Timelines: Medieval Period - Late - Historical Ephemeris

The Historical Ephemeris

600 BCE - CE 2200

Astrological Cycles in History

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Timelines: Medieval Period - Late


Historical Ephemeris

Astro-historical timeline 8:
High Middle Ages
Waning Neptune-Pluto hemicycle  1151-1399 CE

* = a period of change or a general trend
? = an uncertain date

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NOTE: During this period Germany and the Holy Roman Empire are roughly the same thing; in the lists below, entries are marked 'Germany' when they specifically affect Germany, otherwise 'HRE' is used when the wider empire is affected. The same goes in the case of 'Islam', which is used when events concern the whole Muslim realm, and otherwise more local regions are marked.


C ASIA: destruction of sultanate of Ghazni by the Sultan of Khorasan, Al-Auddin Husain

1151 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

1151 PL Ge


AMERICAS: decline of Toltec culture in Mexico (becomes seed of Aztec culture)

1151 UR -qcx PL Cp Ge

1151 NE Sg


GERMANY: Frederick I Barbarossa, king of Germany (1152-1190) (by election)

1152 NE OPPN PL Sg Ge

1152 PL Ge


* AMERICAS: MANCO CAPAC, first GREAT INCA, establishes INCA CULTURE at Cuzco, Peru

1152 NE Sg


* SE ASIA: zenith of Buddhist culture in Burma

1153 NE OPPN PL Sg Ge


* W EUROPE: Troubadours in S France (new dance, music & freethinking emerge all over Europe)


W EUROPE: accession of Plantagenet Henry II of Anjou (1154-89) (Angevin empire in England & France)

1154 NE OPPN PL Sg Ge


FRANCE: Chartres Cathedral begun (heralding the spread of Gothic architecture in Europe)


BRITAIN: Thomas a Becket becomes chancellor to Henry II (Plantagenet dynasty lasts until 1485)

1155 UR -sqt PL Cp Ge


BRITAIN: Pope Hadrian IV gives Henry II of England rule over Ireland (Henry centralises power)


JAPAN: civil war between rival claimants to power, (splitting Taira Clan & Minamoto Clan)

1156 UR -sqt PL Cp Ge


GERMANY: creation of Austria by Barbarossa (to counter Welf Bavarian power)


SCANDNVA: Erik the Saint of Sweden conquers Finland (begins long dominance of Finland by Sweden)

1157 UR +ssq NE Cp Sg


SCANDNVA: Waldemar I the Great, K of Denmark (1157-82) (rise of Denmark to major power status)


* EUROPE: rise of the Craft Guilds in European cities

1158 UR +ssq NE Aq Sg

1158 UR Aq


MIDEAST: earthquakes destroy many towns in Syria, killing 20,000


ROME: Pope Alexander III (1159-1181) (strong, stable, traditionalist Pope)

1159 UR +ssq NE Aq Sg


ASIA: Sultan of Khorasan pushes Ghazni empire south out of Turkestan


* ARTS: European vernacular verse developing (Song of Roland, El Cid, Parzival, Trystan)

1160 UR -tri PL Aq Ge


N AFRICA: Normans expelled by Almohades in Tunisia (retreating to Italy)


JAPAN: civil war, then Taira clan dominance under Kiyomori (1160-81)


N EUROPE: first German Hansa trading ports at Wisby, Gotland & Luebeck, in Baltic Sea

1161 UR -tri PL Aq Ge


INNOVN: explosives first used in China (by Sung armies against Chin/Jurchen Tungus tribes)


BRITAIN: Thomas a Becket elected Archbishop of Canterbury

1162 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge


HRE: Frederick Barbarossa campaigns in Italy, destroying Milan


BRITAIN: friction between Henry II & Thomas a Becket; Becket leaves for France 1164

1163 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge


EURASIA: Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela visits Persia, C Asia & China (small effect in Europe)


E EUROPE: Kuman tribes invade Bulgaria



E EUROPE: Byzantium expands into Balkans, interferes in Hungary; alliance with Venice against HRE

1165 UR +sxt NE Aq Sg

1165 NE Cp



1166 UR +sxt NE Pi Cp

1166 UR Pi


1166 NE Cp


HRE: Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome

1167 UR +sxt NE Pi Cp


BRITAIN: Oxford university founded


RUSSIA: coup d'etat in Kiev by Bogolubsky


* IRELAND: Norman lordly families move to Ireland by invitation to help restore order after clan wars


* C EUROPE: eastward move of German traders (est of towns, trade, roads, agriculture)


C AMERICA: FALL OF THE TOLTEC STATE – sack of Tula, Toltec capital


* SE ASIA: SRIVIJAYA KINGDOM in JAVA reaches its height under Shailendra dynasty

1170 UR -SQR PL Pi Ge


BYZANTIUM: Manuel I detains all Venetian traders; trade privileges renewed 1176


BRITAIN: Thomas a Becket & Henry II reconciled, yet Becket murdered by Norman fundamentalists


ISLAM: Kurdish Saladin conquers Egypt, usurps Fatimids, for Zangids in Damascus (ends Islamic disunity)

1171 UR -SQR PL Pi Ge


MIDEAST: Saladin founds Ayyubid dynasty (1171-1250) in Egypt


IRELAND: Norman Henry II asserts supremacy over a chaotic Ireland (beginning English rule)


ITALY: constitutional reform in Venice (restricting power of Doges)

1172 UR -SQR PL Pi Ge


1173 UR Ar


FRANCE: beginning of Waldensian movement at Lyons, Burgundy (poverty, evangelical purity)



HRE: Frederick Barbarossa buys Sardinia, Corsica, Tuscany & Spoleto (Italy) (HRE expansionism)

1174 UR Ar



INDIA: MUHAMMED OF GHAZNI founds first MUSLIM EMPIRE in INDIA (to become Delhi Sultanate)



ITALY: Frederick Barbarossa defeated by the Lombard League (supporting Pope Alexander)


MIDEAST: Saladin conquers Syria


* E EUROPE: order & prosperity in Hungary under Ladislas I King of Hungary (1077-1095)

1177 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge


EUROPE: peace treaties between England & France, and HRE and Pope


FRANCE: Frederick Barbarossa crowned King of Burgundy; le Pont d'Avignon opened

1178 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge



1179 Sa CONJ PL Ge Ge

1179 NE Aq


1179 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

1179 PL Cn


* SE ASIA: Buddhist ANGKOR at greatest extent and development in Cambodia

1180 NE on S Node

1180 PL Cn


BRITAIN: Ranulf de Glanville reforms England's judicial system

1180 NE -qcx PL Aq Cn


1181 UR -sxt PL Ta Cn

1181 UR Ta


1181 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq


FRANCE: Jews banished from France; most head for Germany (growth of German Jewish community)

1181 NE -qcx PL Aq Cn


1182 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq


BYZANTIUM: purges & attempted reforms in empire & court by Andronicus I; revolt of nobility

1182 UR -sxt PL Ta Cn


HRE: Peace of Konstanz, Lombard League submits to overlordship of HRE

1183 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq


GERMANY: Diet of Mainz, zenith of Frederick Barbarossa's power as Holy Roman Emperor

1184 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq


ROME: Pope declares dissenting Christian groups heretical (Cathari, Albigensians, Waldensians)


MED'N: Cyprus becomes independent of Byzantium


JAPAN: Minamoto & Taira clans battle for Shogunate at Danno-ura; Minamoto dominance until 1333


BYZANTIUM: revolt in Bulgaria (devast'n, killing of Greeks); brothers Asen est Bulgarian state


C ASIA: Mohammed of Ghor destroys the empire of Ghazni (999-1186)

1186 UR -ssq PL Ta Cn



MIDEAST: SALADIN RETAKES JERUSALEM – fall of Crusaders (call in Europe for new crusade)

