Timelines: Light/Dark Ages - Late - Historical Ephemeris

The Historical Ephemeris

600 BCE - CE 2200

Astrological Cycles in History

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Timelines: Light/Dark Ages - Late


Historical Ephemeris

Astro-historical timeline 6:
Later Age of Light and Dark
Waning Neptune-Pluto hemicycle  657-905 CE

* = a period of change or a general trend
? = an uncertain date

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* ASIA: Western Turks disperse to Russia-Hungary & some later follow Mahmud of Ghazni to India

657 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta


ROME: Pope Vitalian (657-672)


CHINA: max extent of Chinese influence in C Asia (incl Afghanistan, Kashmir, Oxus, Turkestan)

658 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta


? C AMERICA: abrupt end of Teotihuacan civilisation (Mexico, city burned by attackers)


C ASIA: Chinese protectorates in West Turkestan, Ferghana, E Persia (659-665)

659 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta



660 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

660 NE Sg



ISLAM: UMAYYAD CALIPHATE FOUNDED (661-946)at Damascus by Mo'Awiya (Caliph 661-680)

661 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

661 NE Sg


* ISLAM: Umayyad building & art develops (661-750), major theological developments, gov't organisation

661 Sa CONJ NE Sg Sg


661 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

662 PL Ge


ROME: last visit to Rome by a Byzantine emperor, Constans II Pogonatus (641-668)

663 UR -SQR PL Aq Ta

663 UR Pi


E ASIA: Japanese withdrawal from Korea (ending 1st Japanese overseas expansion)


BRITAIN: Synod of Whitby: Catholic Saxon Church aligns to Rome, Ancient British Celtic Church dies

664 UR -SQR PL Aq Ta

663 PL Ge


BRITAIN: outbreak of plague in Saxon kingdoms

664 UR Pi


ISLAM: Arab invasion of Afghanistan and incursion into NW India by 674

664 PL Ge


BRITAIN: emigration of Celtic Christians from Ireland & Wales to Iceland and North America

665 UR +SQR NE Pi Sg


C ASIA: expansion of Tibet into Turkestan and Tsinghai (NW China)


666 UR +SQR NE Pi Sg



667 UR +SQR NE Pi Sg



668 UR +SQR NE Pi Sg



BRITAIN: Theodore of Tarsus, Archbp of Canterbury, organises RC Church, uniting rival kgdms


* ASIA: height of Silla period in Korea (650-780) (flourishing of art, learning & Buddhism)


IBERIA: codification of Visigoth law in Spain


ISLAM: Arab invasion of North Africa (Libya, Tunisia, Morocco)


CHINA: Buddhist monk I-Tsing travels to India and Malaya

671 UR Ar


INNOVN: 'Greek Fire', explosive missiles, developed in Byzantium, to be used against Arabs


C ASIA: conquest of Tarim Basin (Silk Roads) & Ladakh by Tibetans

672 Sa CONJ UR Ar Ar



BRITAIN: First Synod of English Catholic Church at Hertford; use of glass windows in churches begins

673 UR -sxt PL Ar Ge


FRANCE: civil war and anarchy break out in Frankish kingdom, (673-687)

673 Sa CONJ UR Ar Ar


BYZANTIUM: Arabs beseige Constantinople (674-78), Byzantines survive (first major Arab failure)

674 UR -sxt PL Ar Ge

674 NE Cp



E EUROPE: Bulgars resettle south of Danube, to found new Bulgarian empire

675 NE Cp



ASIA: Korea unified by principal state of Silla



677 Sa CONJ PL Ge Ge



678 Sa CONJ PL Ge Ge

678 UR Ta


E EUROPE: Khazars overcome Bulgars in S Russia, expanding the Khazar Khanate (later wealthy)

679 Sa OPPN NE Cn Cp

679 UR Ta


E EUROPE: Bulgars surge into Balkans; recognised rulers over Slavs by Byzantium in 681

679 UR -ssq PL Ta Ge


IBERIA: Visigothic king, Wamba, becomes a monk

680 Sa OPPN NE Cn Cp


BYZANTIUM: 6th Council of Constantinople condemns Monothelites & repudiates Roman primacy


ISLAM: Sunni CaliphYazid I defeats Shi'ite Husayn at Kerbela (escalation of long Sunni-Shi'ite rivalry)


681 UR +tri NE Ta Cp


SE ASIA: beginning of maritime expansion of Srivijaya (Sumatra, Hindu-Buddhist)

682 UR +tri NE Ta Cp


683 UR -ssx PL Ta Ge


C AMERICA: Chan-Bahlum II, Maya lord (683-701)

683 UR +tri NE Ta Cp




ISLAM: Abdulmalik, Ummayyad Caliph (684-705), Damascus (subdues opp'n Kharijites & Shi'ites)

684 UR +tri NE Ta Cp


CHINA: Empress Wu (684-704) (capricious changes of little lasting effect, liberal backlash)

684 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge


ISLAM: ZENITH (685-715) of UMAYYAD PERIOD in MIDEAST: major cultural developments

684 UR -ssx PL Ta Ge


BRITAIN: Bt of Nechtansmere, Picts prevent Northumbrians from gaining control of Scotland

685 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

685 UR Ge


ITALY: Ravenna 'Cosmography' (the first geographical gazatteer) published


BRITAIN: Sussex, last pagan kingdom in Saxon England, converted

686 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

686 UR Ge


FRANCE: Pepin the Younger (679-714) reunites & dominates Frankish state after Bt of Testry

687 NE on NE SNode


ROME: Pope Sergius I (687-701)

687 UR on UR NNode


687 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge


688 UR +sqt NE Ge Cp

688 NE Aq


689 UR +sqt NE Ge Aq

689 PL Cn



690 UR +sqt NE Ge Aq

690 PL Cn



FRANCE: Clovis III, King of all the Franks (691-5)

691 UR +sqt NE Ge Aq

691 PL Cn



ISLAM: completion of Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem: Islam's first major monument

