Timelines: Light/Dark Ages - Later - Historical Ephemeris

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600 BCE - CE 2200

Astrological Cycles in History

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Timelines: Light/Dark Ages - Later

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Astro-historical timeline 6:
Later Age of Light and Dark
Waning Neptune-Pluto hemicycle  657-905 CE

Key:
* = a period of change or a general trend
? = an uncertain date


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+657

* ASIA: Western Turks disperse to Russia-Hungary & some later follow Mahmud of Ghazni to India

657 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

+

ROME: Pope Vitalian (657-672)

+658

CHINA: max extent of Chinese influence in C Asia (incl Afghanistan, Kashmir, Oxus, Turkestan)

658 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

+

? C AMERICA: abrupt end of Teotihuacan civilisation (Mexico, city burned by attackers)

+659

C ASIA: Chinese protectorates in West Turkestan, Ferghana, E Persia (659-665)

659 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

+

+660

660 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

660 NE Sg

+

+661

ISLAM: UMAYYAD CALIPHATE FOUNDED (661-946)at Damascus by Mo'Awiya (Caliph 661-680)

661 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

661 NE Sg

+

* ISLAM: Umayyad building & art develops (661-750), major theological developments, gov't organisation

661 Sa CONJ NE Sg Sg

+662

661 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

662 PL Ge

+663

ROME: last visit to Rome by a Byzantine emperor, Constans II Pogonatus (641-668)

663 UR -SQR PL Aq Ta

663 UR Pi

+

E ASIA: Japanese withdrawal from Korea (ending 1st Japanese overseas expansion)

+664

BRITAIN: Synod of Whitby: Catholic Saxon Church aligns to Rome, Ancient British Celtic Church dies

664 UR -SQR PL Aq Ta

663 PL Ge

+

BRITAIN: outbreak of plague in Saxon kingdoms

664 UR Pi

+

ISLAM: Arab invasion of Afghanistan and incursion into NW India by 674

664 PL Ge

+665

BRITAIN: emigration of Celtic Christians from Ireland & Wales to Iceland and North America

665 UR +SQR NE Pi Sg

+

C ASIA: expansion of Tibet into Turkestan and Tsinghai (NW China)

+666

666 UR +SQR NE Pi Sg

+

+667

667 UR +SQR NE Pi Sg

+

+668

668 UR +SQR NE Pi Sg

+

+669

BRITAIN: Theodore of Tarsus, Archbp of Canterbury, organises RC Church, uniting rival kgdms

+

* ASIA: height of Silla period in Korea (650-780) (flourishing of art, learning & Buddhism)

+670

IBERIA: codification of Visigoth law in Spain

+

ISLAM: Arab invasion of North Africa (Libya, Tunisia, Morocco)

+671

CHINA: Buddhist monk I-Tsing travels to India and Malaya

671 UR Ar

+

INNOVN: 'Greek Fire', explosive missiles, developed in Byzantium, to be used against Arabs

+672

C ASIA: conquest of Tarim Basin (Silk Roads) & Ladakh by Tibetans

672 Sa CONJ UR Ar Ar

+

+673

BRITAIN: First Synod of English Catholic Church at Hertford; use of glass windows in churches begins

673 UR -sxt PL Ar Ge

+

FRANCE: civil war and anarchy break out in Frankish kingdom, (673-687)

673 Sa CONJ UR Ar Ar

+674

BYZANTIUM: Arabs beseige Constantinople (674-78), Byzantines survive (first major Arab failure)

674 UR -sxt PL Ar Ge

674 NE Cp

+

+675

E EUROPE: Bulgars resettle south of Danube, to found new Bulgarian empire

675 NE Cp

+

+676

ASIA: Korea unified by principal state of Silla

+

+677

677 Sa CONJ PL Ge Ge

+

+678

678 Sa CONJ PL Ge Ge

678 UR Ta

+679

E EUROPE: Khazars overcome Bulgars in S Russia, expanding the Khazar Khanate (later wealthy)

679 Sa OPPN NE Cn Cp

679 UR Ta

+680

E EUROPE: Bulgars surge into Balkans; recognised rulers over Slavs by Byzantium in 681

679 UR -ssq PL Ta Ge

+

IBERIA: Visigothic king, Wamba, becomes a monk

680 Sa OPPN NE Cn Cp

+

BYZANTIUM: 6th Council of Constantinople condemns Monothelites & repudiates Roman primacy

+

ISLAM: Sunni CaliphYazid I defeats Shi'ite Husayn at Kerbela (escalation of long Sunni-Shi'ite rivalry)

+681

681 UR +tri NE Ta Cp

+682

SE ASIA: beginning of maritime expansion of Srivijaya (Sumatra, Hindu-Buddhist)

682 UR +tri NE Ta Cp

+

683 UR -ssx PL Ta Ge

+683

C AMERICA: Chan-Bahlum II, Maya lord (683-701)

683 UR +tri NE Ta Cp

+

684 HALLEY'S COMET

+684

ISLAM: Abdulmalik, Ummayyad Caliph (684-705), Damascus (subdues opp'n Kharijites & Shi'ites)

684 UR +tri NE Ta Cp

+

CHINA: Empress Wu (684-704) (capricious changes of little lasting effect, liberal backlash)

684 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

+685

ISLAM: ZENITH (685-715) of UMAYYAD PERIOD in MIDEAST: major cultural developments

684 UR -ssx PL Ta Ge

+

BRITAIN: Bt of Nechtansmere, Picts prevent Northumbrians from gaining control of Scotland

685 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

685 UR Ge

+

ITALY: Ravenna 'Cosmography' (the first geographical gazatteer) published

+686

BRITAIN: Sussex, last pagan kingdom in Saxon England, converted

686 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

686 UR Ge

+687

FRANCE: Pepin the Younger (679-714) reunites & dominates Frankish state after Bt of Testry

687 NE on NE SNode

+

ROME: Pope Sergius I (687-701)

687 UR on UR NNode

+688

687 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

+

688 UR +sqt NE Ge Cp

688 NE Aq

+689

689 UR +sqt NE Ge Aq

689 PL Cn

+

+690

690 UR +sqt NE Ge Aq

690 PL Cn

+

+691

FRANCE: Clovis III, King of all the Franks (691-5)

691 UR +sqt NE Ge Aq

691 PL Cn

+

+692

ISLAM: completion of Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem: Islam's first major monument