1187 PL on N Node


INDIA: Punjab falls to turkic Afghan Muizzuddin Mohammed of Khorasan; Rajputs fall

1187 UR -ssq PL Ta Cn


MIDEAST: Saladin destroys Crusader kingdoms in Syria & Palestine

1188 UR Ge


* EUROPE: first building of larger European naval fleets (ie Venice, Genoa)


BYZANTIUM: Third Crusade (inconclusive; Germans & Byzantines avoid clash; last great crusade)

1189 UR Ge


BRITAIN: Richard I Coeur de Lion, King of England (1189-99); massacre of Jews in England


ASIA: Temujin creates a Mongol confederacy & military power (becomes Genghiz Khan in 1206)

1190 UR on N Node


MIDEAST: foundation of Teutonic Knights, in Acre; INDIA; Muin ud-Din Chishti brings Sufism to India


GERMANY: death by drowning of Frederick I Barbarossa; Hohenstaufen line (1190-1268) begins


MED'N: Richard Coeur de Lion conquers Cyprus, selling it to Knights Templars

1191 UR -ssx PL Ge Cn


INDIA: Mohammed of Ghor overcomes the Indian Rajputs (landed princes)



1192 UR -ssx PL Ge Cn


JAPAN: KAMAKURA SHOGUNATE (1192-1333); dual rule of Kyoto emperor & Minamoto Shoguns


(feudal power, overseas trade, more justice, militarism, economic changes); Shogun Yoritomo (1185-99)


C EUROPE: Richard Couer de Lion captured by Duke of Austria (expansion of Austrian influence)


JAPAN: Zen Buddhist order founded (becoming core of Samurai spartan military cult)

1193 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn

1193 NE Pi


MIDEAST: death of Saladin the Saracen (taunter of Crusaders, ending Arab threat to Byzantium)


BRITAIN: on release from captivity, Richard I Coeur de Lion re-crowned King of England

1194 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn


SCANDNVA: the 'Elder Edda' chronicle of Scandinavian pagan mythology


CHINA: Yellow River changes course (to south of Shantung, until 1853, flooding disaster)


INDIA: Mohammed of Ghor takes Delhi 1193, Bihar 1197, Bengal 1199

1195 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn



* N AMERICA: construction of temple mounds at Moundville, Alabama

1196 UR +tri NE Cn Pi

1195 UR Cn


1196 Sa OPPN PL Cp Cn


GERMANY: civil war in Germany (1197-1214)

1196 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn


1197 UR +tri NE Cn Pi


ROME: Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) elected (high point in history of Papacy)

1197 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn


* S AMERICA: rise of Chimu empire – Chimu conquer coastal valleys of Peru

1198 UR +tri NE Cn Pi


BRITAIN: founding of Liverpool (to become world's greatest port by 1850)


GERMANY: German princes confirm their right to elect German king, at Diet of Speyer


Neptune opposition Pluto 1151-54
Rise of large Euro trade fairs & Hansa ports, prosperity, Gothic cathedral building (Chartres); end of Sultanate of Ghazni, Afghanistan; Inca culture founded by Manco Capac, Cuzco; zenith of Buddhist culture in Burma; low-point in Muslim world; decline of Toltecs in Mexico (prelude to Aztec rise); Angevin empire, Henry II, England & France

Uranus square Pluto 1170-72
First Muslim empire in N India; zenith of Hindu Srivijaya kgdm in Java; rise of Barbarossa (Germany) & Saladin (Egypt); beginning of English rule of Ireland (Henry II); fall of Toltecs, Byzantium expands into Balkans; Oxford univ founded; Waldensians, France (early Protestants)

Uranus square Neptune 1181-84
Zenith of Angkor kgdm, Cambodia; zenith of German power in Europe; fall of Crusader Jerusalem, Palestine & Syria to Saladin (failure of Crusade); civil war, Japan; zenith in Hungary (Ladislas I); suppression of heretics in Europe, starts (Cathars, Waldensians)


* W AFRICA: RISE OF EMPIRE OF MALI (Niger, gold-trading) and HAUSA CITY-STATES (Nigeria)


* C AMERICA: Aztecs occupy the Valley of Mexico (prelude to becoming dominant nation)


BRITAIN: Cambridge university founded


* IDEAS: development of Jewish Qabbalistic philosophy in Spain

1201 UR CONJ PL Cn Cn

1201 UR Le


E EUROPE: Teutonic Knights (Brethren of the Sword) found Riga, begin colonisation of Estonia

1201 PL Le


EUROPE: Fourth Crusade, alliance of Franks & Venetians (starts badly, turns against Byzantium)

1202 UR +sqt NE Le Pi

1202 UR Le


* N AFRICA: Saharan state of Kanem-Bornu at zenith of development

1202 PL Le


SCANDNVA: Snorri Sturlasson (1178-1241), historian & saga writer in Iceland, at work

1203 UR +sqt NE Le Pi

1203 PL Le


C ASIA: Genghiz Khan defeats his rival, Ongkan (prelude to dramatic Mongol expansion)


BYZANTIUM: Crusaders take Byzantium, found Latin Empire (1204-61, Greece, Bosporus, Antioch)

1204 UR +sqt NE Le Pi


INDIA: Mohammed of Ghor completes conquest of N India


E EUROPE: clashes between Bulgars (with Kumans) and Frankish crusaders around Byzantium

1205 UR +sqt NE Le Pi


BENELUX: founding of Amsterdam


ASIA: Genghiz Khan unites Mongol tribes, begins the conquest of Eurasia (Hsia-Hsia kingdom falls)

1206 NE Ar


INDIA: SULTANATE OF DELHI FOUNDED after death of Mohammed of Ghor, by slave general Aibak


E EUROPE: Bulgars overrun Thrace & Macedonia (exterminating many Greeks)

1207 NE Ar


* PACIFIC OCEAN: development of early Polynesian island chiefdom-states

1207 UR Vi


FRANCE: Crusade against the anti-clerical Albigensians (Manichaean Cathars) in SW France (until 1213)

1208 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar

1208 UR Vi


MIDEAST: Theodore Lascaris creates empire of Nicaea out of Byzantine territories in W Anatolia


BRITAIN: John, King of England (1199-1216) invades Scotland, is excommunicated by Pope

1209 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar


HRE: Otto IV crowned HRE in Rome; excommunicated 1210 by Pope Innocent III (1198-1216)


IDEAS: the ministry of St Francis of Assisi; reform rules of Franciscan brotherhood issued

1210 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar


SCANDNVA: under Waldemar II the Conqueror (1202-41) Denmark gains Norway, Estonia, Courland


C ASIA: EARLY CONQUESTS of GENGHIZ KHAN; N China invaded (1211-15, breaching Great Wall)

1211 Sa CONJ PL Le Le


1211 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar


IBERIA: Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (Christians break Muslim power in much of Iberia)

1211 UR +ssx PL Vi Le


EUROPE: Children's Crusade (fails, children land up sold into slavery in Saracen Egypt)

1212 Sa CONJ PL Le Le


MED'N: expansive Venice conquers Crete (strategic Mediterranean base)


IBERIA: Jaime I K of Aragon (1213-76) (strengthens Aragon, takes Balearic Isles, fights Islam)


BRITAIN: King John submits to Pope Innocent III (England & Ireland become papal fiefs)


BRITAIN: Council of St Albans (precursor to English Parliament)

1214 NE -tri PL Ar Le

1214 UR Li


W EUROPE: Philip II of France (1180-1223) defeats both Germany & England at Battle of Bouvines


BRITAIN: KING JOHN SIGNS MAGNA CARTA (permitting aristocratic oligarchy in England)

1215 NE -tri PL Ar Le


* INDIA: Islamic architecture & culture enter India (Sultanate of Delhi) ; Indian Buddhism gradually dies out