692 PL on PL NNode

692 UR Cn



ISLAM: fall of Armenia to Arabs; Byzantine Justinian II defeated at Bt of Sebastopolis

693 UR CONJ PL Cn Cn

693 UR Cn



694 Sa OPPN UR Cp Cn


694 Sa OPPN PL Cp Cn


ISLAM: first Arab coinage in use

695 Sa OPPN UR Cp Cn


IBERIA: persecution of Jews in Spain

695 UR +qcx NE Cn Aq


* ASIA: Khitan tribes raid Chinese borderlands in Mongolia

696 UR +qcx NE Cn Aq



IRELAND: Ulster Celtic Church submits to Roman Catholic Church

697 UR +qcx NE Cn Aq


698 UR +qcx NE Cn Aq


INDIA: fall of Jains as Pallava Srimaravarman converts to Shivaism (death of 8000 Jains)

698 Sa CONJ NE Aq Aq

698 UR Le


N AFRICA: Carthage, Byzantium's last N African outpost, falls to Arabs; Berbers accept Islam in 702


BYZANTIUM: revolt in Byz army begins period of instability & loss (699-717)

699 Sa CONJ NE Aq Aq

699 UR Le


* BYZANTIUM: Greek replaces Latin as cultural language of Byzantium

700 NE -sqt PL Aq Cn


* BRITAIN: Lindisfarne Gospels written; Psalms translated to Saxon; 'Beowulf', late Saxon epic


* CHINA: golden age of Chinese poetry, to 850; major growth of cities and population


* W AFRICA: rise of gold-trading Ghanaian kingdom


JAPAN: Gyogi of Korea (670-749) interweaves Shinto & Buddhism


JAPAN: 'Taiho' codification of law (Emperor becomes sole owner of land, heredity prevails)

701 NE -sqt PL Aq Cn


E EUROPE: Tervel, Czar of Bulgars (701-717) (peak of Bulgarian power & wealth)

702 NE -sqt PL Aq Cn

702 NE Pi


* S AMERICA: decline of MOCHICA CULTURE (Peru, Lambayeque valley)

702 UR +ssx PL Le Cn


703 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn



704 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn



ISLAM: Walid I, Ummayyad caliph (705-715) (building of Great Mosque, Damascus; Umayyad peak)

705 UR Vi +


706 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi


706 UR +ssq PL Vi Cn



707 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi


* S AMERICA: rise of SICAN CULTURE (Peru, proto-Inca, heyday 850-1050)

707 UR +ssq PL Vi Cn


* S AMERICA: expansion of HUARI state, Bolivia – conquest of Moche

708 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi



E ASIA: Po Hai kingdom in Manchuria (set up on Chinese model by Korean rulers) (709-934)

709 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi


ISLAM: Arab invasion of Samarkand, Bokhara & Turkestan under Walid I


BRITAIN: war between Saxons of England and Britons (Celts) of Cornwall

710 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi


JAPAN: NARA PERIOD STARTS (710-84) (independent Jap culture grows, Shinto & Buddhism hybridise)

710 Sa CONJ PL Cn Cn


ISLAM: ARAB INVASION OF SPAIN & control of Straits of Gibraltar; end of Visigothic kgdm

711 PL Le


BYZANTIUM: Bulgars at the gates of Byzantium (forcing tribute)

711 UR Li


ISLAM: Arabs conquer Sind (Pakistan) as far as Indus river

712 PL Le


* ITALY: zenith of Lombard kingdom (568-774) in North Italy

712 UR Li


ISLAM: Arab Samarkand, Seville & Cordoba, developing into major peripheral Islamic centers


CHINA: Ming Huang, emperor (713-756); MING RENAISSANCE in arts & learning, education, technology


* INDIA; migration of Zoroastran refugees from Persia – origins of the Parsis (NW India)

714 Sa OPPN NE Vi Pi



FRANCE: Charles Martel, Merovingian chief minister (714-41) of Frankish kingdoms

715 Sa OPPN NE Li Ar

715 NE Ar



E EUROPE: Byzantium recognises independent Bulgaria

716 NE Ar


W EUROPE: Boniface leaves native England for Rome (Church evangelist & organiser in W Europe)


BYZANTIUM: Leo III, Byz Emp (717-41) (Iconoclastic Dispute begins, holy images banned 717-843)

717 Sa CONJ UR Li Li

717 UR Sc



BYZANTIUM: Arab siege of Constantinople beaten by Byzantines (new Byzantine ascendancy)

718 UR Sc



719 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar



ISLAM: Arabs attack France (Narbonne) (Europe at risk of Islamicisation)

720 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar


INDIA: fall of the Gupta dynasty


721 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar



GERMANY: St Boniface's mission to Germany (to counter Celtic Church & monastic rules)

722 UR +SQR PL Sc Le


722 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar


723 UR +SQR PL Sc Le


RUSSIA: defeat of Khazars by Umayyads; conquest of Georgia


JAPAN: Shomu, Emp of Japan; peak of Nara period & classical semi-Chinese culture

724 UR Sg


CHINA: est of Hanlin Academy, for the training of highest Mandarin officials


EUROPE: Venerable Bede (historian, 672-735) introduces dating by Christian Era

725 UR Sg


W EUROPE: Charles Martel begins expansion of Frankish lands (seed of Carolingian empire)


INDIA: Pala kgdm in Bengal & Magadha (725-1125) (Buddhist culture, Thai & Sumatran links)

726 UR -sqt NE Sg Ar


727 UR on UR SNode


727 UR -sqt NE Sg Ar


728 UR -sqt NE Sg Ar

728 PL Vi


* CHINA: new cultural influences arrive from India (via large traffic of Buddhist pilgrims)