692 PL on PL NNode

692 UR Cn

+

+693

ISLAM: fall of Armenia to Arabs; Byzantine Justinian II defeated at Bt of Sebastopolis

693 UR CONJ PL Cn Cn

693 UR Cn

+

+694

694 Sa OPPN UR Cp Cn

+

694 Sa OPPN PL Cp Cn

+695

ISLAM: first Arab coinage in use

695 Sa OPPN UR Cp Cn

+

IBERIA: persecution of Jews in Spain

695 UR +qcx NE Cn Aq

+696

* ASIA: Khitan tribes raid Chinese borderlands in Mongolia

696 UR +qcx NE Cn Aq

+

+697

IRELAND: Ulster Celtic Church submits to Roman Catholic Church

697 UR +qcx NE Cn Aq

+

698 UR +qcx NE Cn Aq

+698

INDIA: fall of Jains as Pallava Srimaravarman converts to Shivaism (death of 8000 Jains)

698 Sa CONJ NE Aq Aq

698 UR Le

+

N AFRICA: Carthage, Byzantium's last N African outpost, falls to Arabs; Berbers accept Islam in 702

+699

BYZANTIUM: revolt in Byz army begins period of instability & loss (699-717)

699 Sa CONJ NE Aq Aq

699 UR Le




+700

* BYZANTIUM: Greek replaces Latin as cultural language of Byzantium

700 NE -sqt PL Aq Cn

+

* BRITAIN: Lindisfarne Gospels written; Psalms translated to Saxon; 'Beowulf', late Saxon epic

+

* CHINA: golden age of Chinese poetry, to 850; major growth of cities and population

+

* W AFRICA: rise of gold-trading Ghanaian kingdom

+

JAPAN: Gyogi of Korea (670-749) interweaves Shinto & Buddhism

+701

JAPAN: 'Taiho' codification of law (Emperor becomes sole owner of land, heredity prevails)

701 NE -sqt PL Aq Cn

+702

E EUROPE: Tervel, Czar of Bulgars (701-717) (peak of Bulgarian power & wealth)

702 NE -sqt PL Aq Cn

702 NE Pi

+

* S AMERICA: decline of MOCHICA CULTURE (Peru, Lambayeque valley)

702 UR +ssx PL Le Cn

+703

703 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn

+

+704

704 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn

+

+705

ISLAM: Walid I, Ummayyad caliph (705-715) (building of Great Mosque, Damascus; Umayyad peak)

705 UR Vi +

+706

706 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi

+

706 UR +ssq PL Vi Cn

+707

* C AMERICA: COLLAPSE OF MONTE ALBAN AND TEOTIHUACAN CULTURES (Mexico)

707 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi

+

* S AMERICA: rise of SICAN CULTURE (Peru, proto-Inca, heyday 850-1050)

707 UR +ssq PL Vi Cn

+708

* S AMERICA: expansion of HUARI state, Bolivia – conquest of Moche

708 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi

+

+709

E ASIA: Po Hai kingdom in Manchuria (set up on Chinese model by Korean rulers) (709-934)

709 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi

+

ISLAM: Arab invasion of Samarkand, Bokhara & Turkestan under Walid I

+710

BRITAIN: war between Saxons of England and Britons (Celts) of Cornwall

710 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi

+

JAPAN: NARA PERIOD STARTS (710-84) (independent Jap culture grows, Shinto & Buddhism hybridise)

710 Sa CONJ PL Cn Cn

+711

ISLAM: ARAB INVASION OF SPAIN & control of Straits of Gibraltar; end of Visigothic kgdm

711 PL Le

+712

BYZANTIUM: Bulgars at the gates of Byzantium (forcing tribute)

711 UR Li

+

ISLAM: Arabs conquer Sind (Pakistan) as far as Indus river

712 PL Le

+

* ITALY: zenith of Lombard kingdom (568-774) in North Italy

712 UR Li

+

ISLAM: Arab Samarkand, Seville & Cordoba, developing into major peripheral Islamic centers

+713

CHINA: Ming Huang, emperor (713-756); MING RENAISSANCE in arts & learning, education, technology

+714

* INDIA; migration of Zoroastran refugees from Persia – origins of the Parsis (NW India)

714 Sa OPPN NE Vi Pi

+

+715

FRANCE: Charles Martel, Merovingian chief minister (714-41) of Frankish kingdoms

715 Sa OPPN NE Li Ar

715 NE Ar

+

+716

E EUROPE: Byzantium recognises independent Bulgaria

716 NE Ar

+

W EUROPE: Boniface leaves native England for Rome (Church evangelist & organiser in W Europe)

+717

BYZANTIUM: Leo III, Byz Emp (717-41) (Iconoclastic Dispute begins, holy images banned 717-843)

717 Sa CONJ UR Li Li

717 UR Sc

+

+718

BYZANTIUM: Arab siege of Constantinople beaten by Byzantines (new Byzantine ascendancy)

718 UR Sc

+

+719

719 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar

+

+720

ISLAM: Arabs attack France (Narbonne) (Europe at risk of Islamicisation)

720 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar

+

INDIA: fall of the Gupta dynasty

+721

721 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar

+

+722

GERMANY: St Boniface's mission to Germany (to counter Celtic Church & monastic rules)

722 UR +SQR PL Sc Le

+

722 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar

+723

723 UR +SQR PL Sc Le

+724

RUSSIA: defeat of Khazars by Umayyads; conquest of Georgia

+

JAPAN: Shomu, Emp of Japan; peak of Nara period & classical semi-Chinese culture

724 UR Sg

+

CHINA: est of Hanlin Academy, for the training of highest Mandarin officials

+725

EUROPE: Venerable Bede (historian, 672-735) introduces dating by Christian Era

725 UR Sg

+

W EUROPE: Charles Martel begins expansion of Frankish lands (seed of Carolingian empire)

+726

INDIA: Pala kgdm in Bengal & Magadha (725-1125) (Buddhist culture, Thai & Sumatran links)

726 UR -sqt NE Sg Ar

+

727 UR on UR SNode

+727

727 UR -sqt NE Sg Ar

+

728 UR -sqt NE Sg Ar

728 PL Vi

+728

* CHINA: new cultural influences arrive from India (via large traffic of Buddhist pilgrims)