BRITAIN: Henry III (1216-72); attempted French invasion, defeated 1217 at Lincoln & Sandwich

1216 NE -tri PL Ar Le


CHINA: Beijing falls to Genghiz Khan

1216 UR +ssq PL Li Le


N AFRICA: failure of Christian Crusade against Sultanate of Egypt

1217 NE -tri PL Ar Le


C ASIA: Genghiz Khan vanquishes Kara-Khitai empire in Siberia

1217 UR +ssq PL Li Le


MIDEAST: Fifth Crusade (1218-21) (disorganised and inconclusive)

1218 NE -tri PL Ar Le

1218 PL Vi


PERSIA: Mongols under Genghiz Khan conquer Persia (Khwarizm dominated)


JAPAN: Hojo period; Hojo clan dominate Kyoto regency (efficient administration & justice)

1219 NE -tri PL Ar Le

1219 PL Vi


C ASIA: Bokhara, Samarkand & Khorasan taken by the Mongols

1219 NE Ta


* SE ASIA: emergence of the first Thai kingdom of Siam

1220 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1220 NE Ta


EUROPE: Henry III K of Eng (1216-72); Frederick II HRE (1220-50); son Henry K of Ger (1220-35)

1220 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta

1220 PL Vi


RUSSIA: Mongols advance into Russia & Ukraine (1220-23)


C EUROPE: Vienna becomes a city (to become great capital of Austrian empire)

1221 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1220 UR Sc


EUROPE: Pope surrenders 'Regalia' (markets, coinage, customs, legal autonomy) to HRE princes

1221 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta

1221 UR Sc


C AMERICA: end of Toltecs in Chichen Itza – conquest by Mayapan Mayans


E EUROPE: powers & feudal privileges of nobility increase in Hungary (Golden Bull)

1222 NE -tri PL Ta Vi


GERMANY: Common Law, landowning & feudal laws recorded by von Repkow in 'Sachsenspiegel'

1222 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta


E EUROPE: Mongols beat Russians & Kumans, but retire to C Asia until 1237 (overextended)



C EUROPE: Andreas II of Hungary (1205-35) (creates laws, rights, protection & nat'l assembly)

1223 NE -tri PL Ta Vi


W EUROPE: war between England & France (1224-27); ends in truce

1223 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta


GERMANY: Henry VII of Germany declares Public Peace at Wurzburg

1223 UR +sxt PL Sc Vi


* ROME: gradual decline in power of Papacy, and resurgence of secular forces in HRE

1224 NE -tri PL Ta Vi


* E EUROPE: German colonisation of towns & lands in E Europe reaching peak (slowing by 1300)

1225 NE -tri PL Ta Vi


ITALY: HRE reorganisation of S Italy (admin, taxation, law codification, 1221-31)


E EUROPE: Teutonic Knights commissioned by Polish dukes to conquer & convert pagan Prussia

1226 NE -tri PL Ta Vi


* ASIA: Mongol invasions close Silk Roads, Eurasian traffic moves to Arabian sea lanes


C ASIA: Genghiz Khan dies (warrior & administrator); Mongol emp div in four, capital Karakorum

1227 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1227 UR Sg


SCANDNVA: Bt of Bornhoeved, Danish Waldemar II loses all terr gains (Baltic trade grows)


N AFRICA: Hafsid dynasty established in Tunisia

1228 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1228 UR Sg


MIDEAST: Sixth Crusade gains key areas in Palestine until 1244


JAPAN: monk Dogen introduces Soto Zen Buddhism from China

1229 NE -tri PL Ta Vi


MIDEAST: HRE Frederick II crowned King of Jerusalem (makes treaty with Sultan of Egypt)


HRE: Pope and Emperor resolve differences, Frederick II absolved as result of crusade

1230 NE -tri PL Ta Vi


C EUROPE: Wenceslas I, (Good) King of Bohemia (1230-53); EUROPE: leprosy imported by Crusaders

1230 Sa OPPN PL Pi Vi


IBERIA: union of kgdms of Castile and Leon (early formation of Spain)

1230 UR on S Node


GERMANY: founding of Berlin; alliance of Hamburg & Luebeck (birth of Hansa League)

1231 NE -tri PL Ta Vi


1231 Sa OPPN PL Pi Vi

1232 PL Li


ASIA: Ugudei Khan completes conquest & organisation of N China, Samarkand & Persia

1232 NE -tri PL Ta Vi


INDIA: Shamsuddin Iltutmish, Sultan of Delhi (1211-36) (intros Islamic architecture & culture)


BRITAIN: rebellion in S Wales behind Earl of Pembroke

1233 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1233 PL Li


EUROPE: Pope gives Dominican Order the task of carrying out Inquisition against heretics

1233 NE Ge


CHINA: Mongols annex the Ch'in empire in N China, entering capital, Kaifeng

1234 NE -tri PL Ge Li

1234 NE Ge


INNOVN: earliest use of cast metal movable type for printing books, Korea

1234 UR Cp


GERMANY: Public Peace of Mainz (germanisation and reorganisation of HRE law)

1235 NE -tri PL Ge Li


INDIA: Delhi Sultanate expands to stretch from Sind to Bengal

1235 UR -qcx NE Cp Ge


BRITAIN: plague & famine in England (20,000 die in London alone)


E EUROPE: Mongols of Subutei & Batu conq Russia (1236-9); Kiev & Moscow fall, Novgorod tribute

1236 NE -tri PL Ge Li


RUSSIA: Aleksander Nevsky, Grand Duke of Novgorod (1236-63)

1236 UR +SQR PL Cp Li


IBERIA: Arabs lose great city of Cordoba to Castile (tips balance of power in Spain)

1236 UR -qcx NE Cp Ge


CHINA: Mongols secure 4030 scholar mandarins for civilian administration in China

1237 UR +SQR PL Cp Li


HRE: Jews designated as servants of HRE (to give them protection and guarantee Imp solvency)

1237 UR -qcx NE Cp Ge


W AFRICA: ascendancy of Mali, led by Sundiata Keita (gold wealth, trans-Saharan trade)

1238 UR +SQR PL Cp Li


N AMERICA: ZENITH OF MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURE (riverine trading temple-cities, Mississippi)

1239 UR +SQR PL Cp Li


RUSSIA: Aleksander Nevsky beats attacking Swedes at Neva (Russian national growth)

1239 UR +SQR PL Cp Li



BRITAIN: clear border & peace agreed between England & Scotland


MIDEAST: private, unsupported crusade of Simon de Montfort & Richard of Cornwall to Haifa


C EUROPE: Bt of Liegnitz, MONGOLS INVADE CENTRAL EUROPE -- Poland, Hungary and Bohemia


E EUROPE: Europe saved from Mongol invasion by death of Ogedei Khan; Mongols retreat


RUSSIA: Aleksander Nevsky of Novgorod defeats attacking German & Lithuanian Teutonic Knights

1242 UR Aq


RUSSIA: Mongol Batu Khan establishes Golden Horde (Kipchak Khanate) in Ukraine (threatening Russia)


C EUROPE: collapse of Hungary (after Mongols) & friction with Bohemia; Arpad line dies 1301

1243 UR -sqt NE Aq Ge

1243 PL Sc



MIDEAST: Jerusalem lost by Christians (to Egyptians, for last time until 1917)

1244 UR -sqt NE Aq Ge

1244 PL Sc


MIDEAST: Mongols beat Seljuks at Erzinjan in Anatolia (ravaging Mesopotamia, Armenia, Georgia)


HRE: emperor Frederick II deposed by Council of Lyons; 1246 seizes Austria & Styria, dies 1250

1245 UR -sqt NE Aq Ge


EURASIA: travels of John of Pian to Mongolia (to build Euro-Mongol alliance against Islam)