728 Sa OPPN PL Pi Vi

728 NE Ta


729 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

728 NE Ta



729 UR -sqt NE Sg Ta

729 NE Ta


EUROPE: Pope Gregory II (715-31) excommunicates Byzantine Emperor

729 Sa OPPN PL Pi Vi


INNOVN: movable-type printing developed in China

730 NE -tri PL Ta Vi


CHINA: local ruler unites six lands of Nan-Chao (resisting T'ang until 794)


BRITAIN: Venerable Bede's 'Ecclesiastical History of the English People'

731 NE -tri PL Ta Vi



W EUROPE: Bt of Poitiers (Charles Martel) ends Arab expansion into Europe (Frankish growth)

732 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

732 UR Cp



INDIA: scholar king Yasovarman of Kanauj (@730-40) (patron of arts & Hindu religion)

733 NE -tri PL Ta Vi


S INDIA: Chalukya Vikramaditya II (733-46) thrice invades Kanchi to make offerings at temples


BRITAIN: est of Archbishopric and school of York (later exercising Europe-wide influence)

734 NE -tri PL Ta Vi


734 Sa CONJ NE Ta Ta


735 NE -tri PL Ta Vi


735 UR -tri NE Cp Ta


INDIA: founding of the city of Delhi (later to be Indian capital)

736 UR -tri NE Cp Ta



737 UR -tri NE Cp Ta


737 UR +tri PL Cp Vi


CHINA: Emp Ming Huang ests schools in every district of Chinese empire

738 UR +tri PL Cp Vi


W AFRICA: Arabs begin to raid NW Africa for slaves (beginning of long slave trade in NW Africa)


739 UR +tri PL Cp Vi

739 UR Aq


* MIDEAST: creative period St John of Damascus (700-50) (liturgy & reform of musical notation)

739 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

739 PL Li


* RUSSIA: Khazars convert to Judaism (to avoid Byzantine & Islamic pressures)

740 UR +tri PL Aq Li

740 UR Aq


MIDEAST: Byzantines beat Arabs at Bt of Akroinon (turning Arab energy to N Africa)

740 Sa OPPN UR Le Aq

740 PL Li


N AFRICA: Berber rebellion against Arab rule in Algeria


ISLAM: revolts by Kharjites in Iraq & N Africa, Shiites in Iraq (against Sunni Umayyads)


JAPAN: creation of gov't monasteries in every province; bldg of Great Buddha at Nara (by 752)


FRANCE: birth of Charlemagne (742-814)

742 NE Ge


MIDEAST: earthquakes in Syria & Palestine destroy many cities, thousands killed


INDIA: Gurjara-Prathihara dynasty (743-1036) unites N India (staving off Islam until 1100s)


* C ASIA: Turkic tribes leave Siberia, to be replaced by Uighurs

743 NE Ge


* CHINA: zenith of Chinese lyrical poetry: Wang Wei, Li Po, Po Chu-I, Han Yu (48,900 poems)


* JAPAN: monk Gyogi (670-749) propagates Shinto & Buddhism as two aspects of same faith


BYZANTIUM: Constantinus V Copronymus (741-77) defeats the Arabs (renews Iconoclastic Dispute)

745 Sa CONJ PL Li Li


ASIA: beginning of Uighur empire in Siberia (745-840) (tolerable to China)


BYZANTIUM: plague ruins Constantinople (spreading to Greece & Sicily, introd by Arabs)

746 Sa CONJ PL Li Li


CHINA: peak of Chinese landscape painting: Wu Tao-hsuan, Li Ssu-hsun, Wang Wei

747 UR +sqt PL Pi Li

747 UR Pi


MED'N: Arab fleet destroyed during attack on Cyprus: failure of the Islamic advance

748 UR +sqt PL Pi Li


ASIA: Padmasambhava begins introduction of Tantric Buddhism into Tibet & Bhutan

749 UR +sqt PL Pi Li


* EUROPE: Gregorian music arises in W Europe; pipe organs spread west from Byzantium

750 UR +sqt PL Pi Li




ISLAM: ABBASID BAGHDAD CALIPHATE founded by Abu al Abbas; Umayyad caliphate ends


* CHINA: porcelain developed in China; * INDIA: 'Kamandaki', Hindu manual on government and law


ITALY: Lombards capture Ravenna, ending Byzantine power in Italy (re: schism between Rome & Byzantium)


EUROPE: Merovingian dynasty ends in France; diffuculties in Byzantine succession


ASIA: Bt of Talas River (Turkestan) sets boundary between China & Islamic world

751 Sa OPPN NE Sg Ge

751 PL Sc


W EUROPE: CAROLINGIAN PERIOD (751-814) – election of Pepin the Short as king of the Franks (750-68)

751 PL Peri 28Li


EURASIA: paper-making & silk-weaving spread to Arabs & Europe (1150), via Chinese prisoners

751 UR +sqt PL Pi Li


* ASIA: zenith of Korean arts & sculpture

752 Sa OPPN NE Sg Ge

752 PL Sc


JAPAN: dedication of Great Buddha at Nara, peak of Buddhist fervour

752 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge


ROME: Pope Stephen II (752-7) steers Roman Church away from Byzantium to links with Franks


* INDIA: spread of Tantric Buddhist & Hindu magical teachings (favouring goddess invocation)

753 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge


INDIA: establishment of Rashtrakuta kingdom (753-973) in Deccan, by Dantidurga (overthrows Chalukyas)


* C ASIA: cultural links in Tibet switch from China to India

754 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge

754 UR Ar


ISLAM: Al-Mansur the Victorious, Abbasid Caliph (754-775, Abbasid leadership passes to Persians)


CHINA: An Lu-Shan's rebellion (755-763) in China; slow decline of T'ang civilisation (to 907)

755 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge

755 UR Ar


* ASIA: uprisings against China by Uighurs, Thais, Tangut, Mongol & Khitan peoples

755 NE Cn


* ISLAM: growth of Sufi mystical movement (Anatolia, Syria)


IBERIA: Emir Abd al Rahman ests UMAYYAD CALIPHATE of CORDOBA (755-1031) (ind of Abbasids)

