Timelines: Medieval Period - High - Historical Ephemeris

The Historical Ephemeris

600 BCE - CE 2200

Astrological Cycles in History

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Timelines: Medieval Period - High


Historical Ephemeris

Astro-historical timeline 7:
Early Middle Ages
Waxing Neptune-Pluto hemicycle  905-1152 CE

* = a period of change or a general trend
? = an uncertain date

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* EUROPE: Magyar, Viking & Arab threats coalesce European awareness & identity

905 NE CONJ PL Ta Ta

905 NE Ge



C EUROPE: Magyars destroy Moravia (C Europe's only organised state (830-906))

906 PL Ge



CHINA: EPOCH OF THE FIVE DYNASTIES (907-960) (disintegration & instability, ten states secede)

907 UR -tri PL Cp Ta

907 UR Aq


C EUROPE: Magyars raid Germany & Italy; 910 extract tribute from Byzantium

907 UR -tri NE Aq Ge

907 PL Ge


ASIA: Khitan Mongols under Yelu A-pao-chi conquer Mongolia & north borders of China

908 UR -tri NE Aq Ge

908 PL Ge



ISLAM: rise of Fatimid dynasty in Tunisia (claiming authority over Islam)

909 UR -tri NE Aq Ge


* PACIFIC OCEAN: Polynesians begin to settle Aotearoa (New Zealand)


* W EUROPE: expansion of great monasteries: Cluny Abbey (Cistercian, France) founded

910 UR -tri NE Aq Ge


RUSSIA: Oleg of Kiev extracts treaties & trade from Byzantium after attacking Constantinople


W EUROPE: Carolingian dynasty ends, elections initiated, Konrad I elected HRE (911-18) (Saxon dynasty)


FRANCE: Vikings granted Duchy of Normandy, Robert I (Rollo) Duke of Normandy (911-31) at Rouen


IBERIA: Abd ar Rahman III, Emir of Cordoba (912-961) marks zenith of UMAYYAD RULE IN SPAIN

912 Sa CONJ PL Ge Ge


BYZANTIUM: Constantinus VII, Byz Emp (912-20) (empire extends to Iraq)



SE EUROPE: Symeon, Bulgarian Czar (893-927) invades much of Greece, fails with Constantinople

913 Sa CONJ NE Ge Ge



914 UR Pi



EUROPE: Magyars (899-955) attack Germany, Italy, France, Spain, Byzantium (mainly for loot)

915 UR Pi



E ASIA: Khitan khanate in Mongolia founded



E EUROPE: Bulgarian Church separates from Rome & Const'ple (Bulgarian zenith under Symeon I)

917 UR -SQR PL Pi Ge


INDIA: Kashmir devastated by famine


E ASIA: state of Koryo (Korea) founded (Koryo period (918-1392))

918 UR -SQR PL Pi Ge



HRE: Henry I K of Germany (919-36) (takes Lorraine, Brandenbg, Bohemia, E Ger, Hungary by 936)

919 Sa OPPN UR Vi Pi

919 NE Cn


HRE: Saxon Emperors line (919-1024)


BYZANTIUM: Romanos I Lecapenus, Byz Emp (920-44) (repulses Viking-Russ, Bulg & Arab assaults)

920 Sa OPPN UR Vi Pi

920 NE Cn



C EUROPE: Bohemians convert to Christianity

921 Sa OPPN UR Vi Pi



922 UR Ar



923 UR Ar



BYZANTIUM: Bulgarians under Symeon I devastate Greece & threaten Constantinople

924 UR -SQR NE Ar Cn



BRITAIN: Athelstan, King of England (925-40) (dominant in mainland Britain by 937)

925 UR -SQR NE Ar Cn


GERMANY: HRE Henry I conquers Lorraine (culturally & econ wealthy & densely populated)


926 UR -SQR NE Ar Cn



W EUROPE: Cluny becomes centre of reform movement in European monasteries (Odo)

927 UR -SQR NE Ar Cn


927 UR -sxt PL Ar Ge


GERMANY: Henry I, HRE conquers Brandenburg; 929 conquers Bohemia (carving out German empire)

928 UR -sxt PL Ar Ge


928 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge


IBERIA: Abdul Rahman III, Caliph of Cordoba (929-61) ests ind Cordoba Caliphate

929 UR Ta


FRANCE: Rudolph, King of France (929-36) (France united under one ruler)


ATLANTIC: Iceland becomes an independent Viking republic

930 NE +ssx PL Cn Ge

930 UR Ta


ATLANTIC: est of Allthing, Icelandic general assembly (oldest continuous parliament in world)


931 Sa OPPN NE Cp Cn


931 NE +ssx PL Cn Ge


GERMANY: Magyar raids in Bohemia & Saxony

932 Sa OPPN NE Aq Le

932 NE Le


932 UR -ssq PL Ta Ge


GERMANY: Henry I HRE defeats Magyars; takes Schleswig 934

933 UR -ssq PL Ta Ge

933 NE Le


E ASIA: Po Hai (710-934, Manchuria) destroyed by Khitans; founding of kgdm of Koryo (Korea)

933 NE on NE NNode


SCANDNVA: Erik Bloodaxe, King of Norway (934-54) (later provokes rebellion by his violence)

934 PL Cn


SCANDNVA: Harold Bluetooth, King of Denmark (934-986) (first Christian king in North)


ISLAM: text of Quran revised & finalised

935 PL Cn


* ASIA: zenith (935-1170) of Koryo period (918-1392) in Korea


GERMANY: Otto I (936-73) (expansion, building & wealth) king of Franks & Lombards by 951

936 PL Cn


EUROPE: beginning of Ottonian period of Gothic architecture

936 UR Ge


* MIDEAST: Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad politically compromised; power now held by Great Emir


BYZANTIUM: Constantinople severely damaged by an earthquake, killing thousands


BRITAIN: Saxon Athelstan defeats Danes, Scots & Stratchclyde British at Brunanburgh

937 UR -ssx PL Ge Cn

937 UR Ge


W EUROPE: Magyar raids through Germany & E France


CHINA: Khitans expand into N China & establish capital at Beijing (becoming Liao dynasty)

938 UR -ssx PL Ge Cn


GERMANY: Otto I campaigns in Bavaria & Saxony, Swabia 939


SE ASIA: Dai Viet (Annam) becomes independent of China (growth of Vietnamese culture)

939 UR on UR NNode


JAPAN: revolts & period of civil war (after downfall of centralist imperial rule, until 1185)


INDIA: peak of the Rashtrakuta state (W Deccan) under Krishna II


BRITAIN: Edmund I, king of England; 942 Malcolm I, king of Scotland

940 UR -sxt NE Ge Le


IBERIA: Arabs lose Madrid to Spaniards of Leon (begn of Reconquista of Spain)

940 PL on PL NNode


BRITAIN: war between Danes and Saxons in England; Edmund I king of England (940-6)