SE ASIA: downfall of Buddhist kgdm of Haripunjaya (Siam), overrun by migrating Shan peoples

1246 PL Peri 4Sc

1246 NE Cn


1246 UR -sqt NE Aq Cn


* IDEAS: Roger Bacon (1214-94), philosopher, at work (stresses experimentation & experience)

1247 NE Cn


W AFRICA: founding of kingdom of Benin (Nigeria, artistic flowering)


MIDEAST: Seventh Crusade (1248-54) fails in Egypt; Louis IX of France ransomed

1248 Sa CONJ PL Sc Sc


MED'N: expansive trading Genoa (rival to Venice) conquers Rhodos


ITALY: growing commercial rivalry leads to long war between Venice & Genoa (1253-99)

1249 UR Pi


W AFRICA: Malinke becomes the dominant gold-trading state of W Africa


HRE: collapse of imperial power in Germany and Italy, on death of Emp Frederick II

1250 UR Pi


SCANDNVA: Folkunga Birger Jarl, K of Sweden (1250-66) (builds towns, ests trade, laws & gov't)


IBERIA: nascent Portugal (not yet a state) conquers Algarve


ASIA: Mongka, Great Khan (1251-9, son of a Nestorian); Kublai Khan governor of N China


IBERIA: Castile becomes strong under Alfonso X the Wise (1252-84) (growth of towns & learning)

1252 UR -tri NE Pi Cn


EUROPE: the Inquisition begins to use torture (Christian intolerance growing)


CHINA: Mongol conquest of Song China (south China) starts (Kublai Khan)


E EUROPE: Ottokar II K of Bohemia (1253-1278) (expansion & prosperity, 60 German towns est'd)

1253 UR -tri NE Pi Cn


INNOVN: linen first made in England; EURASIA: travels of William of Rubruck to Mongolia


FRANCE: founding of Paris School of Theology (later the Sorbonne)

1254 UR -tri NE Pi Cn


HRE: decline of Hohenstaufen line (loss of power in Italy & France, political chaos in Germany)


EUROPE: founding of Prague and Stockholm as cities (medieval Euro trade & culture network)

1255 UR -tri NE Pi Cn


N EUROPE: first Hansa League formed by Luebeck, Hamburg, Wismar, Rostock


PERSIA: Ilkhan Mongols invade Persia (Hulagu Khan, initiating a line which lasts to 1349)

1256 UR +tri PL Pi Sc

1256 PL Sg


MED'N: start of 'Hundred Years War' between trading cities Genoa & Venice


CHINA: Mongol capital moved to Shang-Tu (N of Beijing) (relig tolerance, Buddhism favoured)

1257 UR +tri PL Ar Sg

1257 UR Ar


SE ASIA: Volcano, Lombok, Indonesia, largest in millennia (dark skies, cold, famines worldwide)


BRITAIN: Llewellyn takes title Prince of Wales (ests peace between England & Wales 1259)


ASIA: MONGOLS OVERCOME ABBASID CALIPHATE (fall of Baghdad & Damascus as great cities)

1258 UR +tri PL Ar Sg

1258 UR Ar


BRITAIN: establishment of the House of Commons at Westminster, by Provisions of Oxford


* EUROPE: St Thomas Aquinas (1225-74) active (defining Christian dogma)

1259 UR +tri PL Ar Sg


MIDEAST: Islamic Asia saved from Mongols by death of Mongka Khan (end of Mongol unity)


CHINA: YUAN DYNASTY established as part of Mongol empire, under Kublai Khan, under Chinese law

1260 UR +tri PL Ar Sg

1260 NE Le


CHINA: Kublai, Great Khan (1260-94) ests social welfare, roadbuilding, post services in China


ITALY: Joachim of Flore predicts arrival of Anti-Christ (growing religious paranoia in Europe)


BYZANTIUM: Greek empire restored in Byzantium (until 1453); Latin empire dies

1261 NE Le


N AFRICA: Mamluks protect Islamic culture by stalling Mongols at Battle of Ain Jalut, Palestine


* IDEAS: German Albertus Magnus (1193-1280) (scientist & philosopher) at work

1262 NE on N Node


PERSIA: HULAGU KHAN FOUNDS IL-KHAN EMPIRE (1262-1336)(Samarkand, Persia & Georgia)


BRITAIN: Haakon of Norway defeated by Scots at Largs, ceding Hebrides to Scotland


N AFRICA: MAMLUK SULTANATE in Egypt (1260-1517, formed by Turkic palace guard from Ukraine)


ASIA: Kublai Khan reunites Mongol empire; constructs Khanbalik (Beijing) from 1267

1264 UR Ta


IDEAS: Thomas Aquinas' 'Summa contra Gentiles' ('Against the Heathens')


IDEAS: Roger Bacon's 'De Computo Naturali' & 'Opus Maius'

1265 UR +sqt PL Ta Sg

1265 UR Ta



ITALY: Pope calls in Charles d'Anjou to clear Italy of Germans; Bt of Benevento (Germans lose)

1266 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg


ASIA: Mangu-Timur, Great Khan of Golden Horde (1266-80) (ind of Mongol Confed, declining)

1266 UR +sqt PL Ta Sg


1267 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg


1267 UR +sqt PL Ta Sg


MIDEAST: earthquake kills 60,000, destroying city of Cieilia, Asia Minor

1268 UR -SQR NE Ta Le


1268 UR +sqt PL Ta Sg


1269 UR -SQR NE Ta Le

1269 PL Cp



EUROPE: Eighth Crusade (attacks Tunis, nothing accomplished)

1270 UR -SQR NE Ta Le

1270 PL Cp


E AFRICA: Solomonid dynasty comes to power in Coptic Ethiopia


BRITAIN: Wales becoming ungovernable (national revival); rise of the Llewellyns of Snowdon

1271 UR -SQR NE Ta Le

1271 UR Ge


INNOVN: invention of the mechanical clock


BRITAIN: Edward I, King of England (1272-1307) ('England's Justinian')

1272 UR +qcx PL Ge Cp

1272 UR Ge



GERMANY: Rudolf, Count of Hapsburg, elected King of Germany (beginning of Hapsburg dynasty)

1273 UR +qcx PL Ge Cp

1273 NE Vi


IDEAS: Thomas Aquinas' 'Summa Theologica' (his main theological work)


JAPAN: Kublai Khan attempts and fails to conquer Japan (beaten off by Samurai knights)

1274 UR on N Node

1274 NE Vi


CHINA: Kublai Khan confers power of a Tibetan Lama, Phags-pa, to be Chief Teacher to Mongols

1274 UR +qcx PL Ge Cp


CHINA: Marco Polo (1254-1354, Venetian) arrives in China; Nestorian Archbishopric founded in Beijing

1275 PL on S Node


IDEAS: Moses de Leon's 'Zohar' (major work on Jewish faith)

1275 UR +qcx PL Ge Cp


SCANDNVA: Magnus Ladulas, K of Sweden (1275-90) (ests nobility, knighthood, order in Sweden)



BRITAIN: Roger Bacon imprisoned for heresy until 1292



C EUROPE: Wenceslas II King of Bohemia (1278-1305); King of Poland 1300, Hungary 1301

1278 UR Cn


C EUROPE: Habsburgs establish themselves in Austria (on downfall of Bohemian Ottokar II)


CHINA: MONGOLS INVADE SOUTH CHINA, at last ending the long-lived Sung (Song) dynasty

1279 UR Cn



E EUROPE: Bulgarian Asen dynasty fails (Bulgaria encroached by Greeks, Serbs & Mongols)


CHINA: Kublai Khan (Emp Shih-Tsu) extends Yuan dynasty (1280-1368) throughout all of China


SE ASIA: Srivijaya (Sumatra) invaded by Singhasari (Java); dynasty lasts 12 years