756 NE Cn


CHINA: Arabs aid China to crush rebellion (on resignation of Ming Huang, T'ang Emperor)


ROME: foundation of the Papal State (donation of Frankish Pepin the Short)


JAPAN: art collection of Emperor Shomu presented to Todai-ju Temple (3000 objects)

757 UR +qcx PL Ar Sc


CHINA: establishment of Muslim trading quarter in Kanfu (Canton)

758 UR +qcx PL Ar Sc


BRITAIN: supremacy of Mercia under Offa II (757-96)


FRANCE: Franks (Pepin the Short) eject Arabs from Southern France

759 UR +qcx PL Ar Sc



MIDEAST: foundation of Turkish Empire by Tartar Turkic tribe in Armenia



* BRITAIN: zenith of Celtic book copying & illustration

760 UR +qcx PL Ar Sc


INNOVN: Arabs adopt Indian numerals, decimal notation, and develop algebra & trigonometry


C ASIA: withdrawal of Chinese influence from C Asia, making way for Tibetan & Uighur growth

761 UR +qcx PL Ar Sc


ISLAM: Baghdad founded as capital of Abbasid Caliphate (previous capital was Damascus)

762 UR Ta


C ASIA: Uighur nomads convert to Manichaeism (after the Kagan meets Persian refugees in China)


C ASIA: Tibetan expansion into Tunhuang, Kansu, Tarim Basin, Nepal & Ladakh, to 840

763 Sa CONJ UR Ta Ta

763 UR Ta


CHINA: Tibetans sack western capital of Chang-An (China beseiged by marauders)

763 PL Sg


JAPAN: rise to power of monk Dokyo, under Empress Shotoku (764-70)

764 PL Sg


* W AFRICA: increase in trans-Saharan trade (gold, salt, slaves) and rise of rich trading towns


FRANCE: Carolingian Royal Court established Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) by Pepin the Short

765 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg



S INDIA: Rashtrakuta Krishnaraja I builds Ellora & Elephanta temples (classical Shaiva style)





W EUROPE: accession of CHARLEMAGNE, Carolingian emperor (768-814) to Frankish throne

768 UR -sxt NE Ta Cn


768 NE on NE NNode


769 UR -sxt NE Ta Cn

769 UR Ge


769 Sa CONJ NE Le Le

769 NE Le


INDIA: Dharmapala, K of Pala (@770-883) in Bengal & Magadha (king over 100 years)

770 UR -sxt NE Ta Cn

770 UR Ge


770 NE Le


771 UR on UR NNode





ITALY: Charlemagne conquers Northern Italy (beginning long saga of rivalry of HRE vs Papacy)



774 UR OPPN PL Ge Sg



ASIA: Tibet invades Himalayan nations and makes treaty with China

775 UR OPPN PL Ge Sg


ISLAM: Inquisition starts in Arab empire


E EUROPE: downfall of Bulgaria to Byzantine Greeks (revival in 790s)

776 UR OPPN PL Ge Sg

776 UR Cn


776 UR -ssq NE Ge Le


BRITAIN: Kent & Wessex subdued; Offa, King of all England (779-96) (Mercian dominance 779-821)

777 UR -ssq NE Cn Le


W EUROPE: Charlemagne subdues the Saxons on mainland Europe


778 PL Cp



* CHINA: provincial capitals grow in strength; migrations to Yangtze valley; boom in trade



E ASIA: collapse of Silla, political decline in Korea (780-935, with increasing imitation of China)

780 PL on PL SNode



JAPAN: Emperor Kammu (781-806) (subdues Ainu peoples, moves capital to Kyoto, modernisation)



BYZANTIUM: last Arab attempt to overcome Byzantium fails

782 UR -ssx NE Cn Le

782 UR Le


W EUROPE: Alcuin of York (735-804) organises higher education: CAROLINGIAN RENAISSANCE

782 NE Vi


783 Sa CONJ PL Cp Cp

783 UR Le


783 UR -ssx NE Cn Le

783 NE Vi


BRITAIN: building of Offa's Dyke (earthwork dividing Saxon England from Celtic Wales)

784 UR -qcx PL Le Cp



CHINA: first known use of magnetic compass, in China

785 UR -qcx PL Le Cp



ISLAM: building of Mosque of Cordoba, Spain (a peak of Muslim architecture)

786 Sa OPPN UR Aq Le


ISLAM: Harun al Rashid, Abbasid Caliph (786-809, great caliph, patron of arts & sciences)

786 UR -qcx PL Le Cp



787 Sa OPPN UR Aq Le


787 UR -qcx PL Le Cp


NW AFRICA: Idrisid dynasty of Fez (788-930) creates independent Islamic Morocco

788 Sa OPPN NE Pi Vi

788 UR Vi



789 Sa OPPN NE Pi Vi

789 UR Vi


789 UR -sqt PL Vi Cp


IBERIA: CORDOBA CALIPHATE under Harun-al-Rashid (patron of learning) in Cordoba

790 UR -sqt PL Vi Cp


* C ASIA: conquest of Tarim, Dzungaria, Himalaya & W China by Tibetans, to 860


E EUROPE: Avar state in Hungary beaten by Charlemagne's attacks 791-796

791 UR -sqt PL Vi Cp


* ATLANTIC: settlement of Faeroes, Iceland and eventually America by Irish monks


* BYZANTIUM: decline and instability until 820


C ASIA: Buddhism adopted as the state religion of Tibet


NW EUROPE: SERIOUS VIKING THREAT TO EUROPE BEGINS – Danes destroy Lindisfarne monastery


* N AMERICA: DAWN OF MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURE (towns and riverine horticulture, 800-1450)


JAPAN: HEIAN PERIOD (794-1185), Kyoto (dominated by Fujiwara clan 967-1068, decline of Chinese