728 Sa OPPN PL Pi Vi

728 NE Ta

+729

729 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

728 NE Ta

+730

* AMERICAS: ZENITH of MAYAN EMPIRE in Mexico

729 UR -sqt NE Sg Ta

729 NE Ta

+

EUROPE: Pope Gregory II (715-31) excommunicates Byzantine Emperor

729 Sa OPPN PL Pi Vi

+

INNOVN: movable-type printing developed in China

730 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

CHINA: local ruler unites six lands of Nan-Chao (resisting T'ang until 794)

+731

BRITAIN: Venerable Bede's 'Ecclesiastical History of the English People'

731 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

+732

W EUROPE: Bt of Poitiers (Charles Martel) ends Arab expansion into Europe (Frankish growth)

732 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

732 UR Cp

+

+733

INDIA: scholar king Yasovarman of Kanauj (@730-40) (patron of arts & Hindu religion)

733 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

S INDIA: Chalukya Vikramaditya II (733-46) thrice invades Kanchi to make offerings at temples

+734

BRITAIN: est of Archbishopric and school of York (later exercising Europe-wide influence)

734 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

734 Sa CONJ NE Ta Ta

+735

735 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

735 UR -tri NE Cp Ta

+736

INDIA: founding of the city of Delhi (later to be Indian capital)

736 UR -tri NE Cp Ta

+

+737

737 UR -tri NE Cp Ta

+

737 UR +tri PL Cp Vi

+738

CHINA: Emp Ming Huang ests schools in every district of Chinese empire

738 UR +tri PL Cp Vi

+

W AFRICA: Arabs begin to raid NW Africa for slaves (beginning of long slave trade in NW Africa)

+739

739 UR +tri PL Cp Vi

739 UR Aq

+740

* MIDEAST: creative period St John of Damascus (700-50) (liturgy & reform of musical notation)

739 Sa OPPN UR Cn Cp

739 PL Li

+

* RUSSIA: Khazars convert to Judaism (to avoid Byzantine & Islamic pressures)

740 UR +tri PL Aq Li

740 UR Aq

+

MIDEAST: Byzantines beat Arabs at Bt of Akroinon (turning Arab energy to N Africa)

740 Sa OPPN UR Le Aq

740 PL Li

+

N AFRICA: Berber rebellion against Arab rule in Algeria

+741

ISLAM: revolts by Kharjites in Iraq & N Africa, Shiites in Iraq (against Sunni Umayyads)

+

JAPAN: creation of gov't monasteries in every province; bldg of Great Buddha at Nara (by 752)

+742

FRANCE: birth of Charlemagne (742-814)

742 NE Ge

+

MIDEAST: earthquakes in Syria & Palestine destroy many cities, thousands killed

+743

INDIA: Gurjara-Prathihara dynasty (743-1036) unites N India (staving off Islam until 1100s)

+

* C ASIA: Turkic tribes leave Siberia, to be replaced by Uighurs

743 NE Ge

+744

* CHINA: zenith of Chinese lyrical poetry: Wang Wei, Li Po, Po Chu-I, Han Yu (48,900 poems)

+

* JAPAN: monk Gyogi (670-749) propagates Shinto & Buddhism as two aspects of same faith

+745

BYZANTIUM: Constantinus V Copronymus (741-77) defeats the Arabs (renews Iconoclastic Dispute)

745 Sa CONJ PL Li Li

+

ASIA: beginning of Uighur empire in Siberia (745-840) (tolerable to China)

+746

BYZANTIUM: plague ruins Constantinople (spreading to Greece & Sicily, introd by Arabs)

746 Sa CONJ PL Li Li

+747

CHINA: peak of Chinese landscape painting: Wu Tao-hsuan, Li Ssu-hsun, Wang Wei

747 UR +sqt PL Pi Li

747 UR Pi

+748

MED'N: Arab fleet destroyed during attack on Cyprus: failure of the Islamic advance

748 UR +sqt PL Pi Li

+749

ASIA: Padmasambhava begins introduction of Tantric Buddhism into Tibet & Bhutan

749 UR +sqt PL Pi Li

+750

* EUROPE: Gregorian music arises in W Europe; pipe organs spread west from Byzantium

750 UR +sqt PL Pi Li

+

* EURASIA: CULTURAL ZENITH in INDIA, JAPAN, CHINA, RUSSIA, CORDOBA

+

ISLAM: ABBASID BAGHDAD CALIPHATE founded by Abu al Abbas; Umayyad caliphate ends

+

* CHINA: porcelain developed in China; * INDIA: 'Kamandaki', Hindu manual on government and law

+

ITALY: Lombards capture Ravenna, ending Byzantine power in Italy (re: schism between Rome & Byzantium)

+

EUROPE: Merovingian dynasty ends in France; diffuculties in Byzantine succession

+751

ASIA: Bt of Talas River (Turkestan) sets boundary between China & Islamic world

751 Sa OPPN NE Sg Ge

751 PL Sc

+

W EUROPE: CAROLINGIAN PERIOD (751-814) – election of Pepin the Short as king of the Franks (750-68)

751 PL Peri 28Li

+

EURASIA: paper-making & silk-weaving spread to Arabs & Europe (1150), via Chinese prisoners

751 UR +sqt PL Pi Li

+752

* ASIA: zenith of Korean arts & sculpture

752 Sa OPPN NE Sg Ge

752 PL Sc

+

JAPAN: dedication of Great Buddha at Nara, peak of Buddhist fervour

752 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge

+

ROME: Pope Stephen II (752-7) steers Roman Church away from Byzantium to links with Franks

+753

* INDIA: spread of Tantric Buddhist & Hindu magical teachings (favouring goddess invocation)

753 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge

+

INDIA: establishment of Rashtrakuta kingdom (753-973) in Deccan, by Dantidurga (overthrows Chalukyas)

+754

* C ASIA: cultural links in Tibet switch from China to India

754 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge

754 UR Ar

+

ISLAM: Al-Mansur the Victorious, Abbasid Caliph (754-775, Abbasid leadership passes to Persians)

+755

CHINA: An Lu-Shan's rebellion (755-763) in China; slow decline of T'ang civilisation (to 907)

755 UR -SQR NE Pi Ge

755 UR Ar

+

* ASIA: uprisings against China by Uighurs, Thais, Tangut, Mongol & Khitan peoples

755 NE Cn

+

* ISLAM: growth of Sufi mystical movement (Anatolia, Syria)

