMERICA: abandonment of Moche (Mochica coastal capital) for inland Lambayeque valley

586 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi



JAPAN: civil war between ruling Buddhist Soga clan & traditionalist Nakatomi & Mononobe clans

587 UR Ar


IBERIA: Visigoths convert to Catholicism (beginning of Catholic rule in Spain)


588 UR Ar



EUROPE: Visigoths and Lombards converted to Catholicism (absorption of Barbarians)


CHINA: REUNION OF CHINA under Sui dynasty (581-617) (by conquest of S Ch'en dynasty, Nanking)


W EUROPE: Irish St Columban's mission to Europe (founding monasteries in Germany & Italy)

590 Sa CONJ NE Ge Ge


ROME: Pope Gregory I the Great (590-604) (1st monastic Pope, growth of worldly Church power)


PERSIA: Khosrau Parviz II (590-628) succeeds to throne & renews war with Byzantium

591 NE Cn



592 UR +ssx PL Ar Pi

592 NE Cn



JAPAN: Empress Suiko & Prince Shotoku Taishi (593-628) promote Buddhist temple-building, learning,

593 UR +ssx PL Ar Pi


Chinese forms of unified central gov't, Confucian moral principles & economic changes


* INNOVN: use of negative-relief block printing and book printing in China

594 UR Ta



595 UR Ta



BRITAIN: Gregorius I sends Augustine to Britain to convert Anglo-Saxons & counteract Celtic Church

596 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi


* N AFRICA: zenith of Coptic culture in Egypt; INDIA: cultural, artistic, architectural climax

597 UR -sxt NE Ta Cn


* N AMERICA: approx building of city of Cahokia (Illinois, peak 1050-1250)

597 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi


* S AMERICA: HUARI conquests in Peru (expansion of Huari empire)

597 UR +ssq PL Ta Pi


598 UR -sxt NE Ta Cn

Uranus opposition Pluto 516-20
Emperor of China becomes Buddhist, Chinese ascendancy; decimal system invented, India; Irish Christian scholastic tradition; legendary king Arthur, Britain; emperor Justinian, Byzantine ascendancy; zenith of Sasanid Persia; revolts in Japan; mathematical advances in India (Aryabhata)

Uranus opposition Neptune 535-39
Crisis in Mayan civilisation; Byzantine Justinian reconquers many Roman lands; Shah Khosrau, zenith of Sasanid Persia; plagues throughout Europe; monasticism - Benedictus & Benedictine rule; founding of Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism, Loyang, China; Celtic evangelism in Europe (Columba)

Uranus square Pluto 549-51
Golden age of Byzantine art & culture, Justinian's lawmaking & reorganisation of Orthodox church; dawn of Toltec culture, Mexico; Buddhism enters Japan; Avar invasions of Europe; roots of France & Germany; decline of Funan (Cambodia), takeover by Chen-la (Laos); Turkic khanates dominate C Asia

Uranus conjunct Pluto square Neptune 580-85
Sui dynasty reforms & reunites China, capital at Chang-an; decline of Teotihuacan, Mexico, Mayan revival; Visigothic kdgm of Spain; Mochica decline, Huari expansion; zenith in Japan; end of barbarian invasions in Europe; Pope Gregorius (growth of worldly church power); Bulgar tribes united in Ukraine


* BRITAIN: peak of Welsh post-bardic heroic verse (eg "Gododdin" by Aneurin)

598 UR +ssq PL Ta Pi


* EUROPE: END of BARBARIAN INVASIONS in EUROPE, settling of peoples

599 UR -sxt NE Ta Cn

600 PL Ar


* RUSSIA: GROWTH OF KHAZAR KHANATE (astride Volga & Don rivers, capital Itil, trading city)


* BYZANTIUM: development of the Icon as religious artform in Byzantium & Bulgaria

601 PL Ar


FRANCE: widespread famine in France (600-04)

601 UR Ge


CHINA: Huang Ho (Yellow River) changes course as a result of disastrous floods

602 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge

602 PL Ar


BRITAIN: Augustine establishes Catholic archbishopric in Britain at Canterbury

602 UR Ge


MIDEAST: major war between Persia & Byzantium (ravaging Armenia, Syria, Anatolia)

603 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge


SE ASIA: revolts in Annam (N Vietnam) & Chams (Cambodia) suppressed by China (over sea trade)