941 UR -sxt NE Ge Le


BYZANTIUM: Viking naval attack on Constantinople beaten off


C EUROPE: Christian conversion of Hungary

942 UR -sxt NE Ge Le



C AMERICA: Zapotec capital of Monte Alban sacked by Mixtecs and abandoned

943 Sa CONJ UR Ge Ge

943 UR Cn



944 Sa CONJ PL Cn Cn

944 UR Cn


ISLAM: power shifts from Iraq to Persia under Buwayhids (end of great days of Islamic empire)


MIDEAST: Buyid dynasty of Emirs (945-1055) in Baghdad (Abbasid caliphate now a religious formality)

945 NE +ssq PL Le Cn


RUSSIA: Viking state of Kiev first designated as 'Rus'


FRANCE: Otto I HRE advances on Paris & Rouen (extending German influence widely)

946 NE +ssq PL Le Cn

946 NE Vi



CHINA: Khitan Mongols invade N China, establish Liao Dynasty, with new capital Beijing

947 UR CONJ PL Cn Cn

947 NE Vi


N AFRICA: Shi'ite Fatimid Al-Mansur conquers N Africa, Sicily & SW Italy

947 NE +ssq PL Le Cn


947 UR -ssq NE Cn Le


948 UR -ssq NE Cn Vi


948 Sa CONJ NE Vi Vi



* EUROPE: ZENITH of EUROPEAN 'DARK AGES' (instability, violence, cultural downturns)

950 UR Le


* SCANDNVA: migration of Same-folk (Lapps) into N Scandinavia & Russia from Siberia


* W AFRICA: zenith of kgdm of Ghana (with high level of culture, founded 300s)

951 UR Le


GERMANY: Bohemia becomes tributary to Otto I, King of Franks & Lombards (950-66) by marriage







953 UR -ssx NE Le Vi



FRANCE: Lothar, King of France (954-986, formation of French national identity)

954 UR -ssx NE Le Vi


W EUROPE: Magyar raids as far west as Belgium; BRITAIN: four year famine, 40,000 die


C EUROPE: Otto I defeats Magyars at Lechfeld & Slavs at Recknitz (pacifying Magyars to 1170s)


* E EUROPE: Eastern Orthodox faith moves into Russia from Byzantium


* EUROPE: EUROPEAN ECONOMIC RECOVERY & STABILITY begin (956-1160) (forest clearing,

956 UR +ssx PL Vi Le

956 PL Le


marsh drainage, settler migration to new land, re-establishment of towns & ports)

956 UR Vi


957 UR +ssx PL Le Cn

957 PL Le


957 UR Vi




BRITAIN: Eadgar the Peaceful (959-75) unifies England (creates stability, learning & growth)

959 NE Li



CHINA: NORTHERN SUNG TAI TSU, new emperor in Five Dynasties state; reunites China by 979

960 NE Li


* ISLAM: founding of universities in Cordoba & Cairo; EUROPE: Churchbuilding period


E EUROPE: Poland becomes a kingdom; Mieczyslav I, first king of Poland


IBERIA: Hakam II, Ummayyad caliph of Cordoba (961-976)

961 UR +ssq PL Vi Le

961 NE Li



C ASIA: Turks found Ghazni principality in Khorasan (incubation of a future power)

962 Sa OPPN PL Aq Le

962 UR Li


W EUROPE: Otto I (962-973) of Germany crowned emperor of re-founded Holy Roman Empire, in Rome

962 UR +ssq PL Vi Le


BYZANTIUM: new emperor Nicephorus II Phocas defeats Bulgarians & Arabs

963 UR Li


CHINA: Tai Tsu beats Tatar Mongols (forced to pay heavy tribute to Hsi-Hsia & Liao)


AMERICAS: TOLTEC CULTURE, NEW PERIOD (964-1191), Yucatan (Mayapan, Uxmal, Chichen Itza)


BYZANTIUM: Nicephorus II Phocas (963-9) conquers Cyprus from Arabs


BRITAIN: Saxon England overcomes Welsh resistance (in Gwynedd) against colonisation of Wales

965 UR CONJ NE Li Li


RUSSIA: Khazar state in S Russia (capital Itil) subdued by Viking-Russians under Sviatoslav


JAPAN: ZENITH of FUJIWARA (966-1068) PERIOD; Heian Michinaga, Emperor of Japan (966-1027)


E EUROPE: Poland converts to Catholicism (est of longlasting links with W Europe)


E EUROPE: Viking Sviatoslav of Russia subdues the Bulgars (lands from Novgorod to Danube)

967 UR +sxt PL Li Le


* SE EUROPE: first monasteries built at Mt Athos (Athos becomes centre of Orthodox monasticism)

967 Sa OPPN UR Ar Li


E EUROPE: Vikings ravage Bulgaria & Balkans; 970 driven out by Slavs & Magyars

967 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li


MIDEAST: Byzantines retake Antioch from Arabs; 600,000 die in Egyptian famine (Nile drought)

968 Sa OPPN UR Ar Li


N AFRICA: Fatimid dynasty (969-1171, Tunisian Shi'ite Muslims, anti-Abbasid) conquer Egypt

968 Sa OPPN NE Ar Li

969 UR Sc


969 Sa OPPN UR Ar Li


* INDIA: collapse of three major states (Rashtrakuta, Pala, Pratihara) – allowing for Muslim invasion

970 UR Sc


* ISLAM: C Asian Turks convert to Islam (leading toward later Turk ascendancy – Seljuks, Ottomans)




C EUROPE: birth of Hungarian state under Duke Geisa the Magyar (972-97), (newly Christianised)


* CHINA: Buddhist Canon printed in Szechuan with 130,000 woodblocks


* ARTS: revival of Deccan art & architecture in central India

973 PL Vi


N AFRICA: Shi'ite Fatimids found the city of Cairo

973 NE Sc


974 NE Sc


974 PL Vi


IDEAS: arithmetic notation imported to Europe by Arabs, via Cordoba


MIDEAST: Al-Aziz, Fatimid Egypt (975-96) conquers Syria & Iraq (Fatimids rule Atlantic-Euphrates)


BYZANTIUM: Basil II, Byz Emp (976-1025) (zenith of Byz expansion, reaches Jerusalem's gates)

976 UR Sg


E EUROPE: Samuel, Czar of Bulgaria (976-1014)


IBERIA: Hisham, Caliph of Cordoba (977-1002) (patron of science, arts & philosophy)


E AFRICA: fall of Christian Axum (Eritrea) to pagan invaders

978 UR +SQR PL Sg Vi


W EUROPE: Otto II, HRE (967-83) at war with Lothair of France; Aix-la-Chappelle destroyed

978 Sa CONJ PL Vi Vi


IBERIA: Muhammad al-Mansur, Umayyad chief minister (978-1002) (powerful force in Cordoba)