ASIA: disastrous attempted Mongol invasion of Japan (defeated by typhoon); decline of Hojo gov't



ITALY: massacre of French in Sicily ('Sicilian Vespers') by local burghers seeking autonomy


GERMANY: Rudolf Hapsburg gives Austria & Styria to his sons (seeds of future Habsburg empire)


E EUROPE: Teutonic Order completes its conquering of Prussia

1283 UR OPPN PL Cn Cp


BRITAIN: Edward I subdues Welsh revival (Llewellyns killed); Statute of Wales declared

1283 UR -sxt NE Cn Vi


ITALY: Genoa defeats Pisa (end of Pisa's major influence); Florence Italy's leading trading city

1284 UR OPPN PL Cn Cp


GERMANY: 'Pied Piper of Hamelin'

1284 UR -sxt NE Cn Vi


SE ASIA: abortive Mongol expeditions against Annam & Champa, Vietnam (becoming tributaries)

1284 Sa CONJ PL Cp Cp

1285 UR Le


MIDEAST: Osman I expands Osmanli (Ottoman) territory (NW Anatolia) taken from ailing Byzantium

1285 UR OPPN PL Cn Cp


1286 UR OPPN PL Cn Cp

1286 UR Le


1286 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

1286 PL Aq


EUROPE: first Persian Ilkhan embassy to W Europe (also 1289, 1290, 1307)

1287 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

1287 PL Aq


SE ASIA: Mongols of Kublai Khan pillage Pagan, capital of Burma

1287 NE Li


GERMANY: 'Public Peace' declared by Rudolf Hapsburg at Diet of Wurzburg


MIDEAST: Osman I (1288-1326), founder of Turkish Ottoman empire

1288 NE -tri PL Li Aq

1288 NE Li


C AMERICA: Quiche Maya conquer the Pokomam Maya (Guatemala)


INDIA: Khalji dynasty (1289-1320) of Delhi (minority Afghan regime, repressive, militaristic)

1289 NE -tri PL Li Aq


* INNOVN: block printing in use in Italy (learned from China via Mongols)

1289 UR -ssq NE Le Li


EURASIA: Pope sends John of Montecorvino to establish Catholic archbishopric in Beijing


EURASIA: Expansion of trade & cultural relations across Eurasia (1290-1340) (big stable empires)

1290 NE -tri PL Li Aq


INNOVN: spectacles invented in Italy

1290 UR -ssq NE Le Li


BRITAIN: expulsion of Jews from England (jealousy over trading & moneylending rights)


EUROPE: seed of Swiss Confederation: Eternal Union of Uri, Schwyz & Unterwalden (Wm Tell myth)

1291 NE -tri PL Li Aq

1291 UR Vi


MIDEAST: Mamluks conquer Acre, last Christian stronghold in Middle East (end of Crusading era)


MED'N: Knights of St John evacuate to Cyprus from Palestine


SE ASIA: Mongol naval expedition attacks Srivijaya Java (partially successful, tribute gained)

1292 NE -tri PL Li Aq

1292 UR Vi


SE ASIA: Singhasari dynasty falls, Java-Sumatra taken over by Majapahit


* SE ASIA: Muslim traders begin to introduce Islam to Malaya & Indonesia


BRITAIN: Edward I codifies English Common Law & precedent in the 'Yearbooks'

1293 NE -tri PL Li Aq


OTTOMANS: Osman I, Ottoman chief in W Anatolia, founds the Ottoman dynasty


* N EUROPE: Hanseatic League of trading cities consolidates, with Luebeck as leading city

1294 NE -tri PL Li Aq


CHINA: death of Kublai Khan (becalming & kinesifying of the Mongols)

1294 UR -qcx PL Vi Aq


W EUROPE: first of many alliances between France & Scotland (against England)

1295 UR -qcx PL Vi Aq


ITALY: return of Marco Polo to Italy (from court of Kublai Khan, later jailed in Genoa)

1295 UR -ssx NE Vi Li


PERSIA: Mongol Ilkhans convert to Islam, distancing from the Mongol Great Khan


BRITAIN: John Baliol cedes Scottish crown to Edward I; Stone of Scone taken to Westminster

1296 UR -ssx NE Vi Li


INDIA: C Asian Mongols invade NW India (from Astrakhan & Afghanistan)


INDIA: Aladain Khalji, Sult of Delhi (96-16) (expands influence, beats Rajputs, repression)


BRITAIN: Scots defeat English at Bt of Stirling Bridge (William Wallace)

1297 UR Li


MED'N: Genoese defeat Venetians in a sea battle (rivalry for Med'n trading primacy)


IDEAS: Marco Polo's 'Book of Various Experiences' (on Asia) widens European horizons


* SE ASIA: Islam moves into Indonesia through Sultanate of Malacca (Malaya)

1298 UR -sqt PL Li Aq

1298 UR Li


BRITAIN: Parliament gains legislative initiative, right of taxation; Houses of Lords & Commons started


MIDEAST: Ottomans expand in Anatolia & Bosporus (Venice makes treaty to preserve trade)

1299 UR -sqt PL Li Aq


W EUROPE: treaty between France & Germany (Germany currently weak)

Uranus conjunct Pluto 1201
Third Crusade; zenith for Papacy; Kamakura Shogunate, Japan; Aztecs take C Mexico; Teutonic Knights colonise Estonia; Sultanate of Delhi founded; Fourth Crusade, turns bad, takes Byzantium; rise of Genghiz Khan, Mongolia; rise of Muslim Mali & Hausa, W Africa; Jewish Qabalistic philosophy, Moorish Spain; Icelandic Sagas; founding of Amsterdam (rise of Holland); zenith of Saharan Kanem-Bornu

Uranus opposition Neptune 1220-23
Hojo period, Japan; Magna Carta, England; Spaniards reclaim much of Iberia from Moors; Saladin beats Crusaders - Ayyubid empire, Middle East; Genghiz Khan & Mongols invade N China, C Asia (Samarkand, Bokhara); decline of Papal power; founding of Vienna; German colonisation of E Europe at peak; final end of Toltecs, Mexico

Uranus square Pluto 1236-39
Mongols subdue Russia & Ukraine, invade C Europe, take N China; Moors lose Cordoba to Spaniards; rise of Inquisition in Europe; founding of Berlin; Delhi Sultanate grows (Bengal to Sindh); zenith of Mississippian culture; Russian revival (Alexander Nevsky)

Uranus opposition Pluto 1283-86
Kublai Khan reunites Mongol empire; Mongol Yuan dynasty, China; Edward I, lawmaker, England; Welsh rebellion, fails; birth of Habsburg dynasty; ascendancy in Florence; Mongol attacks, Persia, S China, SE Asia; Osman I founds Turkic Ottoman dynasty, Anatolia


* W AFRICA: development of kingdom of Benin in Nigeria (artistic renaissance)

1300 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq


BRITAIN: Edward I of England invades Scotland (to reclaim his title as king of Scotland)

1300 UR -sqt PL Li Aq


* W EUROPE: major trade fairs at Bruges, Antwerpen, Lyons & Geneve


MIDEAST: Ottoman Osman I defeats Byzantines (gaining full control of Bosporus, Byzantium's lifeline)


1301 NE Sc


BRITAIN: Edward I's son made Prince of Wales: beginning of final subjugation of Wales


BRITAIN: truce between England & Scotland (seeds of united Britain being established)

1302 UR -tri PL Li Aq

1302 NE Sc


BENELUX: rebellion against landlords & burgher oligarchies at Bruges


FRANCE: convening of first States General (parliament of nobility); French kidnap Pope

1303 UR -tri PL Li Aq


ITALY: founding of university of Rome ; RUSSIA: growth of Muscovy begins (to become Russia)


IDEAS: Meister Eckhart (1260-1327) (theologian & philosopher) at work

1304 UR -tri PL Li Aq

1304 UR Sc


* N AMERICA: decline of the Anasazi and other cultures in Arizona (climate change?)