+756

IBERIA: Emir Abd al Rahman ests UMAYYAD CALIPHATE of CORDOBA (755-1031) (ind of Abbasids)

756 NE Cn

+

CHINA: Arabs aid China to crush rebellion (on resignation of Ming Huang, T'ang Emperor)

+

ROME: foundation of the Papal State (donation of Frankish Pepin the Short)

+757

JAPAN: art collection of Emperor Shomu presented to Todai-ju Temple (3000 objects)

757 UR +qcx PL Ar Sc

+758

CHINA: establishment of Muslim trading quarter in Kanfu (Canton)

758 UR +qcx PL Ar Sc

+

BRITAIN: supremacy of Mercia under Offa II (757-96)

+759

FRANCE: Franks (Pepin the Short) eject Arabs from Southern France

759 UR +qcx PL Ar Sc

+

+760

MIDEAST: foundation of Turkish Empire by Tartar Turkic tribe in Armenia

760 HALLEY'S COMET

+

* BRITAIN: zenith of Celtic book copying & illustration

760 UR +qcx PL Ar Sc

+

INNOVN: Arabs adopt Indian numerals, decimal notation, and develop algebra & trigonometry

+761

C ASIA: withdrawal of Chinese influence from C Asia, making way for Tibetan & Uighur growth

761 UR +qcx PL Ar Sc

+762

ISLAM: Baghdad founded as capital of Abbasid Caliphate (previous capital was Damascus)

762 UR Ta

+

C ASIA: Uighur nomads convert to Manichaeism (after the Kagan meets Persian refugees in China)

+763

C ASIA: Tibetan expansion into Tunhuang, Kansu, Tarim Basin, Nepal & Ladakh, to 840

763 Sa CONJ UR Ta Ta

763 UR Ta

+

CHINA: Tibetans sack western capital of Chang-An (China beseiged by marauders)

763 PL Sg

+764

JAPAN: rise to power of monk Dokyo, under Empress Shotoku (764-70)

764 PL Sg

+

* W AFRICA: increase in trans-Saharan trade (gold, salt, slaves) and rise of rich trading towns

+765

FRANCE: Carolingian Royal Court established Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) by Pepin the Short

765 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg

+

+766

S INDIA: Rashtrakuta Krishnaraja I builds Ellora & Elephanta temples (classical Shaiva style)

+

+767

+

+768

W EUROPE: accession of CHARLEMAGNE, Carolingian emperor (768-814) to Frankish throne

768 UR -sxt NE Ta Cn

+

768 NE on NE NNode

+769

769 UR -sxt NE Ta Cn

769 UR Ge

+

769 Sa CONJ NE Le Le

769 NE Le

+770

INDIA: Dharmapala, K of Pala (@770-883) in Bengal & Magadha (king over 100 years)

770 UR -sxt NE Ta Cn

770 UR Ge

+

770 NE Le

+771

771 UR on UR NNode

+

+772

+

+773

ITALY: Charlemagne conquers Northern Italy (beginning long saga of rivalry of HRE vs Papacy)

+

+774

774 UR OPPN PL Ge Sg

+

+775

ASIA: Tibet invades Himalayan nations and makes treaty with China

775 UR OPPN PL Ge Sg

+

ISLAM: Inquisition starts in Arab empire

+776

E EUROPE: downfall of Bulgaria to Byzantine Greeks (revival in 790s)

776 UR OPPN PL Ge Sg

776 UR Cn

+

776 UR -ssq NE Ge Le

+777

BRITAIN: Kent & Wessex subdued; Offa, King of all England (779-96) (Mercian dominance 779-821)

777 UR -ssq NE Cn Le

+

W EUROPE: Charlemagne subdues the Saxons on mainland Europe

+778

778 PL Cp

+

+779

* CHINA: provincial capitals grow in strength; migrations to Yangtze valley; boom in trade

+

+780

E ASIA: collapse of Silla, political decline in Korea (780-935, with increasing imitation of China)

780 PL on PL SNode

+

+781

JAPAN: Emperor Kammu (781-806) (subdues Ainu peoples, moves capital to Kyoto, modernisation)

+

+782

BYZANTIUM: last Arab attempt to overcome Byzantium fails

782 UR -ssx NE Cn Le

782 UR Le

+

W EUROPE: Alcuin of York (735-804) organises higher education: CAROLINGIAN RENAISSANCE

782 NE Vi

+783

783 Sa CONJ PL Cp Cp

783 UR Le

+

783 UR -ssx NE Cn Le

783 NE Vi

+784

BRITAIN: building of Offa's Dyke (earthwork dividing Saxon England from Celtic Wales)

784 UR -qcx PL Le Cp

+

+785

CHINA: first known use of magnetic compass, in China

785 UR -qcx PL Le Cp

+

+786

ISLAM: building of Mosque of Cordoba, Spain (a peak of Muslim architecture)

786 Sa OPPN UR Aq Le

+

ISLAM: Harun al Rashid, Abbasid Caliph (786-809, great caliph, patron of arts & sciences)

786 UR -qcx PL Le Cp

+787

W EUROPE: VIKING (mainly Danish) RAIDS on EUROPEAN COASTS BEGIN

787 Sa OPPN UR Aq Le

+

787 UR -qcx PL Le Cp

+788

NW AFRICA: Idrisid dynasty of Fez (788-930) creates independent Islamic Morocco

788 Sa OPPN NE Pi Vi

788 UR Vi

+

+789

789 Sa OPPN NE Pi Vi

789 UR Vi

+

789 UR -sqt PL Vi Cp

+790

IBERIA: CORDOBA CALIPHATE under Harun-al-Rashid (patron of learning) in Cordoba

790 UR -sqt PL Vi Cp

+

* C ASIA: conquest of Tarim, Dzungaria, Himalaya & W China by Tibetans, to 860

+791

E EUROPE: Avar state in Hungary beaten by Charlemagne's attacks 791-796

791 UR -sqt PL Vi Cp

+

* ATLANTIC: settlement of Faeroes, Iceland and eventually America by Irish monks

+792

* BYZANTIUM: decline and instability until 820

+

C ASIA: Buddhism adopted as the state religion of Tibet

+793

NW EUROPE: SERIOUS VIKING THREAT TO EUROPE BEGINS – Danes destroy Lindisfarne monastery

+

* N AMERICA: DAWN OF MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURE (towns and riverine horticulture, 800-1450)

