Timelines: Medieval Period - Later - Historical Ephemeris

The Historical Ephemeris

600 BCE - CE 2200

Astrological Cycles in History

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Timelines: Medieval Period - Later

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Astro-historical timeline 8:
High Middle Ages
Waning Neptune-Pluto hemicycle  1151-1399 CE

Key:
* = a period of change or a general trend
? = an uncertain date


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NOTE: During this period Germany and the Holy Roman Empire are roughly the same thing; in the lists below, entries are marked 'Germany' when they specifically affect Germany, otherwise 'HRE' is used when the wider empire is affected. The same goes in the case of 'Islam', which is used when events concern the whole Muslim realm, and otherwise more local regions are marked.

1151

C ASIA: destruction of sultanate of Ghazni by the Sultan of Khorasan, Al-Auddin Husain

1151 NE OPPN PL Sc Ta

1151 PL Ge

+

AMERICAS: decline of Toltec culture in Mexico (becomes seed of Aztec culture)

1151 UR -qcx PL Cp Ge

1151 NE Sg

1152

GERMANY: Frederick I Barbarossa, king of Germany (1152-1190) (by election)

1152 NE OPPN PL Sg Ge

1152 PL Ge

+

* AMERICAS: MANCO CAPAC, first GREAT INCA, establishes INCA CULTURE at Cuzco, Peru

1152 NE Sg

1153

* SE ASIA: zenith of Buddhist culture in Burma

1153 NE OPPN PL Sg Ge

+

* W EUROPE: Troubadours in S France (new dance, music & freethinking emerge all over Europe)

1154

W EUROPE: accession of Plantagenet Henry II of Anjou (1154-89) (Angevin empire in England & France)

1154 NE OPPN PL Sg Ge

+

FRANCE: Chartres Cathedral begun (heralding the spread of Gothic architecture in Europe)

1155

BRITAIN: Thomas a Becket becomes chancellor to Henry II (Plantagenet dynasty lasts until 1485)

1155 UR -sqt PL Cp Ge

+

BRITAIN: Pope Hadrian IV gives Henry II of England rule over Ireland (Henry centralises power)

1156

JAPAN: civil war between rival claimants to power, (splitting Taira Clan & Minamoto Clan)

1156 UR -sqt PL Cp Ge

+

GERMANY: creation of Austria by Barbarossa (to counter Welf Bavarian power)

1157

SCANDNVA: Erik the Saint of Sweden conquers Finland (begins long dominance of Finland by Sweden)

1157 UR +ssq NE Cp Sg

+

SCANDNVA: Waldemar I the Great, K of Denmark (1157-82) (rise of Denmark to major power status)

1158

* EUROPE: rise of the Craft Guilds in European cities

1158 UR +ssq NE Aq Sg

1158 UR Aq

+

MIDEAST: earthquakes destroy many towns in Syria, killing 20,000

1159

ROME: Pope Alexander III (1159-1181) (strong, stable, traditionalist Pope)

1159 UR +ssq NE Aq Sg

+

ASIA: Sultan of Khorasan pushes Ghazni empire south out of Turkestan

1160

* ARTS: European vernacular verse developing (Song of Roland, El Cid, Parzival, Trystan)

1160 UR -tri PL Aq Ge

+

N AFRICA: Normans expelled by Almohades in Tunisia (retreating to Italy)

+

JAPAN: civil war, then Taira clan dominance under Kiyomori (1160-81)

1161

N EUROPE: first German Hansa trading ports at Wisby, Gotland & Luebeck, in Baltic Sea

1161 UR -tri PL Aq Ge

+

INNOVN: explosives first used in China (by Sung armies against Chin/Jurchen Tungus tribes)

1162

BRITAIN: Thomas a Becket elected Archbishop of Canterbury

1162 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge

+

HRE: Frederick Barbarossa campaigns in Italy, destroying Milan

1163

BRITAIN: friction between Henry II & Thomas a Becket; Becket leaves for France 1164

1163 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge

+

EURASIA: Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela visits Persia, C Asia & China (small effect in Europe)

1164

E EUROPE: Kuman tribes invade Bulgaria

+

1165

E EUROPE: Byzantium expands into Balkans, interferes in Hungary; alliance with Venice against HRE

1165 UR +sxt NE Aq Sg

1165 NE Cp

+

1166

1166 UR +sxt NE Pi Cp

1166 UR Pi

+

1166 NE Cp

1167

HRE: Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome

1167 UR +sxt NE Pi Cp

+

BRITAIN: Oxford university founded

1168

RUSSIA: coup d'etat in Kiev by Bogolubsky

+

* IRELAND: Norman lordly families move to Ireland by invitation to help restore order after clan wars

1169

* C EUROPE: eastward move of German traders (est of towns, trade, roads, agriculture)

+

C AMERICA: FALL OF THE TOLTEC STATE – sack of Tula, Toltec capital

1170

* SE ASIA: SRIVIJAYA KINGDOM in JAVA reaches its height under Shailendra dynasty

1170 UR -SQR PL Pi Ge

+

BYZANTIUM: Manuel I detains all Venetian traders; trade privileges renewed 1176

+

BRITAIN: Thomas a Becket & Henry II reconciled, yet Becket murdered by Norman fundamentalists

1171

ISLAM: Kurdish Saladin conquers Egypt, usurps Fatimids, for Zangids in Damascus (ends Islamic disunity)