BRITAIN: standardisation of imperial weights & measures by Edward I of England


C EUROPE: conflict in Hungary (1301-08) after fall of Arpad dynasty


FRANCE: Jews exiled by Philip IV; 1307 Knights Templars in France persecuted & dissolved


BRITAIN: Robert Bruce crowned king of Scotland, defeated twice by English


CHINA: end of Mongol Yuan dynasty; Nestorian Archbishopric of Beijing grows

1307 UR CONJ NE Sc Sc

1307 PL Pi


W AFRICA: zenith of Mandingo (1307-32) under Gongo Musa; annexing Songhai in 1325


INDIA: conquest of Malwa & Deccan by Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khalji (raiding booty, anti-Hindu)

1308 PL Pi



W EUROPE: Papacy moves from Rome to Avignon under French Pope Clement V (1305-9)



MED'N: Knights of St John move from Cyprus to Rhodes (to stay there until 1522)


BRITAIN: Edward II (1307-27) appoints Lords Ordainers to improve governance of England


C EUROPE: Karl I, K of Hungary (1310-42) (Anjou line) (restores order and remodels society)

1311 UR Sg



ATLANTIC: Canary Islands rediscovered by Genoese sailors

1312 UR -SQR PL Sg Pi



INNOVN: gunpowder invented by Friar Berthold Schwarz in Germany

1313 UR -SQR PL Sg Pi


RUSSIA: Mongol Golden Horde (Ukraine) converts to Islam


BRITAIN: Scotland (Robert Bruce) defeats England at the Battle of Bannockburn

1314 UR on S Node


FRANCE: Grand Master of Knights Templars burned at stake for heresy


C EUROPE: Swiss peasants beat Habsburg Leopold of Austria (strengthening Swiss League)

1315 NE Sg


EUROPE: disease & famine reduces popn of C & W Europe by 10% (1315-17)


IRELAND: Edward Bruce crowned King of Ireland

1316 NE Sg


E EUROPE: Gedymin (1316-41), founder of Lithuania (largest territory in 1300s Europe)


FRANCE: Salik law adopted in France (excluding women from throne of France)


E AFRICA: downfall of Christian Sahel kingdom of Makkura to Muslim Arab nomads


IRELAND: Edward Bruce, King of Ireland, killed by English

1318 Sa CONJ PL Pi Pi

1318 UR Cp


C EUROPE: truce between nationalistic Swiss League & Austrian Habsburgs


E EUROPE: final freeing & uniting of Poland by Vladislav IV of Krakow (1305-33)


* INDIA: DELHI SULTANATE AT ZENITH (trade, textiles, taxation, cosmopolitan)


* ITALY: cultural revival in ITALY: Dante (1265-1321), Petrarch (1304-74) & Giotto (1266-1337)


* INDIA: Tughluk dynasty (1320-1413) inherits Delhi Sultanate (max extent of Delhi Sultanate, reforms)


INNOVN: William of Occam (1285-1349) ('Occam's Razor', writes on facts, proof, knowledge)

1321 UR +ssx NE Cp Sg


BYZANTIUM: civil war (1321-54) in Byzantium (involving Greek, Latin & Orthodox groups)


C EUROPE: Bavaria at war with Austria, Frederick of Austria loses

1322 UR -sxt PL Cp Pi


JAPAN: Emp Daigo II (1318-39) ends power of retired emperors, ends Kamakura shogunate 1333

1322 UR +ssx NE Cp Sg


INNOVN: Marsilius of Padua's 'Defensor Pacis' (secular state, church-state sep'n, popular sovereignty)

1323 UR -sxt PL Cp Pi


BRITAIN: end of wars between England & Scotland (Treaty of Edinburgh, 1328)

1323 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi


W AFRICA: pilgrimage of Mansa Musa of Mali to Mecca (Mali source of 60% of world's gold)

1324 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi


ROME: excommunication of Louis the Bavarian (last Papal intervention in HRE German succession)


RUSSIA: Ivan I (1325-41) begins retrieval of Muscovy from Mongols (rise of Russian identity)

1325 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi


* AMERICAS: ARRIVAL OF AZTECS in Valley of Mexico, Tenochtitlan founded (military & trading power)


CHINA: famine kills 8 million people (out of 45m), hastening Yuan disintegration


INDIA: Mohammed ibn Tughluk, Delhi Sultan (1325-51) (expands Sultanate; destroys Indian Buddhism)


EURASIA: travels of Moroccan Ibn Batuta to Africa, Arabia, India, Russia, China, Sahel (27-49)


BRITAIN: Isabella (wife of Edward II) & Roger Mortimer invade England, capturing Edward II

1326 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

1326 UR Aq


MIDEAST: expansion of Ottoman lands in NW Anatolia ; EUROPE: first use of cannons, by Florence


GERMANY: great fire of Munchen (city burnt down, later totally rebuilt

1327 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi


BRITAIN: Edward III, King of England (1327-1377); Justices of Peace appointed as law judges


* AMERICAS: Aztecs establish Tenochtitlan (Mexico City, largest city in world in year 2000)

1328 UR -ssq PL Aq Pi


FRANCE: end of Capetian dynasty; rise of House of Valois (1328-1498) Philip VI ,K of France (1328-50)


HRE: Louis IV of Bavaria HRE (1328-47) crowned in Rome; deposes Pope John XXII for heresy


RUSSIA: Ivan I, Grand Duke (1328-41) (makes Moscow his capital, moving from Novgorod)

1329 UR +ssq NE Aq Cp

1329 NE Cp



BRITAIN: David II, King of Scotland (1329-71)

1330 UR +ssq NE Aq Cp


HRE: Habsburgs submit to Louis IV of Bavaria as HR Emperor (competitiveness for throne)


JAPAN: imperial restoration of Ashikaga Daigo II, Emp of Japan (fall of Kamakura power)

1331 UR +ssq NE Aq Cp


E EUROPE: Stephan Dushan, king of Serbia (1331-55), unites most of Balkans (seeking Byzantine power)


ASIA: beginning of BLACK DEATH bubonic plague in SW China (during a famine)

1332 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi


SCANDNVA: anarchy in Denmark (1332-40) (German & Hansa meddling); Valdemar IV (1340-75)


* IBERIA: ZENITH of ARAB GRENADAN CULTURE under Yusuf I Almohad Caliph (1333-54)

1333 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

1333 UR Pi


INDIA: repression & overtaxation in India by Tughluk Sultan (cruelty, extortion, revenge)

1333 UR -ssx PL Aq Pi

1333 PL Ar


CHINA: great famine kills 6 million people (1333-7) (possible source of Black Death)


* E EUROPE: Bohemia, Poland & Hungary become great states (1330s-80s) (universities & towns)

1334 UR Pi


CHINA: disastrous floods in Yangtze valley (stimulating revolts against Mongol Yuan dynasty)

1334 PL Ar


PERSIA: dissolution of Il-Khan empire into local dynasties (lacking leadership)


INDIA: Vijayanagar created (1335-1565) (centre for Brahmin studies, Dravidian nat'lism, art)


JAPAN: ASHIKAGA PERIOD (1336-1568) (restoration of feudalism, clan frictions, social changes,


war & instability yet trade & industry growth, freethinking & diffusion of culture)


W EUROPE: HUNDRED YEARS' WAR between France & England (Edward III claims French throne)

1337 UR +sxt NE Pi Cp


INDIA: attempted Tughluk invasion of Tibet & China destroyed by rains in Himalayas


W EUROPE: coup d'etat in Ghent (by bourgeois movement with popular support)