+794

JAPAN: HEIAN PERIOD (794-1185), Kyoto (dominated by Fujiwara clan 967-1068, decline of Chinese

794 UR CONJ NE Vi Vi

795 PL Aq

+

influence, growth of Buddhism & Fujiwara court, cent gov't reform, gradual devolution)

+

ISLAM: opening of a state paper mill in Baghdad

794 UR -tri PL Vi Cp

795 UR Li

+795

MIDEAST: revolts in Egypt

795 UR -tri PL Vi Cp

796 PL Aq

+

NW EUROPE: Viking landings and settlements start (mainly Norwegian), dominance by 802

796 UR -tri PL Li Aq

796 UR Li

+796

FRANCE: Alciun, Carolingian educator, founds a university at Tours

796 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

796 NE Li

+797

ISLAM: Harun-al-Rashid sends embassies to Charlemagne & T'ang emperor

797 NE -tri PL Li Aq

797 NE Li

+798

* ISLAM: Oriental & Hellenistic thinking meet, at Baghdad, Mecca, Damascus, Samarkand & Egypt

798 NE -tri PL Li Aq

+799

C ASIA: Khazars invade Armenia

798 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq


Neptune opposition Pluto square Uranus 660-65
Sudden end of Teotihuacan, Mexico; Hindu Srivijaya empire, SE Asia; expansion of Tibet; Umayyad Caliphate, Damascus; Arab invasion of Maghreb (N Africa); decline of Celtic church (Synod of Whitby); Silla period, Korea; Bulgars migrate to lower Danube from Ukraine; reduction of Byzantium (Arab pressure); revision of Quran (Othman); Turks disperse into Russia & India


Uranus conjunct Pluto 693
Zenith of Umayyad Caliphate - Arab empire from Turkestan to Morocco; zenith of Khazar Khanate, Kazakhstan; golden age in T'ang China; zenith of Bulgars, SE Europe; Byzantine instability; decline of Mochica culture, Peru;
Dome of the Rock completed, Jerusalem; persecution of Jews in Spain; Lindisfarne Gospels, Beowulf; decline of Teotihuacan & Monte Alban, Mexico


Uranus opposition Neptune 706-09
Collapse of Teotihuacan; Arab invasion of Spain & Sindh (Pakistan); Bulgars then Arabs beseige Constantinople (Byzantine low-point); renaissance in Ming China; Nara classical period, Japan; rise of Sican culture, Peru; expansion of Huari, Bolivia; wars between Saxons & Cornish


Uranus square Pluto 722-23
Rivalry between Celtic & Roman Christians in NW Europe; Charles Martel starts Frankish expansion, blocks Arab invasion in France; zenith of Mayan civilisation, Yucatan; Buddhist Pala kgdm, Bengal; fall of Gupta dynasty; India influences China (thru Buddhist pilgrims)


Uranus square Neptune 751-54
Islam meets China at Bt of Talas River, Turkestan; Frankish Carolingian dynasty (Frankish growth); slow decline of T'ang dynasty, China; first Turkic sultanate, Armenia; Umayyad Caliphate in Cordoba, Spain; Buddhist zenith, Japan (Great Buddha at Nara); Abbasid Caliphate, Baghdad; cultural zeniths in Japan, India, Russia, Cordoba, China; Rashtrakuta kgdm, Deccan, India


Uranus opposition Pluto 774-76
Charlemagne, Carolingian emperor, conquests; Byzantine revival (fall of Bulgars); Tibetan & Uighur expansion, C Asia; social change in Ming China; Saxon England united (King Offa); collapse of Silla, decline in Korea; Dharmapala, king of Pala & Maghada, Bengal (king for a century)


Uranus conjunct Neptune 794
Serious Viking raids in NW Europe; Heian Buddhist period, Japan; urban Mississippi culture, American midwest; rise of Angkor (Cambodia) & Borobadur (Java); Maori migration to New Zealand; Huari decline, Peru; regionalisation of China, trade boom

 

+800

* PACIFIC OCEAN: first Polynesian settlers reach Easter Island and New Zealand (850)

+

* SE ASIA: Khmer in Angkor rise to regional prominence; high civilisation in Java (Borobadur)

+

* AFRICA: state of Luba (Zaire) at zenith of development (source of later C African cultures)

800 NE -tri PL Li Aq

+

* S AMERICA: decline of HUARI CULTURE (Peru)

+

ISLAM: ZENITH OF ABBASID CALIPHATE OF BAGHDAD under Harun al Rashid

+

* BYZANTIUM: crucifixion artwork shows Christ's suffering & vulnerability for first time

+

EUROPE: CHARLEMAGNE crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome: HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE begins

+

EUROPE: final separation between East & West empires and Churches; Carolingian links with Arabs

+801

N AFRICA: Aghlabid dynasty of Kairouan (801-909) establishes independent Libya

801 NE -tri PL Li Aq

801 UR Sc

+802

W EUROPE: Germanic tribal laws codified by Charlemagne

802 UR Sc

+

SE ASIA: Angkorean (Khmer) Buddhist kingdom established by Jayavarman II

+803

E EUROPE: Bulgarians throw off Tartar (Turkic) dominance

+

EUROPE: independence of Venice (to become wealthy trading city) recognised by Byzantium

+804

EUROPE: expansion of Carolingian empire into E Germany

804 UR -SQR PL Sc Aq

+

INDIA: Rashtrakuta Govinda II (794-813) expands Rashtrakuta empire across C India

804 Sa CONJ NE Li Li

+805

ASIA: beginning of major Nestorian missionary expansion to Turkestan, Mongolia & China

805 UR -SQR PL Sc Aq

+

C AMERICA: beginning of decline in southern Mayan building, science & trade (Guatemala)

805 Sa CONJ NE Li Li

+806

* SE ASIA: building of Buddhist temple complex at Borobudur, Java

+

+807

* BRITAIN: Egbert of Wessex (802-39) dominant king in England (Wessex resists of Vikings)

807 UR +ssx NE Sc Li

+

+808

E EUROPE: Krum (808-14) reorganises Bulgaria & overturns Byz repression

808 Sa CONJ UR Sc Sc

808 UR Sg

+

+809

* E AFRICA: Kilwa Kisiwani and other trading towns founded along E African coast

809 UR Sg

+

+810

E EUROPE: Bulgarians conquer Sofia and defeat Byzantium (Byzantium weak)