794 UR CONJ NE Vi Vi

795 PL Aq


influence, growth of Buddhism & Fujiwara court, cent gov't reform, gradual devolution)


ISLAM: opening of a state paper mill in Baghdad

794 UR -tri PL Vi Cp

795 UR Li


MIDEAST: revolts in Egypt

795 UR -tri PL Vi Cp

796 PL Aq


NW EUROPE: Viking landings and settlements start (mainly Norwegian), dominance by 802

796 UR -tri PL Li Aq

796 UR Li


FRANCE: Alciun, Carolingian educator, founds a university at Tours

796 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

796 NE Li


ISLAM: Harun-al-Rashid sends embassies to Charlemagne & T'ang emperor

797 NE -tri PL Li Aq

797 NE Li


* ISLAM: Oriental & Hellenistic thinking meet, at Baghdad, Mecca, Damascus, Samarkand & Egypt

798 NE -tri PL Li Aq


C ASIA: Khazars invade Armenia

798 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq

Neptune opposition Pluto square Uranus 660-65
Sudden end of Teotihuacan, Mexico; Hindu Srivijaya empire, SE Asia; expansion of Tibet; Umayyad Caliphate, Damascus; Arab invasion of Maghreb (N Africa); decline of Celtic church (Synod of Whitby); Silla period, Korea; Bulgars migrate to lower Danube from Ukraine; reduction of Byzantium (Arab pressure); revision of Quran (Othman); Turks disperse into Russia & India

Uranus conjunct Pluto 693
Zenith of Umayyad Caliphate - Arab empire from Turkestan to Morocco; zenith of Khazar Khanate, Kazakhstan; golden age in T'ang China; zenith of Bulgars, SE Europe; Byzantine instability; decline of Mochica culture, Peru;
Dome of the Rock completed, Jerusalem; persecution of Jews in Spain; Lindisfarne Gospels, Beowulf; decline of Teotihuacan & Monte Alban, Mexico

Uranus opposition Neptune 706-09
Collapse of Teotihuacan; Arab invasion of Spain & Sindh (Pakistan); Bulgars then Arabs beseige Constantinople (Byzantine low-point); renaissance in Ming China; Nara classical period, Japan; rise of Sican culture, Peru; expansion of Huari, Bolivia; wars between Saxons & Cornish

Uranus square Pluto 722-23
Rivalry between Celtic & Roman Christians in NW Europe; Charles Martel starts Frankish expansion, blocks Arab invasion in France; zenith of Mayan civilisation, Yucatan; Buddhist Pala kgdm, Bengal; fall of Gupta dynasty; India influences China (thru Buddhist pilgrims)

Uranus square Neptune 751-54
Islam meets China at Bt of Talas River, Turkestan; Frankish Carolingian dynasty (Frankish growth); slow decline of T'ang dynasty, China; first Turkic sultanate, Armenia; Umayyad Caliphate in Cordoba, Spain; Buddhist zenith, Japan (Great Buddha at Nara); Abbasid Caliphate, Baghdad; cultural zeniths in Japan, India, Russia, Cordoba, China; Rashtrakuta kgdm, Deccan, India

Uranus opposition Pluto 774-76
Charlemagne, Carolingian emperor, conquests; Byzantine revival (fall of Bulgars); Tibetan & Uighur expansion, C Asia; social change in Ming China; Saxon England united (King Offa); collapse of Silla, decline in Korea; Dharmapala, king of Pala & Maghada, Bengal (king for a century)

Uranus conjunct Neptune 794
Serious Viking raids in NW Europe; Heian Buddhist period, Japan; urban Mississippi culture, American midwest; rise of Angkor (Cambodia) & Borobadur (Java); Maori migration to New Zealand; Huari decline, Peru; regionalisation of China, trade boom



* PACIFIC OCEAN: first Polynesian settlers reach Easter Island and New Zealand (850)


* SE ASIA: Khmer in Angkor rise to regional prominence; high civilisation in Java (Borobadur)


* AFRICA: state of Luba (Zaire) at zenith of development (source of later C African cultures)

800 NE -tri PL Li Aq


* S AMERICA: decline of HUARI CULTURE (Peru)




* BYZANTIUM: crucifixion artwork shows Christ's suffering & vulnerability for first time


EUROPE: CHARLEMAGNE crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome: HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE begins


EUROPE: final separation between East & West empires and Churches; Carolingian links with Arabs


N AFRICA: Aghlabid dynasty of Kairouan (801-909) establishes independent Libya

801 NE -tri PL Li Aq

801 UR Sc


W EUROPE: Germanic tribal laws codified by Charlemagne

802 UR Sc


SE ASIA: Angkorean (Khmer) Buddhist kingdom established by Jayavarman II


E EUROPE: Bulgarians throw off Tartar (Turkic) dominance


EUROPE: independence of Venice (to become wealthy trading city) recognised by Byzantium


EUROPE: expansion of Carolingian empire into E Germany

804 UR -SQR PL Sc Aq


INDIA: Rashtrakuta Govinda II (794-813) expands Rashtrakuta empire across C India

804 Sa CONJ NE Li Li


ASIA: beginning of major Nestorian missionary expansion to Turkestan, Mongolia & China

805 UR -SQR PL Sc Aq


C AMERICA: beginning of decline in southern Mayan building, science & trade (Guatemala)

805 Sa CONJ NE Li Li


* SE ASIA: building of Buddhist temple complex at Borobudur, Java



* BRITAIN: Egbert of Wessex (802-39) dominant king in England (Wessex resists of Vikings)

807 UR +ssx NE Sc Li



E EUROPE: Krum (808-14) reorganises Bulgaria & overturns Byz repression

808 Sa CONJ UR Sc Sc

808 UR Sg



* E AFRICA: Kilwa Kisiwani and other trading towns founded along E African coast

809 UR Sg



E EUROPE: Bulgarians conquer Sofia and defeat Byzantium (Byzantium weak)