BRITAIN: French burn Portsmouth

1338 UR +sxt NE Pi Cp


W EUROPE: alliance between England's Edward III & HRE Louis IV against France


RUSSIA: building of the Kremlin in Moscow by Ivan I

1339 UR +sxt NE Pi Cp


JAPAN: Kitabatake Chikafusa writes history of Japan (rising patriotic sentiments)


* EURASIA: end of European-Asian trade & cultural contacts via Silk Roads (caused by plague)


* INDIA: growth of S Indian state of Vijayanagar as Hindu opposition to Delhi Sultanate


IDEAS: Florentine Pegalotti's 'Merchants' Handbook' (on travelling conditions worldwide)


* ASIA: BLACK DEATH (bubonic plague) starts on large scale in Asia

1341 UR Ar


INDIA: Delhi Sultanate shrinks; Bengal breaks away, Deccan 1347, Gujerat 1396




* EURASIA: general disaster and major shrinkage of population; trade & internationalism die

1343 UR CONJ PL Ar Ar

1343 NE Aq


E EUROPE: revolt of Estonians against occupying Danes; Teutonic Knights take Estonia in 1346


* GERMANY: pogroms against Jews: 350 Jewish communities destroyed; Jews move to Lith-Poland

1344 UR CONJ PL Ar Ar


INDIA: extermination, penal severity & resulting rebellion in Delhi Sultanate (loss of South)


SCANDNVA: retaking of disintegrated Denmark (Funen, Jutland 1348, Scania 1360) by Waldemar IV

1345 NE on S Node



W EUROPE: Bt of Crecy, English defeat French; Calais surrenders to Edward III


* IDEAS: work of Ibn Battuta, Arab geographer and traveller




HRE: Charles IV of Luxembourg HRE (1347-78)


E EUROPE: Statutes of Casimir III the Great of Poland (1333-70) establish law & central gov't


ROME: coup d'etat by Cola di Rienzi (bourgeousie against papal power)


EUROPE: BLACK DEATH in EUROPE (killing 25 million people in four years in Europe alone)

1348 UR Ta


GERMANY: false pretender takes throne of Brandenburg for two years


* SE ASIA: Chinese first settle Singapore (starting Chinese overseas expansion)

1349 UR Ta


PERSIA: end of the Mongol Ilkhans of Persia (followed by local dynasties until Timurlenk)


GERMANY: persecution of Jews; E EUROPE: Dusanov Zakonik, legal code established in Serbia


* JAPAN: Japanese cultural revival; * SE ASIA: golden age of Majapahit empire in Java-Sumatra

1350 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar




C EUROPE: strengthening of Swiss League, with new members joining (seed of independent Switz)

1351 NE -sxt PL Aq Ar


E EUROPE: Winrich of Kniprode greatest Grand Master (1351-82) of Teutonic Knights


INDIA: Firuz Tughluk, Delhi Sultan (1351-88) halts decline, restores sense (agric, irrigation)


SE ASIA: founding of state of Ayutthaya (root of modern Thailand)


* SE ASIA: rise of Burmese Buddhist states of Ava, Tungu,Pegu, Luang Prabang on fall of temple cities

1352 NE -sxt PL Aq Ar


N AFRICA: Ibn Battuta explores Sahara desert, visits Timbuktu


* SE AFRICA: rebuilding of Great Zimbabwe after bushfires (Zimbabweans trading with Arabia & China)

1353 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq


1353 UR +ssx PL Ta Ar


MIDEAST: Ottomans take Gallipoli on the Bosporus (threatening Byzantium; bridge to Europe)

1354 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq


INNOVN: mechanical clock built for Strasbourg Cathedral

1354 UR +ssx PL Ta Ar

1355 UR Ge


EUROPE: Black Death slowly dying out (tracts of Eurasia drastically changed)

1355 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq


* EUROPE: 'The Desolation': end of small villages, agrarian pop'n moves to towns after Black Death


W EUROPE: Bt of Poitiers, English under Black Prince beat France (taking French king & son prisoner)

1356 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq

1356 UR Ge


GERMANY: Charles IV's Golden Bull weakens monarchy (Ger princes too weak to maintain peace)

1356 NE Pi


FRANCE: bourgeois revolt in Paris under Etienne Marcel (against local rulership & clerics)

1357 UR +ssq PL Ge Ar

1357 NE Pi



C EUROPE: Habsburgs sign treaty with nationalist Swiss League (after two defeats)

1358 UR on N Node


* N EUROPE: Hansa League of German trading towns thriving in Baltic & Europe (200 cities)

1358 UR +ssq PL Ge Ar


W EUROPE: Treaty of London restores Angevin lands in France to Edward III of England


FRANCE: hailstorm & lightning ruin English army at Chartres (1000 men, 6000 horses killed)


W EUROPE: first phase of Hundred Years War ends with the Peace of Bretigny


C ASIA: Timurlenk (1336-1405) proclaims himself Islamic renewer of Mongol empire at Samarkand


E EUROPE: Ottoman Turks enter Europe, capturing Adrianople (Edirne, crossroads Asia-Europe)


BRITAIN: Black Death (bubonic plague) recurs in England & France (also 1367, 1369)


IDEAS: William Langland's 'Piers Plowman'

1362 PL Ta


1362 UR Cn


C EUROPE: Habsburg Rudolph of Austria obtains Tyrol (seeking to consolidate Habsburg power)

1363 NE -ssq PL Pi Ar

1363 UR Cn


C ASIA: TIMURLENK begins devastating MONGOL-TURKIC INVASIONS of Asia & Middle East

1363 PL Ta


AMERICAS: Aztec expansion under Itzcoatl (from capital at Tenochtitlan, through C Mexico)

1364 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

1364 PL Ta


FRANCE: Charles V King of France (1364-80) and Burgundy (1365-80)

1364 NE -ssq PL Pi Ar


1365 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta



OTTOMANS: Ottoman Turks make Adrianople their capital


BRITAIN: England's Parliament rebels against Pope


N EUROPE: Denmark & Hansa League at war (over Baltic access & control of piracy)

1367 UR +tri NE Cn Pi


INDIA: massacre of 400,000 Hindus by Tughluk (Sultan of Delhi) on invasion of Vijayanagar (S India)


CHINA: MING DYNASTY FOUNDED at Nanking by rebel Chu Yuan-chang, driving out Mongols by 1387

1368 UR +tri NE Cn Pi


SE ASIA: fall of Hindu Angkor kingdom to Thai attacks


ASIA: Timurlenk becomes Great Khan of Samarkand (supported by Kipchak-Jagatai Mongols)

1369 UR +tri NE Cn Pi

1369 UR Le


ITALY: Venice repels invasion attempt by landlocked Hungarians


* ARTS: early work of Chaucer (1340-1400), English poet

1370 UR +tri NE Le Ar

1370 NE Ar


IBERIA: Castilian monarchy fights out power with nobility, establishing control

1370 UR +SQR PL Le Ta


BRITAIN: Robert II King of Scotland (1371-90) (beginning of House of Stuart)

1370 PL Aphn 6Ta

1371 NE Ar


* C ASIA: Timurlenk invades Khorezm empire (Khorasan, Bokhara, Afghanistan)

1371 UR +SQR PL Le Ta


CHINA: Ming Maritime Edict forbids all Chinese from travelling abroad, many foreign contacts withdrawn


W EUROPE: French victories over English in Hundred Years' War



W EUROPE: major conquests by English John of Gaunt in NW & W France

1373 UR +sqt NE Le Ar


* N EUROPE: zenith of the Hansa League as political & trading power



1374 UR +sqt NE Le Ar


* RUSSIA: political predominance of Moscow over neighbouring Russian states


MIDEAST: Mamluks invade Christian Armenia

1375 NE -ssx PL Ar Ta

1375 UR Vi


W EUROPE: Truce of Bruges between England & France

1375 UR +sqt NE Le Ar


* IDEAS: emergence of story of Robin Hood

1376 NE -ssx PL Ar Ta

1376 UR Vi


1376 UR +sqt NE Le Ar


E EUROPE: Jagiello of Lithuania (1377-1434) (Lith becomes Catholic; Moldavia-Wallachia gained)