978 UR +ssx NE Sg Sc


IRELAND: Irish under Malachi defeat the Vikings at the Hill of Tara

978 UR on UR SNode


CHINA: CHINA FINALLY REUNITED BY SUNG TAI TSU (963-979, advent of modernity & humanism)


BRITAIN: Ethelred the Unready, Saxon King of England (979-1016) (constant pressure from Danes)

979 UR +SQR PL Sg Vi


* EUROPE: growth of trading cities: Venice, Genoa, London, Antwerpen, Paris, Marseilles, Mainz

980 UR +SQR PL Sg Vi


* BRITAIN: renewed Viking raids on England's ports and coastlines


RUSSIA: St Vladimir, Prince of Kiev (980-1015) (patron of Orthodox religious arts & learning)




EUROPE: HRE domination of Europe weakened by Saracen (Fatimid) victory over Otto II in Italy


N ATLANTIC: Greenland settled by Vikings under Erik the Red


C EUROPE: Slav rebellion against German rule, after death of Otto II (resisting German growth)

983 UR Cp


HRE: Otto III, HRE (983-1002)


E AFRICA: settlement by Arab & Persian traders on E coast of Africa (Dar-es-Salaam, Zanzibar)

984 Sa CONJ NE Sc Sc


FRANCE: regular famines & shortages (to 1059) (bringing Millenial fears)


SCANDNVA: Sweyn, King of Denmark (985-1014), and of Sweden (995-1014)

985 PL Li


INDIA: Rajaraja, Chola Rajah (985-1014) conquers Tamil-nad, Deccan (first union of South India)


INDIA: invasion of N India by Turks from Afghanistan under Sabuktigin

986 UR +ssq NE Cp Sc

986 PL Li


JAPAN: new religious currents: monks Genshin & Kuya; millenialism; growth of Pure Land sect


FRANCE: accession of Capetian dynasty – Hugh Capet, King of France (987-96)

987 UR +ssq NE Cp Sc

987 PL Li


EUROPE: 120 day great winter freeze in W Europe

987 NE Sg


BRITAIN: SW England & Wales under regular attack by Vikings; 993 Yorkshire; 994 London

988 NE Sg


C AMERICA: Chichen Itza taken over by Toltecs, becoming new capital of Yucatan (987-1221)


* RUSSIA: Russians convert to Orthodox Christianity under Vladimir the Saint (980-1015)



EUROPE: widespread millenial anticipation throughout Christendom


* EUROPE: development of systematic musical notation in Church music


* AMERICAS: Inca Tiahuanaco culture in Peru expands greatly (zenith 1200s-1500s)


BYZANTIUM: Basileus II embarks on long struggles (991-1014) with Bulgarian Samuel I

991 Sa CONJ UR Cp Cp

991 UR Aq


C EUROPE: schism of Serbian tribes: Orthodox (Serbia, Bosnia) & Catholic (Croatia) spheres


E EUROPE: Boleslav I Chrobry of Poland (992-1025) (unites W Slavs, creates state of Poland)



SCANDNVA: Olaf Tryggvesson, King of Norway (995-1000) (converts Norway Vikings to Christ'ty)

993 UR +sxt NE Aq Sg


ROME: first canonisation of saints by RC Church, under Pope John XV (985-996)


BRITAIN: London beseiged by Vikings; Yorkshire damaged

994 UR +sxt NE Aq Sg


SCANDNVA: Olaf Skotkonung, Scots K of Sweden (995-1022) (converts Sweden to Christianity)


C EUROPE: last independent tribe of C Europe, the Slavnici, subdued by Germans in Bohemia

995 UR +sxt NE Aq Sg


JAPAN: Michinaga (966-1027) greatest Fujiwara emperor (literature, arts, stability)


N AFRICA: est of House of Science in Fatimid Cairo (blockprinting, optics, nat hist, anatomy)


FRANCE: Richard the Good, Duke of Normandy (996-1026) (Normandy latinised Viking nation)

996 UR +tri PL Aq Li


ITALY: civil war in Rome


C EUROPE: St Stephen I of Hungary (997-1038) (founds towns & monasteries, 'Apostolic Majesty')

997 UR +tri PL Aq Li

997 PL Sc


FRANCE: Robert II, 2nd Capetian king of France (996-1031)

998 UR +tri PL Pi Sc


ASIA: Mahmud of Ghazni (997-1030, cultural patron) founds Emirate of Ghazni (Turkestan & Afghanistan)

998 Sa OPPN PL Ta Sc

998 UR Pi


* BRITAIN: Edinburgh emerges as centre of Scotland's national unity

998 PL Peri 1Sc

998 PL Sc


BYZANTIUM: last expedition against Egyptian Fatimids by Basileus II, Byz Emp (976-1025)

999 UR +tri PL Pi Sc

999 UR Pi


E EUROPE: Piast dynasty (to 1370) in Poland (consolidates territory and economy)

999 Sa OPPN PL Ta Sc

Neptune conjunct Pluto 905
Rise of the European identity, consolidation of elites & nation-states; unstable Epoch of Five Dynasties in China; zenith of Umayyad Caliphate in Cordoba, Spain (civilising influence on Europe); Magyars on rampage in Germany & Italy, destroying Moravia; rise of Shi'ite Fatimids in Tunisia; Viking raids, Vikings granted Normandy; Polynesian Maoris settling New Zealand; end of Carolingian dynasty; Kiev (founded by Vikings) attacks Constantinople, starting long relationship with Byzantium; expansion of monasteries in Europe (Cluny)

Uranus square Pluto 917-18

Uranus square Neptune 924-27

Magyars still looting Europe. Mongol Khinan Khanate established, C Asia; Korea unified; German expansion (Saxon emperors); Byzantium beseiged by Bulgars - zenith of Bulgars; Icelandic Allthing (world's oldest lasting parliament); Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad politically compromised; Byzantine revival; reform movement in European monasteries (Odo)

Uranus conjunct Pluto 947
Khitan Monglols invade N China, founding Liao dynasty in new capital of Beijing; Tunisian Fatimids conquer Maghreb, Sicily & S Italy; Europe in turmoil - zenith of 'Dark Ages'; Ottonian period in Holy Roman Empire begins European revival; zenith of kgdm of Ghana and of Zimbabwe civilisation; downfall of Zapotecs in Mexico; Christian conversions in C Europe; expansion of German influence in France (Otto I); ascendancy in Vietnam; power shift in Baghdad (end of Abbasid greatness); migration of Sami (Lapps) from Siberia to N Scandinavia

Uranus conjunct Neptune 965
Islamic univrsities; European church-building phase starts; re-uniting of China (Northern Song); Toltec revival in Yucatan; zenith of Fujiwara Japan; unification of Saxon England, final resistance of Welsh against English; decline of Khazar khanate (Viking invasion); collapse in India (fall of Pala, Rashtrakuta, Pratihara), laying India open to Muslims; founding of Turkic sultanate of Ghazni in Khorasan (Afghanistan); Byzantium defeats Bulgar & Arab incursions, expands in Syria; ascendancy of Kiev (Ukraine)