810 NE Sc


PERSIA: Persian mathematician al-Khwarizmi devises algebra


811 UR on UR SNode

811 NE Sc



EUROPE: Mikael I, Byz Emperor, concedes title of Basileus (emperor) on Charlemagne (812-20)



MIDEAST: astronomy school established in Baghdad ; short Abbasid civil war – Baghdad sacked


ISLAM: Mamun, Baghdad Caliph (813-33) brings Augustan age of Arabian arts, learning & science


W EUROPE: death of Charlemagne (successor Louis the Pious, 814-40, Carolingian decline starts)

814 UR -sxt PL Sg Aq


814 UR +ssq NE Sg Sc


BRITAIN: Egbert of Wessex defeats Britons in Cornwall (Wessex expansion in SW England)

815 UR -sxt PL Sg Aq



C ASIA: Magian leader Babek harrasses Abbasid empire from Azerbaijan (Zoroastran revivalism)

816 UR Cp



W EUROPE: Carolingian empire divided by Louis the Pious

817 Sa CONJ PL Aq Aq

817 PL Pi



818 PL Pi



819 PL Pi



ISLAM: Abbasid Caliphate reorganised; Taherite dynasty est'd at Khorasan

820 UR -ssq PL Cp Pi


BYZANTIUM: Phrygian dynasty (820-67) reclaims Byzantine power (renews Byzantine flowering)


BRITAIN: end of Mercian supremacy in England (Wessex on rise)

821 UR +sxt NE Cp Sc



IDEAS: est of House of Knowledge in Baghdad (translations from Greece, Syria, Persia, India)

822 UR +sxt NE Cp Sc



* IDEAS: Samkara of Malabar (c788-850) (reinterprets Vedanta & Brahminism, founds schools)

823 UR +sxt NE Cp Sc

823 UR Aq


823 Sa OPPN NE Ta Sc


GERMANY: Louis the Pious offers personal protection of king to Jews in Germany

824 Sa OPPN NE Ge Sg

824 NE Sg



ITALY: rise of N Italian cities (eg Pavia, Venice) as centres of culture & literature

825 UR -ssx PL Aq Pi



N EUROPE: Ansgar the missionary preaches in Scandinavia (Scania & Svealand)



MED'N: Saracen occupation of Sicily (marking rise of widespread pirate raids on Med'n coasts)



BRITAIN: Egbert of Wessex, High King of Saxon Heptarchy (828-39) (on defeat of Mercia (824-5))



829 Sa OPPN UR Le Aq



C EUROPE: Moravian nation (830-906) formed by Prince Moymir of Moravia (830-46)

830 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi


830 Sa OPPN UR Le Aq


C AMERICA: Mayan classic period ends – central Maya states decline, Long Count calendar abandoned

831 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

831 UR Pi


831 Sa OPPN UR Vi Pi


BYZANTIUM: Iconoclastic Dispute: persecution of icon worshippers in Byzantium

831 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi


832 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi


832 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi


833 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi


MIDEAST: revolt of the Jats (Gypsies) in Iraq (against Abbasid rule)



* INDIA: Rajasthani Pratihara kingdom (835-970) rules N India



BRITAIN: Danes sack London and raid much of E England; 837 Saxons (Heptarchy) fight back

836 UR CONJ PL Pi Pi


INDIA: struggle for control of Deccan, between Rashtrakutas & Pratiharas



ISLAM: Abbasid capital moves to Samarra (brings gradual loss of control by Abbasids)

837 UR CONJ PL Pi Pi


837 UR +SQR NE Pi Sg


MED'N: Arabs sack Marseilles and S Italy, defeat Byzantium in Asia Minor (threatening Europe)

838 UR +SQR NE Ar Cp

838 NE Cp


* IRELAND: est of first towns in Ireland by Vikings; immigration of Gallic refugees

838 UR Ar


E ASIA: end of Japanese period of imitation of China (last embassy to T'ang)


C ASIA: collapse of central control of the kingdom of Tibet

839 UR +SQR NE Ar Cp

839 UR Ar


E EUROPE: Confederation of Slavic tribes under Moravian Moimir (to resist German land pressures)

840 UR +SQR NE Ar Cp


C ASIA: Turkic Kirghiz (Siberians) overthrow Uighur empire (many Uighur migrate to Tarim Basin)


NW EUROPE: Vikings plunder Rouen & Paris; monarchy est'd in Norway; N Germany attacked 845

841 Sa CONJ NE Cp Cp


CHINA: Wu Tsung, Taoist emperor, persecutes Manichaeans, Buddhists, Nestorians in China


W EUROPE: foundation of Dublin by Vikings (as main base for operations in Ireland & Britain)


ASIA: Tibetan empire disintegrates


BYZANTIUM: use & worship of icons re-established; Mikael III the Drunkard, Byz Emp (842-67)


W EUROPE: partition of Carolingian empire, into Italy, France, Germany (Treaty of Verdun)


CHINA: Manichaeism destroyed in China after persecutions of Persian & Asian Manichaeans


BRITAIN: Kenneth MacAlpin, K of Scots & Picts (844-60) (1st king of united Scotland)

844 PL Ar



CHINA: general decline (persecution of Buddhists; currency inflation & imperial bankruptcy)

845 PL Ar


845 UR Ta


ITALY: Arabs pillage Rome, sack the Vatican, destroy Venetian fleet

846 UR +ssx PL Ta Ar

846 PL Ar


MIDEAST: Viking (Varangian) traders reach Baghdad

846 UR Ta


* ISLAM: beginning of decline of Abbasid empire (gradual disintegration into local dynasties)

847 UR +ssx PL Ta Ar



* INNOVN: earliest use of gunpowder, in China (roots of new warfare)

849 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar


C AMERICA: collapse of Classic Maya civilisation in Mexico

851 NE on NE SNode


* S AMERICA: decline of Huari civilisation in Peru

851 UR +ssq PL Ta Ar


INDIA: Buddhism becomes defunct in India (overridden by Hindu & Jain religions)