603 UR on UR NNode


JAPAN: Constitution of 17 Articles (Shotoko Taishi code, Buddhist); Japan opening to Chinese influences

604 Sa OPPN UR Sg Ge


ROME: last meeting of the ancient Roman Senate 604 NE on NE NNode


CHINA: opening of the Grand Canal at Loyang (built by a million labourers)

604 UR -ssq NE Ge Cn

605 NE Le


CHINA: Yang Ti, Sui Emperor (605-18) (mismanagement & fruitless wars, new capital at Loyang)

605 UR -ssq NE Ge Cn


INDIA: ZENITH OF LATER GUPTA EMPIRE in N India, under Sri Harsha of Thanesar (606-647)

606 UR -ssq NE Ge Cn

606 NE Le


CHINA: public examinations instituted for applicants to Mandarin public office in China


JAPAN: opening of Japan to Chinese cultural influences; Japanese ambassadors in China

607 NE +tri PL Le Ar


C ASIA: unification of Tibet by the Yarlung dynasty



* CHINA: major public works, incl Yangtze-Huang Ho canal, Great Wall

608 NE +tri PL Le Ar

608 UR Cn


S INDIA: Mahendravarman I, Pallava king (c600-25) (anti-Jain, pro-Shiva; much religious building)

609 NE +tri PL Le Ar


SE ASIA: foundation of Thai Nan Chao state

609 Sa OPPN NE Aq Le

609 UR Cn


MIDEAST: Mohammed the Prophet's vision on Mt Hira

610 NE +tri PL Le Ar


BYZANTIUM: Heraclius, Byz Emperor (610-41): BYZANTIUM GROWS as a Greek-speaking, Christian

610 UR +SQR PL Cn Ar


civilisation, stretching from Gibraltar to Euphrates (soon to shrink before the Arabs)


MIDEAST: Persia conquers (611-26) Antioch, Damascus, Jerusalem, Egypt (618) and Asia Minor

611 NE +tri PL Le Ar


611 UR +SQR PL Cn Ar


CHINA: Sui dynasty invasion of Koguryo (Korea) fails, at great cost

611 UR -ssx NE Cn Le


612 UR -ssx NE Cn Le


CHINA: revolts around China reduce power of Sui dynasty (empire exhausted by war & excess)



MIDEAST: Persians sack Jerusalem (removing relic of the True Cross)

614 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar



BRITAIN: friction between Saxon England and Gaelic Ireland

615 UR Le


INNOVN: petroleum ("burning water") first used in Japan


C AMERICA: recorded accession of Maya lord Pacal (615-83) (building of major Maya structures)



CHINA: Sui dynasty ends (burden of public works & Korea invasion), China falls into anarchy


MIDEAST: Persians conquer to within one mile of Constantinople


CHINA: T'ANG DYNASTY established (618-907) (retaining Sui admin system, China largely unchanging)

618 NE Vi



CHINA: "Ten Classics" (Suan Ching), scientific manuals ; spread of Ch'an & Pure Land Buddhism in China

619 NE Vi



* PERSIA: LAST ZENITH OF SASSANID EMPIRE (stretching from Anatolia to Afghanistan)

620 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar

620 NE Vi


BRITAIN: first invasions of Ireland by early Vikings from Norway & Denmark


* CHINA: porcelain production, formation of orchestras with 100s of players


621 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar

621 UR Vi


* INDIA: beginning of Bhakti Vedantist revival in Hinduism (Shiva-Brahma-Vishnu, Krishna)


ISLAM: HEGIRA of Mohammed: Muslim migration from Mecca to Medina (start of Muslim calendar)

622 UR +sqt PL Vi Ar

622 UR Vi


BYZANTIUM: start of campaigns of Heraclius to protect Byzantium

622 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar


C ASIA: Nestorian Christians visit Tibet & Dzungaria

623 UR CONJ NE Vi Vi


ISLAM: publication of much of the Quran (Arabia)

623 UR +sqt PL Vi Ar


CHINA: China united under the T'ang Dynasty (beginning 618); Eastern Turks raid Ch'ang-An

623 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar


ISLAM: Mohammed the Prophet's mission starts, at Medina, Arabia

624 UR CONJ NE Vi Vi


MIDEAST: Persian conquests of Middle East fail (surrounding E Med'n, threatening Byzantium)

624 UR +sqt PL Vi Ar


* AMERICAS: ZENITH of MAYAN CIVILISATION (eg building of Palenque temples in Mexico)