Uranus square Pluto 978-80
Zenith in Cordoba & Kiev; renewed Viking raids on Europe; rise of European trading cities (Venice, Genoa, Antwerp, London, Paris, Mainz); Slavic rebellion against Germans; fall of Axum (Eritrea); Egyptian Fatimids conquer Syria & Iraq; Greenland settled by Vikings



S E AFRICA: gold-trading STATE OF ZIMBABWE (widespread trade & cultural influence)

1000 UR +tri PL Pi Sc


* ARTS: Great Age in painting, printing, technology, science and ceramics in China, Sung dynasty


* ASIA: Sultanate of Ghazni (Khorasan) flourishes in art, science, religion & trade


* S AMERICA: COLLAPSE OF TIAHUANACO & HUARI (possibly climatic change)




* N AMERICA: Viking temp colony in Vinland (Newfoundland, Erik the Red)


* N AMERICA: beginning of migration of Thule Inuit from Bering Sea to Alaska & Greenland (1000-1200)


* SCANDNVA: Danes control Norway; Vikings colonise Iceland & Greenland (Christianity follows)




* EUROPE: widespread millenial fears of end of the world and the Last Judgement


* E EUROPE: Czechoslovakia (Bohemia & Moravia) united as a nation


* EURASIA: spiritual focus of Judaism & Kabbalah moves from Mesopotamia to Iberia


* ITALY: revival of Venice, Genoa & Pisa (after Saracen raids); cultural revival in Florence, Rome, Naples


* BRITAIN: Danegeld: tax on saxon English by Danes, until 1053; 'Beowulf', Anglo-Saxon heroic poem


* BENELUX: beginning of building of dykes and land-reclamation in Frisia, N Holland


HRE: German emperor Otto III makes Rome his home


* BRITAIN: escalation of Danish pressures: Saxons murder Danish settlers (St Brice's Day)

1001 UR +tri PL Pi Sc


IBERIA: death of Al Mansur brings decline in the caliphate of Cordoba


BYZANTIUM: Basil II defeats Bulgarians (staving off pressure on Constantinople) (& 1014)

1002 NE Cp


HRE: Henry II the Saint, HRE (1002-24) (bringing expansionism in Italy & Poland)


BRITAIN: Danish army lands in England, under King Sweyn (retreats due to famine)


IRELAND: Brian Boruma unites Ireland (ends warring between clan dynasties, to 1014)


INDIA: Chola Rajaraja I invades Ceylon (Chola kingdom now mighty &wealthy)


ITALY: HRE Henry II takes over Lombardy; Arabs sack Pisa (Italy in turmoil)


* E EUROPE: conflict between Polish unification of Slavs & German eastern expansion (1003-18)


CHINA: Liao (Khitan) Mongols invade to Yellow River, granted tribute by Sung emperor


ISLAM: Al-Hakim seeks to force Shi'ism on Egypt & become deified (founding Druse sect)


INDIA: Muslims begin settlement of NW India (prelude to Muslim Indian empires)

1006 UR Ar


CHINA: granaries established for emergency relief of peasants (by Sung emperor)


BRITAIN: Ethelred the Unready (Saxon) pays large tribute to Danes to gain peace

1007 UR +sqt PL Ar Sc


RUSSIA: Vladimir I defends Russia against Pecheneg tribes (Asiatic Turkic)


INDIA: Muslim MAHMUD OF GHAZNI defeats Hindus at Peshawar (expands into N India by 1025)

1008 UR +sqt PL Ar Sc


SCANDNVA: Sweden under Olaf Skotkonung (995-1022) converts to Christianity at Upsala


MIDEAST: Muslims wreck the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem (stimulating Christian Crusades)

1009 UR +SQR NE Ar Cp

1009 PL Sg


HRE: first HR Imperial Diet of nobles under Henry II

1009 UR +sqt PL Ar Sc


FRANCE: Robert II (996-1031) of France declares 'Peace of God' after incessant warring

1010 UR +SQR NE Ar Cp

1010 PL Sg


IBERIA: civil war of the Arabs (1008-28) (leads to dissolution of Umayyad Caliphate in Spain)

1010 UR +sqt PL Ar Sg


BRITAIN: critical situation between Danes and Saxons under Ethelred the Unready, Saxons losing

1011 UR +SQR NE Ar Cp


1011 UR +sqt PL Ar Sg


GERMANY: first persecution of heretics by Church

1012 UR +SQR NE Ar Cp



BRITAIN: Danes overthrow Saxons, becoming rulers of England; Ethelred flees and returns

1013 UR Ta



BYZANTIUM: Basil II brutally defeats Bulgarians (blinding thousands), gaining territory

1014 UR Ta


HRE: on second Italian campaign (see 1004) Henry II crowned HR Emperor in Rome by Pope


IRELAND: Viking domination of Ireland ended at the Battle of Clontarf

1015 UR +qcx PL Ta Sg

1015 NE Aq


SCANDNVA: Olaf II the Saint (1015-30) gains Norwegian independence, nation becomes Christian


BRITAIN: Celtic kingdom of Strathclyde incorporated into Scotland

1016 Sa CONJ PL Sg Sg

1016 NE Aq


BRITAIN: KNUT the GREAT, Danish King (1016-35) of England, Denmark and Norway (1028-35)

1016 NE on S Node


ITALY: Norman knights enter S Italy (to restore order & oppose Arab incursion)

1016 UR +qcx PL Ta Sg


E EUROPE: downfall of first Bulgarian empire (part of Byzantium for 168 years)

1017 UR +qcx PL Ta Sg



BRITAIN: union of Southern & Highland Scotland (highland clansof Alba join King Malcolm)

1018 UR +qcx PL Ta Sg


BRITAIN: Council of Oxford: Knut confirms Saxon laws of Eadgar (Danes settle into power in England)


* BYZANTIUM IN ASCENDANCY until 1185 (annexing Bulgaria & Macedonia, also gaining Armenia)


INDIA: Mohammed Mahmud of Ghazni sacks Kanauj (breaking Hindu power, harassing N India)


C ASIA: Firdausi (939-1020, epic writer) & Al Buruni (973-1048, geographer) at work in Ghazni

1019 UR +qcx PL Ta Sg



RUSSIA: Jaroslav the Wise of Kiev (1020-54) codifies laws, builds towns, schools, churches

1020 UR Ge


SCANDNVA: Faeroes, Shetlands & Orkneys take St Olaf II Haraldsson of Norway as king


INDIA: Cholas invade Bengal (counter-balancing Islamic expansion)

1021 UR Ge


ITALY: third campaign of Holy Roman Emperor in Italy, flushing out Arabs & Byzantine Greeks


EUROPE: Synod of Pavia insists on celibacy amongst higher clergy of RC Church



INDIA: Mahmud of Ghazni destroys many centres in N India; Ghaznevids settle Punjab