ISLAM: Arabs perfect the astrolabe (an astronomical observational device)


RUSSIA: Rurik the Viking, ruler of Kiev (850-79) (Viking trade expansion to Black Sea & Med'n)


INDIA: foundation of Chola state (Madras area, later to be influential across Asia)


C AMERICA: foundation of Chichen Itza, N Yucatan (to become leading Maya/Toltec city)


ROME: 'Papa Caput totius Orbis', proclamation of Papal supremacy on earth

852 NE Aq



INNOVN: publication of the first printed book, in China

853 UR +tri NE Ge Aq

853 UR Ge


853 Sa CONJ UR Ge Ge


* SE ASIA: Burmese establish a state at Pagan

854 UR +tri NE Ge Aq



ITALY: Louis II, king of Italy & Holy Roman Emperor (855-76)

855 UR +tri NE Ge Aq


855 UR on UR NNode


GREECE: Corinth wrecked by an earthquake, killing 45,000

856 UR +tri NE Ge Aq



C EUROPE: Ratislav of Moravia (846-70) shifts Moravia from Frankish to Byzantine sphere



EUROPE: Vikings attack & plunder S Spain, Mediterranean coasts and Asia Minor

858 NE -sxt PL Aq Ar


JAPAN: Yoshifusa achieves Fujiwara domination of Imp court

858 Sa OPPN NE Le Aq


MIDEAST: establishment of Bagratide dynasty in Armenia by Ashot I

859 Sa OPPN NE Le Aq

859 UR Cn


C ASIA: downfall & splintering of Tibetan kingdom (affecting large areas of C Asia)


* SE ASIA: growth of great Khmer cities & architecture in Cambodia

860 UR +sqt NE Cn Aq

860 UR Cn


SCANDNVA: Gorm the Elder unites Denmark; BYZANTIUM: Vikings first raid Constantinople


W EUROPE: major towns of NW Europe under Viking attack, terror grows along coasts & rivers

861 UR +sqt NE Cn Aq


ATLANTIC: landing on Iceland by Norwegian Vikings


RUSSIA: Novgorod founded by Rurik the Viking (the first Russian state)

862 UR +sqt NE Cn Aq



E EUROPE: creation of Cyrillic alphabet in Moravia by St Cyril & Methodius

863 UR +SQR PL Cn Ar


863 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar


864 UR +SQR PL Cn Ar


BYZANTIUM: Vikings attack Constantinople (richest city they had seen)

864 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

865 NE Pi


BRITAIN: Viking occupation of Northumbria & Yorkshire

865 UR +SQR PL Cn Ar


E EUROPE: Bulgars (Boris I (852-89)) and Serbians convert to Christianity


BYZANTIUM: Basil I, Byz Emp (867-86) brings revival (Macedonian Dyn 866-912) (Basilian laws)

866 UR +qcx NE Le Pi

866 NE Pi


JAPAN: Fujiwara Period (866-1160) (Fujiwara clan domination of Imperial Court)

866 UR Le


BYZANTIUM: Patriarch Photius separates Orthodox Church from Rome (recognised by Pope 870)

867 UR +qcx NE Le Pi

867 UR Le


MIDEAST: Zenj rebellion in Chaldaea (869-83)


868 UR +qcx NE Le Pi



MED'N: Malta taken by Arabs

869 UR +qcx NE Le Pi



BRITAIN: Danish Vikings occupy East Anglia

870 NE -ssq PL Pi Ar


PERSIA: Persia virtually independent of Sassanid empire, under Saffarid dynasty (870-903)


BRITAIN: Alfred the Great, King of England (871-99) resists Danish pressure on England



N EUROPE: unification of Norway under Harold Haarfagr, King of Norway (872-933)

872 UR +tri PL Le Ar

872 UR Vi


C ASIA: Samanids take control of Khorasan & Transoxiana (Bokhara intellectual centre of Islam)


873 UR +tri PL Le Ar

873 UR Vi



CHINA: popular uprisings and rebellions against T'ang emperor (874-884)

874 PL Aphn 29Ar

874 PL Ta


ATLANTIC: colonisation of Iceland by Vikings (high cultural level, outlasts Euro Viking ways)


C EUROPE: Sviatopluk of Moravia (870-94) takes Slovakia, Bohemia, Silesia (by 906)

875 UR +sqt PL Vi Ar

875 PL Ta



876 UR +sqt PL Vi Ar

876 PL Ta



BRITAIN: Mercia partitioned between Saxons & Danes (boundary Watling Street)

877 Sa OPPN UR Pi Vi


877 UR +sqt PL Vi Ta


ITALY: Arabs take Sicily from Byzantines

878 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi


BRITAIN: Alfred the Great defeats Danes: Tr of Wedmore divides England between Saxons & Danes

878 Sa OPPN UR Pi Vi


EUROPE: the Pope and Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicate one another

878 Sa CONJ NE Pi Pi

879 NE Ar


ASIA: Nepal gains independence from Tibet

879 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi

879 UR Li


EURASIA: widespread famine in many lands (weather conditions)

879 UR +qcx PL Li Ta


JAPAN: Fujiwara Mototsune (first of many civil dictators, 'kampaku')

880 UR OPPN NE Li Ar

880 NE Ar


FRANCE: Louis III of N France defeats Vikings

880 UR +qcx PL Li Ta


W EUROPE: Charles III the Bald, Carolingian emperor (876-87) (Frankish kgdm reunited 884)

881 UR OPPN NE Li Ar


RUSSIA: Kiev becomes the chief town of Russian confederacy

881 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta


881 UR +qcx PL Li Ta


881 NE -ssx PL Ar Ta


882 NE -ssx PL Ar Ta


W EUROPE: Charles III the Bald becomes King of France, reuniting Carolingian empire



SCANDNVA: Harald Haarfagr (Fairhair) unites & organises Norway (became king 872)