810 NE Sc

+

PERSIA: Persian mathematician al-Khwarizmi devises algebra

+811

811 UR on UR SNode

811 NE Sc

+

+812

EUROPE: Mikael I, Byz Emperor, concedes title of Basileus (emperor) on Charlemagne (812-20)

+

+813

MIDEAST: astronomy school established in Baghdad ; short Abbasid civil war – Baghdad sacked

+

ISLAM: Mamun, Baghdad Caliph (813-33) brings Augustan age of Arabian arts, learning & science

+814

W EUROPE: death of Charlemagne (successor Louis the Pious, 814-40, Carolingian decline starts)

814 UR -sxt PL Sg Aq

+

814 UR +ssq NE Sg Sc

+815

BRITAIN: Egbert of Wessex defeats Britons in Cornwall (Wessex expansion in SW England)

815 UR -sxt PL Sg Aq

+

+816

C ASIA: Magian leader Babek harrasses Abbasid empire from Azerbaijan (Zoroastran revivalism)

816 UR Cp

+

+817

W EUROPE: Carolingian empire divided by Louis the Pious

817 Sa CONJ PL Aq Aq

817 PL Pi

+

+818

818 PL Pi

+

+819

819 PL Pi

+

+820

ISLAM: Abbasid Caliphate reorganised; Taherite dynasty est'd at Khorasan

820 UR -ssq PL Cp Pi

+

BYZANTIUM: Phrygian dynasty (820-67) reclaims Byzantine power (renews Byzantine flowering)

+821

BRITAIN: end of Mercian supremacy in England (Wessex on rise)

821 UR +sxt NE Cp Sc

+

+822

IDEAS: est of House of Knowledge in Baghdad (translations from Greece, Syria, Persia, India)

822 UR +sxt NE Cp Sc

+

+823

* IDEAS: Samkara of Malabar (c788-850) (reinterprets Vedanta & Brahminism, founds schools)

823 UR +sxt NE Cp Sc

823 UR Aq

+

823 Sa OPPN NE Ta Sc

+824

GERMANY: Louis the Pious offers personal protection of king to Jews in Germany

824 Sa OPPN NE Ge Sg

824 NE Sg

+

+825

ITALY: rise of N Italian cities (eg Pavia, Venice) as centres of culture & literature

825 UR -ssx PL Aq Pi

+

+826

N EUROPE: Ansgar the missionary preaches in Scandinavia (Scania & Svealand)

+

+827

MED'N: Saracen occupation of Sicily (marking rise of widespread pirate raids on Med'n coasts)

+

+828

BRITAIN: Egbert of Wessex, High King of Saxon Heptarchy (828-39) (on defeat of Mercia (824-5))

+

+829

829 Sa OPPN UR Le Aq

+

+830

C EUROPE: Moravian nation (830-906) formed by Prince Moymir of Moravia (830-46)

830 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

+

830 Sa OPPN UR Le Aq

+831

C AMERICA: Mayan classic period ends – central Maya states decline, Long Count calendar abandoned

831 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

831 UR Pi

+

831 Sa OPPN UR Vi Pi

+832

BYZANTIUM: Iconoclastic Dispute: persecution of icon worshippers in Byzantium

831 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

+

832 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

+833

832 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

+

833 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

+834

MIDEAST: revolt of the Jats (Gypsies) in Iraq (against Abbasid rule)

+

+835

* INDIA: Rajasthani Pratihara kingdom (835-970) rules N India

+

+836

BRITAIN: Danes sack London and raid much of E England; 837 Saxons (Heptarchy) fight back

836 UR CONJ PL Pi Pi

+

INDIA: struggle for control of Deccan, between Rashtrakutas & Pratiharas

837 HALLEY'S COMET

+837

ISLAM: Abbasid capital moves to Samarra (brings gradual loss of control by Abbasids)

837 UR CONJ PL Pi Pi

+

837 UR +SQR NE Pi Sg

+838

MED'N: Arabs sack Marseilles and S Italy, defeat Byzantium in Asia Minor (threatening Europe)

838 UR +SQR NE Ar Cp

838 NE Cp

+

* IRELAND: est of first towns in Ireland by Vikings; immigration of Gallic refugees

838 UR Ar

+

E ASIA: end of Japanese period of imitation of China (last embassy to T'ang)

+839

C ASIA: collapse of central control of the kingdom of Tibet

839 UR +SQR NE Ar Cp

839 UR Ar

+840

E EUROPE: Confederation of Slavic tribes under Moravian Moimir (to resist German land pressures)

840 UR +SQR NE Ar Cp

+

C ASIA: Turkic Kirghiz (Siberians) overthrow Uighur empire (many Uighur migrate to Tarim Basin)

+841

NW EUROPE: Vikings plunder Rouen & Paris; monarchy est'd in Norway; N Germany attacked 845

841 Sa CONJ NE Cp Cp

+

CHINA: Wu Tsung, Taoist emperor, persecutes Manichaeans, Buddhists, Nestorians in China

+

W EUROPE: foundation of Dublin by Vikings (as main base for operations in Ireland & Britain)

+842

ASIA: Tibetan empire disintegrates

+

BYZANTIUM: use & worship of icons re-established; Mikael III the Drunkard, Byz Emp (842-67)

+843

W EUROPE: partition of Carolingian empire, into Italy, France, Germany (Treaty of Verdun)

+

CHINA: Manichaeism destroyed in China after persecutions of Persian & Asian Manichaeans

+844

BRITAIN: Kenneth MacAlpin, K of Scots & Picts (844-60) (1st king of united Scotland)

844 PL Ar

+

+845

CHINA: general decline (persecution of Buddhists; currency inflation & imperial bankruptcy)

845 PL Ar

+

845 UR Ta

+846

ITALY: Arabs pillage Rome, sack the Vatican, destroy Venetian fleet

846 UR +ssx PL Ta Ar

846 PL Ar

+

MIDEAST: Viking (Varangian) traders reach Baghdad

846 UR Ta

+847

* ISLAM: beginning of decline of Abbasid empire (gradual disintegration into local dynasties)

847 UR +ssx PL Ta Ar

+848

+849

* INNOVN: earliest use of gunpowder, in China (roots of new warfare)

849 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

+850

C AMERICA: collapse of Classic Maya civilisation in Mexico

851 NE on NE SNode

+

* S AMERICA: decline of Huari civilisation in Peru

851 UR +ssq PL Ta Ar

+

INDIA: Buddhism becomes defunct in India (overridden by Hindu & Jain religions)