1023 UR on N Node



GERMANY: Konrad II K of Germany (1024-1039) – first HRE Salian (Franconian) emperor (1024-1125)

1024 UR +tri NE Ge Aq

1024 PL Cp



SCANDNVA: rivalry between Knut of Denmark & St Olaf of Norway, in Sweden

1025 UR +tri NE Ge Aq


SE ASIA: Cholas from India raid Srivijaya (Sumatra) and Pegu (Burma)


SCANDNVA: King Knut of Denmark & England goes on a pilgrimage to Rome

1026 UR +tri NE Ge Aq


ITALY: arrival of Norman mercenaries in S Italy (prelude to later Norman takeover 1047-90)


HRE: Konrad II crowned HRE (1027-39) in Rome

1027 UR +tri NE Ge Aq

1027 UR Cn


CHINA: Song dynasty loses control of north China to the Ch'in (Jin)


SCANDNVA: Knut conquers Norway (1028-30), slays St Olaf Haraldsson

1028 PL on S Node

1028 UR Cn


IBERIA: Sancho of Navarre invades Castile (growing of Spanish national forces against Muslims)

1028 UR OPPN PL Cn Cp


* W EUROPE: growth of the cult of the Virgin Mary in the Catholic church

1029 UR OPPN PL Cn Cp

1029 NE Pi



BYZANTIUM: Patriarch persecutes Syrian Monophysites (arousing enmity, helping Seljuk advances)

1030 UR OPPN PL Cn Cp

1030 NE Pi


SE ASIA: Indian Chola influence extends overseas to Burma, Malaya, Srivijaya


FRANCE: Henry I King of France (1031-1060)

1031 UR OPPN PL Cn Cp



1031 UR +sqt NE Cn Pi


HRE: Burgundy and Poland absorbed into Holy Roman Empire by Konrad II

1032 Sa OPPN PL Cn Cp


1032 UR +sqt NE Cn Pi


IBERIA: rise of Castile as ind non-Muslim kingdom; Ferdinand I King of Castile (1035-65)

1033 Sa OPPN PL Cn Cp


1033 UR +sqt NE Cn Pi


BYZANTIUM: Viking (Varangian) mercenary fleets defeat Saracen pirates in E Med'n for Byzantium

1034 UR Le


1034 UR +sqt NE Cn Pi


SCANDNVA: Knut dies; sons Harold, Hardiknut & Sweyn take over England, Denmark & Norway


* INDIA: Alberuni of Khiva (935-1048) scientist, translator (Afghan from Ghazni)




* IBERIA: Mulak al-Tawaif (petty dynasties founded in the wake of Cordoba caliphate, to 1086)

1037 UR +qcx NE Le Pi


ASIA: Seljuk Turks invade Khorasan (rebellion against Ghazni, Seljuk expansion out of Kazakhstan)


C ASIA: Tibetan Tangut tribes form Hsi-Hsia (Xixia) Silk Road state in C Asia/NW China

1038 UR +qcx NE Le Pi


CHINA: major earthquake in Shansi (destroying a city, killing 23,000)


BRITAIN: English hold on N Wales broken by Prince Gruffydd of Gwynedd

1039 UR +qcx NE Le Pi


GERMANY: Konrad II succeeded by Henry III King of Germany (1039-1056)

1039 UR -qcx PL Le Cp


JAPAN: monks invade Kyoto (leading to growing strength of samurai clans as support to gov't)


BRITAIN: murder of King Duncan of Scotland by Macbeth, King of Scotland (1040-57)

1040 UR +qcx NE Le Pi

1040 UR Vi


E EUROPE: Bulgaria annexed by Byzantium after tax revolt led by Peter Delyan

1040 UR -qcx PL Le Cp


C ASIA: major earthquake in Tabriz, Persia, killing 50,000, levelling city


ITALY: Lombards & Normans defeat Byzantine Greeks in S Italy (Normans conquer S Italy 1042-71)

1041 UR -qcx PL Vi Aq

1041 PL Aq


ROME: 'Pax Dei' declared (restricting fighting to Mondays-Wednesdays, to protect travellers)

1041 UR Vi


C ASIA: RISE OF THE SELJUK TURKS as a threat to Asian stability (later to rule Abbasid Caliphate)

1042 NE Ar


BRITAIN: Edward the Confessor K of England (1042-1066) (last saxon Eng king, son of Ethelred)


1043 NE Ar



ITALY: Papal corruption: throne sold to Pope Gregory VI, papal election of Saxon 1046

1044 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq


ASIA: establishment of Buddhist Burmese nat'l state at Pagan under Anawrata (cultural growth)

1044 UR -sqt PL Vi Aq


* CHINA: movable-type printing invented in China

1045 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq


C EUROPE: pagan uprising in ungary under Vatha (against Church & State)

1045 UR -sqt PL Vi Aq


HRE: Henry III crowned emp in Rome; election of Saxon pope Clement II (against corruption)

1046 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

1046 UR Li


ROME: Reform Papacy (1046-1075) (seeking chastity & end of simony – selling of titles & posts)

1046 UR -sqt PL Vi Aq


FRANCE: William of Normandy (later king of England) takes control over rebellious nobility

1047 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq

1047 UR Li


ISLAM: holy cities Medina & Mecca withdraw support for Fatimids (Fatimid power wanes)


* SE ASIA: unified Burmese state founded by king Anawrahta (1044-77), capital at temple-city of Pagan

1048 UR -tri PL Li Aq


1048 NE +sxt PL Ar Aq


1049 UR OPPN NE Li Ar


1049 UR -tri PL Li Aq


CHINA: 'History of China from 500BC-1000AD' by Ssu-ma-Kuang

1050 UR OPPN NE Li Ar


* ARTS: 'The Mabinogion', Welsh mythological verses

1050 UR -tri PL Li Aq


* BRITAIN: building of churches & cathedrals (eg Winchester, Westminster & Exeter)


N AFRICA: military dictatorship ruins economy & society in Egypt


* INNOVN: use of the Astrolabe spreads into Europe from Islamic countries & India


JAPAN: civil war & rise of Minamoto clan as military power ('claws & teeth of Fujiwara clan')

1051 UR OPPN NE Li Ar


* N AMERICA: growth of large Anasazi ceremonial centres, Arizona

1051 Sa CONJ PL Aq Aq



1052 UR OPPN NE Li Ar



ITALY: Norman Robert Guiscard establishes Norman empire in south Italy

1053 UR Sc



FRANCE: Normans defeat Henry I of France, when he seeks to invade Normandy


* EUROPE: schism between Greek and Roman Churches (over conquests) becomes permanent


RUSSIA: Kievan state (lacking leadership) breaks up under pressure from nomad raiders


MIDEAST: Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad; Tughril Beg becomes Sultan