625 Sa CONJ NE Vi Vi


S INDIA: Pallava Narasimhavarman I (c625-45) (public works, Dravidian temples, consolidation)

626 Sa CONJ UR Vi Vi


BYZANTIUM: Constantinople beseiged by Avars and Persians – repulsed (Europe at risk)

626 PL Aphn 25Ar


BRITAIN: conversion of Northumbria to RC Ch; Edinburgh founded; RC conversion of Wessex ?635

626 UR +qcx PL Vi Ar

627 UR Li


MIDEAST: Persians beaten by Byzantines at Nineveh; SASANID PERSIA BEGINS DECLINE

627 UR +qcx PL Vi Ar


CHINA: T'AI TSUNG, Emperor (627-49), CHINA AT CLIMAX (tolerance & patronage of arts & letters)


BYZANTIUM: sugar reaches Europe (pure Indian sugar discovered by Heraclius' troops in Persia)

628 UR +qcx PL Vi Ar


ISLAM: Mohammed the Prophet takes Mecca, writes to rulers throughout world, announcing Islam

628 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

628 UR Li


MIDEAST: Byzantine Heraclius recovers Jerusalem from Persians

629 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar


CHINA: Hsuan Tsang, Buddhist scholar, travels to Cambodia & India to study Buddhism


* BRITAIN: major church (Glastonbury, St Albans, Winchester) & castle building period

630 PL Ta


* MIDEAST: introduction of cotton to Arab lands (from India)


CHINA: Northern Turks beaten by Chinese; suzerainty extended to Turkestan by 641

631 PL Ta


* INDIA: Parsee Zoroastrans settle in W India ("Jews of the East")



632 NE +qcx PL Li Ta

632 PL Ta


C ASIA: Buddhism becomes the state religion in Tibet (temporarily)

632 NE Li


MIDEAST: churches of Jerusalem, Antioch & Alexandria closed to Christians by Islamic Arabs

633 NE +qcx PL Li Ta

633 NE Li


IBERIA: Visigothic Spain becomes an elective kingdom


ISLAM: Omar I (634-44) 'Ruler of the Faithful' (transforms Arab state into theocratic empire)

634 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta

634 UR Sc


BRITAIN: Britain in anarchy (struggles between Northumbria & Mercia, Celtic & Roman Churches)

634 NE +qcx PL Li Ta


ISLAM: Arabs overcome Damascus & Ctesiphon; end of Sassanid empire

635 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta


ISLAM: caliphate moves from Medina to Damascus (Islamic empire ceases being purely Arabian)

635 NE +qcx PL Li Ta


* JAPAN: feudal nobility in ascendancy in Japan

635 UR +ssx NE Sc Li


* NW EUROPE: Christianity generally accepted in Anglo-Saxon lands (bringing cultural upswing)

636 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta


BRITAIN: Irish Celtic Church submits to Papal Roman Catholicism

636 NE +qcx PL Li Ta


ISLAM: Arabs take Syria (from Byzantium)

636 UR +ssx NE Sc Li


ISLAM: Persian empire falls to Arabs (637-1258) (Islam replaces Zoroastranism)


ISLAM: Arab Muslims take Jerusalem (from Byzantium)


ASIA: Persia warns and appeals to China for help against Arabs


ISLAM: Arabs attack Armenia


W EUROPE: death of Dagobert brings effective end of Frankish Merovingian dynasty


ASIA: Srong-tsan Gampo, king of Tibet, unifies Tibet and converts to Buddhism


* W EUROPE: gradual separation of French & German languages in old Merovingian lands


ISLAM: Arabs conquer Egypt, expanding into North Africa


N AFRICA: destruction of Alexandrian school & library (centre of ancient thought)

641 UR Sg


* MIDEAST: peak of Armenian architecture and civic life


* BYZANTIUM: Byzantium loses trade & infl from recently-conqd Arab territories; econ decline

642 UR +ssq NE Sg Li


S INDIA: Pallavas pillage Chalukya capital (ending prosperity & upsetting S Indian balance)

643 UR -qcx PL Sg Ta


PERSIA: fall of Sasanian Persia to Arabs (end of independent Persia)


ISLAM: Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, first major Islamic mosque; Arabs conquer Tripoli