+

ISLAM: Arabs perfect the astrolabe (an astronomical observational device)

+

RUSSIA: Rurik the Viking, ruler of Kiev (850-79) (Viking trade expansion to Black Sea & Med'n)

+851

INDIA: foundation of Chola state (Madras area, later to be influential across Asia)

+

C AMERICA: foundation of Chichen Itza, N Yucatan (to become leading Maya/Toltec city)

+852

ROME: 'Papa Caput totius Orbis', proclamation of Papal supremacy on earth

852 NE Aq

+

+853

INNOVN: publication of the first printed book, in China

853 UR +tri NE Ge Aq

853 UR Ge

+

853 Sa CONJ UR Ge Ge

+854

* SE ASIA: Burmese establish a state at Pagan

854 UR +tri NE Ge Aq

+

+855

ITALY: Louis II, king of Italy & Holy Roman Emperor (855-76)

855 UR +tri NE Ge Aq

+

855 UR on UR NNode

+856

GREECE: Corinth wrecked by an earthquake, killing 45,000

856 UR +tri NE Ge Aq

+

+857

C EUROPE: Ratislav of Moravia (846-70) shifts Moravia from Frankish to Byzantine sphere

+

+858

EUROPE: Vikings attack & plunder S Spain, Mediterranean coasts and Asia Minor

858 NE -sxt PL Aq Ar

+

JAPAN: Yoshifusa achieves Fujiwara domination of Imp court

858 Sa OPPN NE Le Aq

+859

MIDEAST: establishment of Bagratide dynasty in Armenia by Ashot I

859 Sa OPPN NE Le Aq

859 UR Cn

+

C ASIA: downfall & splintering of Tibetan kingdom (affecting large areas of C Asia)

+860

* SE ASIA: growth of great Khmer cities & architecture in Cambodia

860 UR +sqt NE Cn Aq

860 UR Cn

+

SCANDNVA: Gorm the Elder unites Denmark; BYZANTIUM: Vikings first raid Constantinople

+861

W EUROPE: major towns of NW Europe under Viking attack, terror grows along coasts & rivers

861 UR +sqt NE Cn Aq

+

ATLANTIC: landing on Iceland by Norwegian Vikings

+862

RUSSIA: Novgorod founded by Rurik the Viking (the first Russian state)

862 UR +sqt NE Cn Aq

+

+863

E EUROPE: creation of Cyrillic alphabet in Moravia by St Cyril & Methodius

863 UR +SQR PL Cn Ar

+

863 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

+864

864 UR +SQR PL Cn Ar

+865

BYZANTIUM: Vikings attack Constantinople (richest city they had seen)

864 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

865 NE Pi

+

BRITAIN: Viking occupation of Northumbria & Yorkshire

865 UR +SQR PL Cn Ar

+

E EUROPE: Bulgars (Boris I (852-89)) and Serbians convert to Christianity

+866

BYZANTIUM: Basil I, Byz Emp (867-86) brings revival (Macedonian Dyn 866-912) (Basilian laws)

866 UR +qcx NE Le Pi

866 NE Pi

+

JAPAN: Fujiwara Period (866-1160) (Fujiwara clan domination of Imperial Court)

866 UR Le

+867

BYZANTIUM: Patriarch Photius separates Orthodox Church from Rome (recognised by Pope 870)

867 UR +qcx NE Le Pi

867 UR Le

+

MIDEAST: Zenj rebellion in Chaldaea (869-83)

+868

868 UR +qcx NE Le Pi

+

+869

MED'N: Malta taken by Arabs

869 UR +qcx NE Le Pi

+

+870

BRITAIN: Danish Vikings occupy East Anglia

870 NE -ssq PL Pi Ar

+

PERSIA: Persia virtually independent of Sassanid empire, under Saffarid dynasty (870-903)

+871

BRITAIN: Alfred the Great, King of England (871-99) resists Danish pressure on England

+

+872

N EUROPE: unification of Norway under Harold Haarfagr, King of Norway (872-933)

872 UR +tri PL Le Ar

872 UR Vi

+

C ASIA: Samanids take control of Khorasan & Transoxiana (Bokhara intellectual centre of Islam)

+873

873 UR +tri PL Le Ar

873 UR Vi

+

+874

CHINA: popular uprisings and rebellions against T'ang emperor (874-884)

874 PL Aphn 29Ar

874 PL Ta

+

ATLANTIC: colonisation of Iceland by Vikings (high cultural level, outlasts Euro Viking ways)

+875

C EUROPE: Sviatopluk of Moravia (870-94) takes Slovakia, Bohemia, Silesia (by 906)

875 UR +sqt PL Vi Ar

875 PL Ta

+

+876

876 UR +sqt PL Vi Ar

876 PL Ta

+

+877

BRITAIN: Mercia partitioned between Saxons & Danes (boundary Watling Street)

877 Sa OPPN UR Pi Vi

+

877 UR +sqt PL Vi Ta

+878

ITALY: Arabs take Sicily from Byzantines

878 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi

+

BRITAIN: Alfred the Great defeats Danes: Tr of Wedmore divides England between Saxons & Danes

878 Sa OPPN UR Pi Vi

+879

EUROPE: the Pope and Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicate one another

878 Sa CONJ NE Pi Pi

879 NE Ar

+

ASIA: Nepal gains independence from Tibet

879 UR OPPN NE Vi Pi

879 UR Li

+880

EURASIA: widespread famine in many lands (weather conditions)

879 UR +qcx PL Li Ta

+

JAPAN: Fujiwara Mototsune (first of many civil dictators, 'kampaku')

880 UR OPPN NE Li Ar

880 NE Ar

+881

FRANCE: Louis III of N France defeats Vikings

880 UR +qcx PL Li Ta

+

W EUROPE: Charles III the Bald, Carolingian emperor (876-87) (Frankish kgdm reunited 884)

881 UR OPPN NE Li Ar

+882

RUSSIA: Kiev becomes the chief town of Russian confederacy

881 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

+

881 UR +qcx PL Li Ta

+883

881 NE -ssx PL Ar Ta

+

882 NE -ssx PL Ar Ta

+884

W EUROPE: Charles III the Bald becomes King of France, reuniting Carolingian empire

+

+885

SCANDNVA: Harald Haarfagr (Fairhair) unites & organises Norway (became king 872)