ITALY: beginning of proto-democratic Pataria movement in Milan

1056 NE Ta


N AFRICA: Almoravids (Moors) conquer north Africa and south Spain


CHINA: earthquake kills 25,000 in Hopei province

1057 NE Ta



C EUROPE: Hungarian independence recognised by HRE Henry III; Andrew I, K of Hungary (1047-60)

1058 UR -SQR PL Sc Aq



ROME: Papal decree allows papal elections by cardinals only (excluding monarchs)

1059 UR -SQR PL Sc Aq


BYZANTIUM: Dukas dynasty (1059-78) (decline; Norman, Patzinak, Magyar & Seljuk pressures)


1060 UR Sg



ITALY: Normans conquer Messina (Sicily)



* EUROPE: ending of the Viking age

1062 UR on S Node

1062 PL Pi



BRITAIN: subduing of Wales by saxon English

1063 UR -qcx NE Sg Ta

1063 PL Pi


E EUROPE: HRE defeats Hungarians (early eastward moves of German influence)


MIDEAST: Seljuk Turks conquer Armenia, under new leader Alp Arslan (1063-1072)

1064 UR -qcx NE Sg Ta


E EUROPE: Hungarians battle with Byzantium, taking Belgrade


GERMANY: Henry IV (HRE 1053-1105) comes of age, regency since 1056 ending

1065 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi


BRITAIN: consecration of Westminster Abbey (one year before Norman invasion)

1065 UR -qcx NE Sg Ta


BRITAIN: Harold II crowned June 1; defeats Danes in Yorkshire; killed at Hastings by Normans

1066 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi


BRITAIN: Bt of Hastings, NORMANS TAKE ENGLAND; William the Conqueror king (1066-87)



1066 UR -qcx NE Sg Ta

1067 UR Cp



CHINA: Shen Tsung, Emperor of China (1068-86, government & tax centralisation, reform & trade)

1068 UR -sxt PL Cp Pi


BRITAIN: uprisings in N England suppressed by Normans


JAPAN: Emperor Sanjo II overcomes Fujiwara power (decline of Fujiwara period)


* EUROPE: RISE of NORMAN CULTURE (Fr, Eng, S It): Romanesque architecture, churches, castles

1069 UR -sxt PL Cp Pi

1069 NE Ge


BRITAIN: famine follows Norman invasion, 50,000 die (also 1073)


MIDEAST: founding of the Order of St John in Palestine by merchants from Amalfi

1070 NE Ge


BRITAIN: uprising in East Anglia against Normans by Hereward the Wake, Saxon lord, defeated


ITALY: Normans complete their conquest of Byzantine Italy (fatal years for Byzantium)

1071 UR -sqt NE Cp Ge


MIDEAST: Bt of Manzikert: SELJUK TURKS DEFEAT BYZANTIUM (Europe under threat)


AFRICA: Islam crosses the Sahara, entering African culture (Ghana, Mali, Hausa, Kanem-Bornu, Air)

1072 UR -sqt NE Cp Ge


* W EUROPE: Peter Valdes, a merchant, founds the anti-clerical Waldensian sect (against Church laxity)


EUROPE: election of Gregorius VII Pope (1073-85): conflict between Empire & Papacy begins

1073 UR -sqt NE Cp Ge


* MIDEAST: Seljuk Malik Shah (1073-1092) (patron of learning & culture in Baghdad)


EUROPE: excommunication of all married priests; 1075 Dictatus Papae (on rights to world power)

1074 UR -ssq PL Cp Pi

1074 UR Aq


INDIA: powerful Chola line ends (by mutual assassination of both heirs)


MIDEAST: Seljuk Turks invade Syria & Palestine (sparking Crusades)

1075 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi

1075 UR Aq


ROME: Gregorius VII decl right of dominion over kings and Holy Roman Emperor (Dictatus Papae)


EUROPE: Pope Gregorius VII dethrones & excommunicates HRE Henry IV (Pope dominates HR Empire)

1076 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi


NW AFRICA: Almoravidsfrom Morocco destroy the African kingdom of Ghana


HRE: HRE Henry IV repents before the Pope, and is absolved

1077 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi


SE ASIA: Sung China attempts to reconquer Annam (N Vietnam), fails


INDIA: CHALUKYA-CHOLA DYNASTY (1074-1267), started by Rajendra at Kanchi & Vengi

1078 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi


INDIA: Vikramaditya VI of Kalyani (1075-1125) (security in Kashmir, Hindu & Buddhist temples)


1079 NE +SQR PL Ge Pi


1079 UR -tri NE Aq Ge


EUROPE: HRE deposed & excommunicated again (1080-85), Pope continuing to exercise dominion

1079 UR -ssx PL Aq Pi


1080 UR -tri NE Aq Ge


BYZANTIUM: Alexius I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor (1081-1118); Comneni dynasty (1081-1185)

1080 UR -ssx PL Aq Pi


E EUROPE: Norman Robert Guiscard from S Italy invades the Balkans

1081 UR -tri NE Aq Ge


C EUROPE: est of a Serbian state in Montenegro (1081-1101)

1082 NE Cn



ITALY: Henry IV storms Rome to force Pope Gregorius VII into submission

1083 Sa CONJ PL Pi Pi

1083 NE Cn


* IBERIA: 'Reconquista' (1085-1340) begins (as Spanish national feeling grows)


MIDEAST: Seljuks take Antioch

1084 Sa CONJ PL Pi Pi


ITALY: Robert Guiscard frees Pope from imprisonment by HRE


CHINA: conservative forces revoke many earlier reforms of Shen Tsung


GERMANY: after much strife & friction, Henry IV declares 'Peace of God' in the Holy Roman Empire


IBERIA: invading Almoravid (Berber) dynasty revives Islamic govt, beating Alfonso of Castile


BRITAIN: compilation of Domesday Book (national resources & tax assessment)


JAPAN: Emperor Shirikawa (1086-1129) (gov't reorganisation, dispowerment of samurai clans)


BRITAIN-FRANCE: William I dies, succeeded by William II 'Rufus' in England, Robert in Normandy


GERMANY: Henry IV HRE delegates German crown to son, Konrad I, King of Germany (1087-1101)


* E EUROPE: Patzinak Turks settle in Eastern Europe

1088 PL Ar



1089 PL Ar


1089 UR Ar


INNOVN: first water-driven mechanical clock built in Beijing, China

1090 UR CONJ PL Ar Ar

1090 PL Ar


MIDEAST: rise of Ismailian fraternity of Assassins (Hashishiyun, masters of forts in N Persia & N Syria)

1090 UR Ar




BRITAIN: Norman William II conquers Celtic Cumbria



BRITAIN: Scots attempt to invade England, failing against Norman William II


* EUROPE: concepts of Pilgrimage to Holy Land, and Holy War against Heathens gain strength


IBERIA: El Cid (Rodrigo Diaz, Spanish folk hero) takes Valencia from Almoravids



MIDEAST: Seljuk power breaks down into family states


MIDEAST: five popular mass crusades break down in pillage and innocent defeat


MIDEAST: FIRST CRUSADE: Franks invade Anatolia & Syria (1096-9), founding Crusader states