885 UR Sc


* INDIA: Sankaracharya, philosopher reforms Vedic Hinduism


BRITAIN: Alfred the Great recaptures and rebuilds London

886 UR Sc



W EUROPE: separation of Germany & France (Carolingian empire falls, Charles II the Bald deposed)

887 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta


S INDIA: decline of Pallava dynastic power (in favour of Cholas) on death of Aparajitavarman (870-87)


FRANCE: Arabs occupy parts of coast of Provence

888 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta


IBERIA: Abdullah, Emir of Cordoba (888-912)


S INDIA: rise of Tamil Chola dynasty (888-1267) (replacing Jain Pallavas at Kanchi)


C AMERICA: end of building at Tikal, dominant Mayan centre (pop'n 100,000)

889 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta


* BRITAIN: Saxon England thrives under Alfred the Great (with new laws, security, economic upswing)


* JAPAN: Japanese cultural renaissance in literature, art and poetry


NW EUROPE: writing of the 'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle' (891-1150)

891 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar



892 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar

892 NE Ta


892 UR Sg


BRITAIN: Alfred defeats Viking attacks on England (destroying Viking fleet)

893 UR -qcx NE Sg Ta

893 NE Ta


INDIA: major earthquakes kill approx 180,000

894 UR -qcx NE Sg Ta


MIDEAST: communistic Carmathian rebels overrun Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Mecca (891-906)

894 Sa OPPN NE Sc Ta


894 UR on UR SNode


E EUROPE: expelled from Ukraine by Vikings & Khazars, Magyars move to Hungary

895 Sa OPPN NE Sc Ta


MIDEAST: first Hebrew manuscript of the Old Testament (previously in Aramaic)

895 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta


C EUROPE: seven tribes under Arpad the Magyar (896-907) settle in Hungary (later European scourge)

896 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta



JAPAN: Fujiwara Tokihira seeks to end gov't disintegration & corruption

897 UR -qcx PL Sg Ta



898 UR -qcx PL Sg Ta


EUROPE: parts of Italy & Germany raided & devastated by Magyars from Hungary

899 UR -sqt NE Sg Ta

899 UR Cp


* AMERICAS: TOLTEC PERIOD in Mexico (900-1325), capital Tula

900 Sa CONJ UR Cp Cp


* AMERICAS: Second Pueblo Indian period in SW N America (advanced towns & architecture)

900 UR -sqt NE Cp Ta


* NW EUROPE: zenith of Viking artforms (runic carvings, boats, ornaments)


* BRITAIN: England reorganised into shires, with new judicial system of law


* BRITAIN: zenith in Celtic arts (knotwork designs & metalwork, eg Tara brooch)


PERSIA: Samanid dynasty (819-999) at zenith

901 UR -sqt NE Cp Ta


* INDIA: growth of pilgrimage to holy places as a religious devotional practice

902 UR -sqt PL Cp Ta


* PACIFIC OCEAN: Polynesian settlement of Aotearoa (New Zealand) increases

903 UR -sqt PL Cp Ta



BYZANTIUM: Constantinople attacked by Russian Vikings (commercial treaties est'd 907)


C AMERICA: RISE OF NORTHERN MAYA – Chichen Itza becomes dominant centre of the Mayans


* EUROPE: Magyar, Viking & Arab threats coalesce European awareness & identity

905 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta

905 NE Ge


JAPAN: compilation of Kokinshu, a poetry anthology (Japanese scholarship loses Chinese infl)


Uranus square Pluto 804-05
Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor - Carolingian empire from France to E Germany; zenith of Rashtrakuta kgdm, C India; decine of the Mayan city-states; final separation of Orthodox & Catholic churches; Abbasid cultural ascendancy in Caliphate of Baghdad; Buddhist temples at Borobadur, Java; Arabic trading ports along African east coast

Neptune square Pluto 830-33

Uranus conjunct Pluto 836-38

Iconoclastic dispute, Byzantium; Gypsy revolt, Persia; Rise of north Italian cities; Arab incursions in France, Italy & Byzantium; Viking raids, NW Europe, Viking dominance of Ireland; Tibetan empire and Mayan and Huari cultures collapse; rise of Kievan Russia; chaos, persecution & imperial bankruptcy, China; Slavic confederation, Moravia; Japan breaks links with China; Pratihara kgdm, Rajasthan, NW India; Abbasid Caliphate slow decline; partition of Carolingian empire into France, Italy & Germany

Uranus square Pluto 863-65
Byzantine revival; Viking terror and settlement, Russia, Britain & Ireland; rise of Bokhara as a centre of Islamic thought; creation of Cyrillic (Slavic) alphabet; growth of Khmer Cambodia; Bulgars & Serbs convert to Christianity; Fujiwara period, Japan; Alfred the Great, England, resists Viking settlement

Uranus opposition Neptune 878-81
Alfred the Great - England divided between Saxons & Danes; Viking colonisation of Iceland; Fujiwara dictatorship in Japan; Arabs take Sicily; famine across Eurasia (weather); Nepali independence from Tibet; schism between Catholic & Orthodox Christians; separation of Germany & France

Uranus opposition Pluto 887-89
Magyars expelled from Russia by Khazars, settling in Hungary; Viking threat blocked in Britain & France; England strong under Alfred the Great; Japanese cultural renaissance; Carmathian rebellion, Syria & Arabia; Tamil Chola dynasty, S India; Sankaracharya, philosopher, reforms Vedic Hinduism

Neptune conjunct Pluto 905
Riose of European identity and nation-states (inder threat from Magyars, Vikings & Arabs); unstable Epoch of Five Dynasties in China; zenith of Umayyad culture in Cordoba, Spain; Magyars destroy Moravia; rise of Fatimids in Tunisia; Vikings granted Normandy (later to become Normans); rise of Nothern Maya (Chichen Itza); Maori settlement of New Zealand increases; Toltec period, Mexico; peak of Viking culture

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The Historical Ephemeris
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