W EUROPE: Pope Gregorius XI (1370-78) takes Papacy from Avignon back to Rome


ASIA: Mongol Golden & White Hordes unite (internal revival until Timurlenk)


MIDEAST: Armenia & Azerbaijan taken over by Turkoman nomad rulers

1378 UR +tri PL Vi Ta


EUROPE: Great Schism between Rome & Avignon Churches, until 1417; two Popes elected



W EUROPE: renewal of Anglo-French Hundred Years' War


* EUROPE: heated attention on witchcraft and heresy (persecution & burnings)

1379 UR +tri PL Vi Ta


GERMANY: Hans Fugger founds a bank in Augsburg (Europe's biggest bank by 1500)

1379 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar


ASIA: Timurlenk begins his conquests of Khorasan, Afghanistan, S Russia, Persia

1380 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar


* IDEAS: work of Ibn Khaldun, Muslim historian


RUSSIA: Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow defeats Tatars at Bt of Kulikovo (turning the tide for Russians)


* IDEAS: John Wyclif (1328-84) church reformer at work (expelled from Oxford 1382, condemned)

1381 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar

1381 UR Li


W EUROPE: truce between England & France for six years


BRITAIN: Wat Tyler's peasants' revolt in England (seeking reform of conditions & rights)


MED'N: Venice wins its 'Hundred Years' War' against Genoa (flowering of Venetian culture)


E EUROPE: Ottoman Turks take Bulgaria and Sofia

1382 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

1382 UR Li


1382 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar


IRELAND: population decimated by plague & famine

1383 NE Ta



BRITAIN: Anglo-Scottish wars renewed

1384 NE Ta



W EUROPE: Anglo-French wars renewed


PERSIA: Timurlenk invades Persia (many massacres), turns on Kipchak (Golden Horde) in S Russia


E EUROPE: union of Poland & Lithuania under Jagiello line Vladislav II (Prussia outmatched)



E EUROPE: Lithuania converts to Christianity (the last european pagan state)


C EUROPE: King Sigismund of Brandenburg becomes King of Hungary (by marriage)


SCANDNVA: Margareta of Denmark becomes queen of Den, Sweden, Norway, leading to union


CHINA: China finally cleared of Mongols by Nanking Ming dynasty


ASIA: Mongols driven out of their capital Karakorum by Chinese, defeated at Kerulen

1388 UR Sc


ARTS: Chaucer's 'Canterbury Tales'


BRITAIN: Scots defeat the English at Bt of Otterburn


E EUROPE: Ottomans (Murad I, 1359-89) beat Serbs, gaining control of Balkans at Bt of Kosovo


W EUROPE: truce between England, Scotland & France; William of Wykeham Engl Lord Chancellor




IBERIA: revolt in Spain against power of Jews (over social inequalities, some bigotry added)

1391 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta



E ASIA: Korea ind of China; foundn of Li dynasty (1392-1910) (prosperity & culture 1392-1494)

1392 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta


JAPAN: end of civil wars (1336-92), Ashikaga Shoguns at low ebb (architecture & No dramas)


MIDEAST: Timurlenk takes Baghdad and attacks Mesopotamia

1393 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta


* CHINA: Chinese population 60m, 40% less than in late Sung; 130m by 1580


SE ASIA: Thais invade Cambodia, whereupon the Khmers move from Angkor to Phnom Penh

1394 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta

1394 PL Ge


W EUROPE: Richard II of England attacks Ireland (Irish rulers become tributary)

1394 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta


INDIA: Gujerat prospers under Islamic Rajput dynasty (1396-1572) (trading power)

1395 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta

1395 UR Sg


EUROPE: FIRST STIRRINGS OF EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE (in Italian city-states & European cities)

1395 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta

1395 PL Ge


BRITAIN: Richard II marries Isabella of France; truce between England & France extended

1396 UR OPPN PL Sg Ge

1396 PL Ge


E EUROPE: Ottomans defeat Crusader army under Sigismund of Hungary, at Nicopolis

1396 NE Ge


SCANDNVA: Union of Kalmar unites Sweden, Denmark and Norway

1397 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge

1397 NE Ge



INDIA: Timurlenk invades India & sacks Delhi, retires (disease; Delhi Sultanate declines)

1398 NE CONJ PL Ge Ge

1398 NE Ge


C EUROPE: Jan Hus (1369-1415), Wyclifian reformer, lecturing on theology at Prague university

1398 UR on S Node


BRITAIN: king deposed; Henry IV King of England (1399-1413) (suppresses rebellion of nobles)

1399 NE CONJ PL Ge Ge


* CHINA: great drainage & irrigation, reforestation & repopulation works by Ming dynasty

Uranus conjunct Neptune 1307

Uranus square Pluto 1312-13

Ottomans first defeat Byzantines; fall of Yuan dynasty, China; Mandingo zenith, W Africa, Mandingo annexes Songhai; peak of Nestorian Christian influence in Asia; consolidation of states & prosperity in Europe, though disease & famine follow; truce between England & Scotland; zenith of Delhi Sultanate; gunpowder invented, Germany; Knights Templars dissolved; formation of Switzerland, Canary Is discovered by Genoese

Neptune square Pluto 1323-27
Ascendancy of Aztecs, C Mexico, founding Tenochtitlan; zenith of Moorish Grenada; cultural florescence in Italy; gold-rich Mali becomes Muslim; unstable Ashikaga period, Japan; famine in China (roots of Black Death); Ottoman expansion, Anatolia & Balkans; civil war in declining Byzantium; travels of Ibn Battuta, Africa to China; end of Buddhism in India by Sultan of Delhi; growth of Serbia

Uranus conjunct Pluto 1343-44
Black Death spreads from China across Asia to Europe (disaster, population loss, economic shrinkage, cultural contacts die); persecution of Jews, Germany - many Jews move east; Chinese emigration abroad (Singapore, Indonesia); rebellion against Delhi Sultanate, Vijayanagar power grows in S India

Uranus square Neptune 1353-55
Zenith in Japan, Indochina and Java - Majapahit zenith in Java-Sumatra; desolation across Europe (Black Death); Turks surround Constantinople; Mongol-Turk revival in C Asia - Timurlenk; rebuilding of Great Zimbabwe after bushfires; major social change in Europe (urbanisation, revolts, war between England & France); Black Death dies down

Uranus square Pluto 1370-71
Founding of Ming dynasty, China; Timurlenk's invasions of C Asia, Persia & Middle East; cruelty in Muslim world (Timurlenk & Delhi Sultanate); zenith of Hansa trading league; zenith of Vijayanagar, S India; rise of Lithuania; witchcraft and heresy persecutions begin in Europe; slow revival from Black Death in Eurasia

Uranus opposition Neptune 1391-94

Neptune conjunct Pluto 1394-96

Timurlenk invades Iraq, Persia, N India (brings decline of Delhi Sultanate); Ottomans control Balkans (Bt of Kosovo); last pagan Euro state, Lithuania, converts to Catholicism; rebuilding in Ming China (after previous wars); Sweden, Denmark & Norway united; first stirrings of European Renaissance in Italy (Medicis in Florence); Henry the Navigator sponsors Portuguese exploration to Africa; Timurlenk defeats Ottomans - Ottoman revival under Suleiman I; fall of Timurlenk's empire on his death; ascendancy in Korea; most of Eurasia in intense transition

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The Historical Ephemeris
Astro-historical tables for 2,500 years
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