1096 UR -SQR NE Ar Cn

1096 NE Le


* EUROPE: first persecutions of Jews (1096-1215) following Crusading mania in Europe


* ISLAM: Crusaders create reaction in Islam; strife between Sunnis & Shi'ites over Jerusalem

1097 UR -SQR NE Ar Cn

1097 NE Le


INNOVN: monastic movement strengthened by creation of first Cistercian monastery at Citeaux

1097 NE on N Node

1097 UR Ta


BRITAIN: Orkneys, Hebrides & Isle of Man taken by Magnus III King of Norway

1098 UR -SQR NE Ta Le

1098 UR Ta


MIDEAST: Byzantium at war with Norman Crusaders over Antioch (1098-1108); plague in Palestine

1098 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar


MIDEAST: CRUSADERS TAKE JERUSALEM bloodily; Muslims defeated

1099 UR -SQR NE Ta Le



Uranus square Neptune 1009-12
Vikings reach America, dominate England (Canute), convert to Christianity (Sweden & Norway); Ireland united, Vikings defeated; climax of Toltecs (Yucatan) and Tiahuanacu (Peru); sultanate of Ghazni attacks NW India (Muslim invasion of N India); slow decline of Cordoba

Uranus opposition Pluto 1028-31
Collapse of Cordoba Caliphate, rise of Spanish Reconqvista (Sancho of Navarre, rise of Castile); Jaroslav the Wise, Kiev (zenith); Canute attempts Viking empire (England & Denmark); Chola expansion, India & Burma, Malaya, Srivijaya; Song dynasty loses N China to Ch'in; rise of cult of Mary in Catholic church; Seljuk Turk expansion, C Asia

Uranus opposition Neptune 1048-50
Rise of Seljuk Turks, taking Persia & Baghdad; reform Papacy, Europe; internal dissent in Islamic world, decline of Shi'ite Fatimids; ascendancy of Burma; civil war in Japan; rise of Normans in Normandy & Sicily; pagan uprising in Hungary; growth of Mississippian culture, American Midwest; schism between Catholic & Orthodox churches; florescence of Anasazi culture, Arizona

Uranus square Pluto 1058-59
Decline of Kiev; Moorish conquest of south Spain; decline of Byzantium (pressures from invaders); Norman expansion into Sicily & later England; stability in China, end of the Viking age

Neptune square Pluto 1075-79
Norman England & Italy; Seljuk invasion of Syria & Palestine, threatening Byzantium (sparking later Crusades) & revival in Baghdad; Islamic disorder; Papal primacy extended over German Holy Roman Empire; Spanish ascendancy; Chalukya-Chola dynasty, India; Islam crosses the Sahara to Mali, Hausa, Ghana; Moors destroy kgdm of Ghana; establishment of Serbian state in Kosovo

Uranus conjunct Pluto 1090

Uranus square Neptune 1096-1100

Domesday Book, England; rise of the idea of Crusades; rise of Fraternity of Assassins (Persia); El Cid, reconqvista in Spain; Seljuk breakdown, Baghdad; First Crusade, Euro invasion of Anatolia, Syria, Jerusalem; European monasticism (Citeaux); first European universities; first persecutions of Jews in Europe; German eastward colonisation; Patzinak Turks settle Ukraine; reforms in China


* W EUROPE: first universities founded in Europe: Salerno, Bologna, Paris

1100 UR -SQR NE Ta Le


1100 UR +ssx PL Ta Ar


CHINA: Sung Hui Tsung (1101-25) reintroduces reforms of Shen Tsung (sponsors painting schools)

1101 NE +tri PL Le Ar


BRITAIN: Robert of Normandy attempts to invade England; paid off by Henry I (1100-1135)


C EUROPE: Croatia joins Hungary (growing western orientation, dividing Serbs)

1102 NE +tri PL Le Ar



W EUROPE: Norwegians attempt to invade Ireland; King Magnus III of Norway killed

1103 NE +tri PL Le Ar


GERMANY: Pacification of Mainz, Jews given HRE protection (being unable to bear arms)


MIDEAST: Crusaders take Acre

1104 NE +tri PL Le Ar

1104 UR Ge


1104 UR +ssq PL Ge Ar


* GERMANY: beginning of colonisation of forested unpop'd E Germany & Poland by German peoples

1105 NE +tri PL Le Ar

1105 UR Ge


1105 UR +ssq PL Ge Ar


HRE: Henry IV dies, succeeded by Henry V HRE (1106-1125) (the last of the Salic line)

1106 UR on N Node





FRANCE: Louis VI the Fat, K of France (1108-37) (growing sense of French national feeling)



1109 NE Vi



? MIDEAST: Omar Khayyam (poet & mathematician) composes Rubaiyyat, works on cubic equations

1110 NE Vi


SE EUROPE: Basil, leader of the Manichean Balkan Bogomils, martyred in Constantinople as a heretic


HRE: Henry V, crowned H R Emp in Rome, excommunicated 1112 (papal-imperial schism continues)

1111 UR -sxt NE Cn Vi

1111 NE Vi


1111 UR Cn


1112 UR -sxt NE Cn Vi

1112 UR Cn



MIDEAST: founding of the Knights Hospitallers (Knights of St John) in Jerusalem

1113 UR -sxt NE Cn Vi


1113 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar


CHINA: Tungus tribes overthrow Khitans in Manchuria (1114-1236) & Liao lands in N China

1114 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar


MIDEAST: earthquakes severely damage Antioch, Jerusalem, Aleppo and other cities, 1000s killed


BYZANTIUM: peak of war with Seljuks, who threaten Constantinople, beaten back to Ankara

1115 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar


ITALY: Florence becomes an independent republic; EUROPE: deadly winter, harvests hit

1115 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar


1116 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar


1116 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar


1117 UR +SQR PL Cn Ar

1117 UR Le


1117 NE +sqt PL Vi Ar


BYZANTIUM: John II Comnenus, Byzantine emperor (1118-1143)

1118 UR +SQR PL Cn Ar

1118 UR Le


MIDEAST: official founding of the Order of the Knights Templar, Jerusalem, with papal sanction

1118 UR -ssq NE Le Vi

1118 PL Ta


ITALY: founding of Bologna university

1119 UR -ssq NE Le Vi

1119 PL Ta



BYZANTIUM: empire threatened (again) by Seljuks (Anatolia) & Patzinaks (Rumania); both beaten

1120 PL Ta


W EUROPE: friction between England & France ended by peace treaty (first of many wars)


* EUROPE: ZENITH of the MEDIEVAL SCHOLASTIC PHILOSOPHY (seeding universities & learning)



CHINA: Tungus prince declares himself founding emperor of Chin; overcomes Hui Tsung & court