885 UR Sc

+

* INDIA: Sankaracharya, philosopher reforms Vedic Hinduism

+886

BRITAIN: Alfred the Great recaptures and rebuilds London

886 UR Sc

+

+887

W EUROPE: separation of Germany & France (Carolingian empire falls, Charles II the Bald deposed)

887 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta

+

S INDIA: decline of Pallava dynastic power (in favour of Cholas) on death of Aparajitavarman (870-87)

+888

FRANCE: Arabs occupy parts of coast of Provence

888 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta

+

IBERIA: Abdullah, Emir of Cordoba (888-912)

+

S INDIA: rise of Tamil Chola dynasty (888-1267) (replacing Jain Pallavas at Kanchi)

+889

C AMERICA: end of building at Tikal, dominant Mayan centre (pop'n 100,000)

889 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta

+890

* BRITAIN: Saxon England thrives under Alfred the Great (with new laws, security, economic upswing)

+

* JAPAN: Japanese cultural renaissance in literature, art and poetry

+891

NW EUROPE: writing of the 'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle' (891-1150)

891 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar

+

+892

892 UR -qcx NE Sc Ar

892 NE Ta

+

892 UR Sg

+893

BRITAIN: Alfred defeats Viking attacks on England (destroying Viking fleet)

893 UR -qcx NE Sg Ta

893 NE Ta

+

INDIA: major earthquakes kill approx 180,000

894 UR -qcx NE Sg Ta

+894

MIDEAST: communistic Carmathian rebels overrun Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Mecca (891-906)

894 Sa OPPN NE Sc Ta

+

894 UR on UR SNode

+895

E EUROPE: expelled from Ukraine by Vikings & Khazars, Magyars move to Hungary

895 Sa OPPN NE Sc Ta

+

MIDEAST: first Hebrew manuscript of the Old Testament (previously in Aramaic)

895 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

+896

C EUROPE: seven tribes under Arpad the Magyar (896-907) settle in Hungary (later European scourge)

896 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

+

+897

JAPAN: Fujiwara Tokihira seeks to end gov't disintegration & corruption

897 UR -qcx PL Sg Ta

+

+898

898 UR -qcx PL Sg Ta

+899

EUROPE: parts of Italy & Germany raided & devastated by Magyars from Hungary

899 UR -sqt NE Sg Ta

899 UR Cp

+900

* AMERICAS: TOLTEC PERIOD in Mexico (900-1325), capital Tula

900 Sa CONJ UR Cp Cp

+

* AMERICAS: Second Pueblo Indian period in SW N America (advanced towns & architecture)

900 UR -sqt NE Cp Ta

+

* NW EUROPE: zenith of Viking artforms (runic carvings, boats, ornaments)

+

* BRITAIN: England reorganised into shires, with new judicial system of law

+

* BRITAIN: zenith in Celtic arts (knotwork designs & metalwork, eg Tara brooch)

+901

PERSIA: Samanid dynasty (819-999) at zenith

901 UR -sqt NE Cp Ta

+902

* INDIA: growth of pilgrimage to holy places as a religious devotional practice

902 UR -sqt PL Cp Ta

+903

* PACIFIC OCEAN: Polynesian settlement of Aotearoa (New Zealand) increases

903 UR -sqt PL Cp Ta

+

+904

BYZANTIUM: Constantinople attacked by Russian Vikings (commercial treaties est'd 907)

+

C AMERICA: RISE OF NORTHERN MAYA – Chichen Itza becomes dominant centre of the Mayans

+905

* EUROPE: Magyar, Viking & Arab threats coalesce European awareness & identity

905 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta

905 NE Ge

+

JAPAN: compilation of Kokinshu, a poetry anthology (Japanese scholarship loses Chinese infl)

 


Uranus square Pluto 804-05
Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor - Carolingian empire from France to E Germany; zenith of Rashtrakuta kgdm, C India; decine of the Mayan city-states; final separation of Orthodox & Catholic churches; Abbasid cultural ascendancy in Caliphate of Baghdad; Buddhist temples at Borobadur, Java; Arabic trading ports along African east coast


Neptune square Pluto 830-33


Uranus conjunct Pluto 836-38

Iconoclastic dispute, Byzantium; Gypsy revolt, Persia; Rise of north Italian cities; Arab incursions in France, Italy & Byzantium; Viking raids, NW Europe, Viking dominance of Ireland; Tibetan empire and Mayan and Huari cultures collapse; rise of Kievan Russia; chaos, persecution & imperial bankruptcy, China; Slavic confederation, Moravia; Japan breaks links with China; Pratihara kgdm, Rajasthan, NW India; Abbasid Caliphate slow decline; partition of Carolingian empire into France, Italy & Germany


Uranus square Pluto 863-65
Byzantine revival; Viking terror and settlement, Russia, Britain & Ireland; rise of Bokhara as a centre of Islamic thought; creation of Cyrillic (Slavic) alphabet; growth of Khmer Cambodia; Bulgars & Serbs convert to Christianity; Fujiwara period, Japan; Alfred the Great, England, resists Viking settlement


Uranus opposition Neptune 878-81
Alfred the Great - England divided between Saxons & Danes; Viking colonisation of Iceland; Fujiwara dictatorship in Japan; Arabs take Sicily; famine across Eurasia (weather); Nepali independence from Tibet; schism between Catholic & Orthodox Christians; separation of Germany & France


Uranus opposition Pluto 887-89
Magyars expelled from Russia by Khazars, settling in Hungary; Viking threat blocked in Britain & France; England strong under Alfred the Great; Japanese cultural renaissance; Carmathian rebellion, Syria & Arabia; Tamil Chola dynasty, S India; Sankaracharya, philosopher, reforms Vedic Hinduism


Neptune conjunct Pluto 905
Riose of European identity and nation-states (inder threat from Magyars, Vikings & Arabs); unstable Epoch of Five Dynasties in China; zenith of Umayyad culture in Cordoba, Spain; Magyars destroy Moravia; rise of Fatimids in Tunisia; Vikings granted Normandy (later to become Normans); rise of Nothern Maya (Chichen Itza); Maori settlement of New Zealand increases; Toltec period, Mexico; peak of Viking culture

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The Historical Ephemeris © Copyright Palden Jenkins 1993-99


The Historical Ephemeris
by Palden Jenkins
Astro-historical tables for 2,500 years

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