643 UR on UR SNode


CHINA: visit of Byzantine & Persian ambassadors to China

643 UR +ssq NE Sg Li


* CHINA: Hsuang Tsang translates 75 Buddhist books, initiating Pure Land school of Buddhism

644 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li


ASIA: China annexes Korea; Dzungaria & Tarim Basin (645-743) (expansionist policies)

644 UR -qcx PL Sg Ta


JAPAN: downfall of Soga clan; "Taika Reform" by Fujiwaras reorganises Japan centrally

645 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li


C ASIA: Buddhism introduced in Tibet (on Chinese-Tibetan alliance, first temple 651)


ASIA: Nestorian Christians settle in China (missionary activity & monasteries from 678)


MED'N: Byzantine fleet retakes Alexandria (temporarily)

646 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

646 NE Sc


INDIA: end of Later Gupta period in N India, on death of Sri Harsha (since 320AD)

647 NE Sc


BRITAIN: Celtic Church gains upper hand in Britain under Aidan of Iona (until 664)


* C ASIA: expansion and growth of Tibetan culture and kingdom under Srongtsen Gampo

648 UR -sqt PL Sg Ta

648 UR Cp


* EUROPE: supremacy of Celtic Church in N W Europe (until Boniface)

649 UR +sxt NE Cp Sc


ISLAM: Arabs conquer Cyprus

649 UR -sqt PL Cp Ta


ISLAM: Quran revised to become more 'biblical' by Caliph Othman (murdered 656)

649 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp


* CHINA: traditional Buddhism challenged by Amida (Pure Land) school, led by Shan Tao

650 UR +sxt NE Cp Sc


E EUROPE: Khazars conquer Bulgarian empire in S Russia; Croats & Serbs occupy Bosnia

650 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp


* SE ASIA: Hindu SRIVIJAYA EMPIRE (Sumatra, Malaya, Borneo) cap Palembang (600-1400)


E EUROPE: Bulgars under Isperikh (643-701) migrate to Lower Danube (after Khazar & Avar force)

651 UR +sxt NE Cp Sc


ISLAM: Arab expansion in Africa stopped by Nubians at Aswan (on the Nile)



653 UR -tri PL Cp Ta



654 UR -tri PL Cp Ta



ISLAM: Arab fleet destroys Byzantine fleet at Lycia (Arabs become maritime power)


C ASIA: Arabs invade Khorasan


ISLAM: standardisation of the Quran completed

656 UR Aq



* ASIA: Western Turks disperse to Russia-Hungary & some later follow Mahmud of Ghazni to India

657 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

Uranus square Pluto 610-11
Zeniths in Later Gupta India (Sri Harsha), Sasanid Persia & Byzantium (Heraklius); mission of Mohammed the Prophet, Arabia; first Viking raids in Europe; foundation of Nan Chao (Thailand); Persia invades Syria, Egypt & Anatolia; major public works in China (Gret Wall, Grand Canal); unification of Tibet; first use of petroleum (Japan); Saxon ascendancy, England

Uranus conjunct Neptune 623-24
Zenith of Mayan civilisation (Palenque temples); cultural climax in China (T'ang dynasty); birth of Islam (the Hegira); decline of Sasanid Persia; Christian Saxon England, Celtic decline; Viking invasions (Ireland); zenith of Pallava dynasty, S India; Byzantium beseiged by Avars & Persians (Europe threatened); sugar reaches Europe from India

Uranus opposition Pluto 634-36
Arabic expansion into Egypt, Jerusalem, Syria, Persia (Caliph Omar); anarchy in Britain; Gupta decline, India; Byzantine decline; Fujiwara reforms, Japan; Buddhism adopted in Tibet (Srongtsan Gampo); Irish Celtic church submits to Catholicism; end of Frankish Merovingian dynasty; Persian Parsees settle in India; China extends into Turkestan

Neptune opposition Pluto square Uranus 660-65
Sudden end of Teotihuacan, Mexico; Hindu Srivijaya empire, SE Asia; expansion of Tibet; Umayyad Caliphate, Damascus; Arab invasion of Maghreb (N Africa); decline of Celtic church (Synod of Whitby); Silla period, Korea; Bulgars migrate to lower Danube from Ukraine; reduction of Byzantium (Arab pressure); revision of Quran (Othman); Turks disperse into Russia & India

NEXT: Later Age of Light and Dark
BACK: Classical Empire Period

The Historical Ephemeris
Astro-historical tables for 2,500 years
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