1122 PL Aphn 2Ta


GERMANY: Wurzburg Diet of German princes makes peace between Holy Roman Emperor & Pope


E EUROPE: BYZANTINE REVIVAL – defeat of Patzinak Turks (Bulgaria), rebellious Serbs & Hungarians

1123 NE Li


BRITAIN: founding of St Bartholomew's hospital, London


BRITAIN: Geoffrey of Monmouth revives memory of Ancient British church in Glastonbury abbey

1124 UR -ssx NE Le Vi

1124 NE Li


* MED'N: Mediterranean trade now dominated by Italian ports (previously Islamic domination)

1125 UR +tri PL Vi Ta

1124 UR Vi


E EUROPE: renewal of German eastward expansion under Lothar III K of Germany (1125-37)

1125 UR -ssx NE Vi Li


N AFRICA: Almohades conquer Berber Morocco

1125 NE +qcx PL Li Ta


CHINA: CHIN DYNASTY overruns northern China; Sung dynasty rule restricted to south China

1126 UR +tri PL Vi Ta


SCANDNVA: end of struggles (1028-1126) between Goths (Gothenburg) & Sveas (Upsala) in Sweden

1126 NE +qcx PL Li Ta


* MIDEAST: Zangi, Emir of Mosul, unites the scattered emirates of Syria (1127-46)

1127 NE +qcx PL Li Ta



ROME: Pope recognises the Order of Templars

1128 NE +qcx PL Li Ta


IBERIA: Portugal becomes independent of Christian kgdm of Leon


JAPAN: Emperor Toba (1129-56) (last stable government until 1185)

1129 NE +qcx PL Li Ta


1129 UR +sqt PL Vi Ta


ASIA: Khitans migrate to Turkestan, founding Kara-Khitai state (1141-1211)

1130 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

1130 UR Li


MIDEAST: Order of St John in Palestine becomes militarised

1130 UR +sqt PL Vi Ta


* EUROPE: Manichaeism (Good-Evil) enters Europe from Byzantium (Cologne, Cambrai, Toulouse)

1131 UR Li



* FRANCE: Henry I grants urban charters, supporting artisans & merchants & urban growth



HRE: Lothar III crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome

1133 UR +qcx PL Li Ta


* RUSSIA: rise of Moscow as leading Russian principality


HRE: Lothar III reorganises Holy Roman Empire, gaining submission from Denmark & Poland

1134 UR +qcx PL Li Ta



ISLAM: Almohads growing in influence in NW Africa and Muslim Iberia



1136 UR CONJ NE Li Li

1136 UR Sc



BRITAIN: Owain the Great, Prince of N Wales (1137-1170) (resister of Norman dominion in Wales)

1137 UR Sc


ITALY: earthquake & eruption of Mt Etna kill 15,000, also in 1169

1137 NE Sc


GERMANY: Konrad III elected King of Germany (1138-1152) (first of Hohenstaufen line)

1138 NE Sc


BRITAIN: Scots attempt to invade England, defeated at the Battle of the Standards


FRANCE (& Persia): appearance of one who claims to be a Messiah


BRITAIN: civil war in England, on arrival in Sussex of Matilda (claimant to throne)


GERMANY: Bavaria taken by Austria (prelude to later Austrian empire)


C EUROPE: Vladislav II of Bohemia (1140-73) (est of towns, bourgeoisie, trades, succession)


CHINA: treaty between Chin & Sung divides China (dictated by economic exhaustion)

1141 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta


BRITAIN: rival claimant to English throne, Matilda, crowned at Winchester; civil war continues


EUROPE: Spanish Jew Benjamin of Tudela travels to India

1142 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta



INDIA: Kumarapala, ruler of Chalukya (1143-72), (Jain culture, reformer, patron of learning)

1143 UR Sg


IBERIA: independence of Portugal under Alfonso Enriques recognised by Pope & kgdm of Castile


BYZANTIUM: Manuel I Comnenus Byz Emperor (1143-1180) (idealist & soldier, empire at a zenith)


MIDEAST: Seljuk Turks take Christian centre of Edessa

1144 UR Sg


ITALY: republican gov't in Rome under Arnold of Brescia


IBERIA: Berber Almohades conquer parts of Spain, Algeria (1152) & Tunis (1158)



INNOVN: first major Danube bridge at Ratisbon opened


MIDEAST: Nureddin, Seljuk Sultan of Syria (1146-1174) (major opponent to Crusaders)

1146 UR on S Node


* N EUROPE: German traders est econ trading sphere in Baltic (seed of Hansa League)


E EUROPE: Second Crusade plunders Balkans, fights Greeks (Byzantine diplomacy, Seljuk victory)

1147 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta


BRITAIN: civil war ends, Matilda leaves England; Monmouth's 'History of the Kings of Britain'


BYZANTIUM: attempts to cultivate Venetian trade & alliance go wrong (alienating Venice)


* EUROPE: rise of larger European trade fairs (Pavia, Lille, St Ives, Troyes, Douai etc)


EUROPE: Crusaders discredited in Europe after petty rivalries & dramas in East


SCANDNVA: Erik the Saint, King of Sweden (1150-1160)


* AFRICA: beginning of Yoruba city-states in Nigeria

1150 UR +ssx NE Sg Sc

1150 PL Ge


* SE ASIA: Angkor Wat temple-city built in Buddhist-ruled Hindu Cambodia

1150 UR -qcx PL Sg Ta

1151 UR Cp


C ASIA: destruction of sultanate of Ghazni by the Sultan of Khorasan, Al-Auddin Husain

1151 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

1151 PL Ge


AMERICAS: decline of Toltec culture in Mexico (becomes seed of Aztec culture)

1151 UR -qcx PL Cp Ge

1151 NE Sg


GERMANY: Frederick I Barbarossa, King of Germany (1152-1190) (by election)

1152 NE OPPN PL Sg Ge

1152 PL Ge


* AMERICAS: MANCO CAPAC, first GREAT INCA, establishes INCA CULTURE at Cuzco, Peru

1152 NE Sg

Uranus conjunct Neptune 1136

Uranus opposition Pluto 1141-42

Rise of Moscow as Russian centre; zenith of European scholasticism; rise of Italian port cities; Siberian Ch'in dynasty, N China - China divided between Ch'in & Sung, much warring & devastation; import of Oriental ideas into Europe via Crusades; civil war in England (Matilda); independence of Portugal; Byzantium at a new zenith; birth of future Austrian Habsburg empire; messianic movements in France & Persia


Neptune opposition Pluto 1151-54
Rise of large Euro trade fairs & Hansa ports, prosperity, Gothic cathedral building (Chartres); end of sultanate of Ghazni, Afghanistan; Inca culture founded by Manco Capac, Cuzco; zenith of Buddhist culture in Burma; low-point in Muslim world; decline of Toltecs in Mexico (prelude to Aztec rise); Angevin empire, Henry II, England & France

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The Historical Ephemeris
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