1171 UR -SQR PL Pi Ge

+

MIDEAST: Saladin founds Ayyubid dynasty (1171-1250) in Egypt

+

IRELAND: Norman Henry II asserts supremacy over a chaotic Ireland (beginning English rule)

1172

ITALY: constitutional reform in Venice (restricting power of Doges)

1172 UR -SQR PL Pi Ge

+

1173 UR Ar

1173

FRANCE: beginning of Waldensian movement at Lyons, Burgundy (poverty, evangelical purity)

+

1174

HRE: Frederick Barbarossa buys Sardinia, Corsica, Tuscany & Spoleto (Italy) (HRE expansionism)

1174 UR Ar

+

1175

INDIA: MUHAMMED OF GHAZNI founds first MUSLIM EMPIRE in INDIA (to become Delhi Sultanate)

+

1176

ITALY: Frederick Barbarossa defeated by the Lombard League (supporting Pope Alexander)

+

MIDEAST: Saladin conquers Syria

1177

* E EUROPE: order & prosperity in Hungary under Ladislas I King of Hungary (1077-1095)

1177 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

+

EUROPE: peace treaties between England & France, and HRE and Pope

1178

FRANCE: Frederick Barbarossa crowned King of Burgundy; le Pont d'Avignon opened

1178 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

+

1179

1179 Sa CONJ PL Ge Ge

1179 NE Aq

+

1179 NE -qcx PL Cp Ge

1179 PL Cn

1180

* SE ASIA: Buddhist ANGKOR at greatest extent and development in Cambodia

1180 NE on S Node

1180 PL Cn

+

BRITAIN: Ranulf de Glanville reforms England's judicial system

1180 NE -qcx PL Aq Cn

1181

1181 UR -sxt PL Ta Cn

1181 UR Ta

+

1181 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq

1182

FRANCE: Jews banished from France; most head for Germany (growth of German Jewish community)

1181 NE -qcx PL Aq Cn

+

1182 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq

1183

BYZANTIUM: purges & attempted reforms in empire & court by Andronicus I; revolt of nobility

1182 UR -sxt PL Ta Cn

+

HRE: Peace of Konstanz, Lombard League submits to overlordship of HRE

1183 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq

1184

GERMANY: Diet of Mainz, zenith of Frederick Barbarossa's power as Holy Roman Emperor

1184 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq

+

ROME: Pope declares dissenting Christian groups heretical (Cathari, Albigensians, Waldensians)

+

MED'N: Cyprus becomes independent of Byzantium

1185

JAPAN: Minamoto & Taira clans battle for Shogunate at Danno-ura; Minamoto dominance until 1333

+

BYZANTIUM: revolt in Bulgaria (devast'n, killing of Greeks); brothers Asen est Bulgarian state

1186

C ASIA: Mohammed of Ghor destroys the empire of Ghazni (999-1186)

1186 UR -ssq PL Ta Cn

+

1187

MIDEAST: SALADIN RETAKES JERUSALEM – fall of Crusaders (call in Europe for new crusade)

1187 PL on N Node

+

INDIA: Punjab falls to turkic Afghan Muizzuddin Mohammed of Khorasan; Rajputs fall

1187 UR -ssq PL Ta Cn

1188

MIDEAST: Saladin destroys Crusader kingdoms in Syria & Palestine

1188 UR Ge

+

* EUROPE: first building of larger European naval fleets (ie Venice, Genoa)

1189

BYZANTIUM: Third Crusade (inconclusive; Germans & Byzantines avoid clash; last great crusade)

1189 UR Ge

+

BRITAIN: Richard I Coeur de Lion, King of England (1189-99); massacre of Jews in England

1190

ASIA: Temujin creates a Mongol confederacy & military power (becomes Genghiz Khan in 1206)

1190 UR on N Node

+

MIDEAST: foundation of Teutonic Knights, in Acre; INDIA; Muin ud-Din Chishti brings Sufism to India

+

GERMANY: death by drowning of Frederick I Barbarossa; Hohenstaufen line (1190-1268) begins

1191

MED'N: Richard Coeur de Lion conquers Cyprus, selling it to Knights Templars

1191 UR -ssx PL Ge Cn

+

INDIA: Mohammed of Ghor overcomes the Indian Rajputs (landed princes)

1192

* AMERICAS: ZENITH of SECOND ERA of TOLTEC CIVILISATION in Yucatan, Mexico

1192 UR -ssx PL Ge Cn

+

JAPAN: KAMAKURA SHOGUNATE (1192-1333); dual rule of Kyoto emperor & Minamoto Shoguns

+

(feudal power, overseas trade, more justice, militarism, economic changes); Shogun Yoritomo (1185-99)

+

C EUROPE: Richard Couer de Lion captured by Duke of Austria (expansion of Austrian influence)

1193

JAPAN: Zen Buddhist order founded (becoming core of Samurai spartan military cult)

1193 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn

1193 NE Pi

+

MIDEAST: death of Saladin the Saracen (taunter of Crusaders, ending Arab threat to Byzantium)

1194

BRITAIN: on release from captivity, Richard I Coeur de Lion re-crowned King of England

1194 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn

+

SCANDNVA: the 'Elder Edda' chronicle of Scandinavian pagan mythology

+

CHINA: Yellow River changes course (to south of Shantung, until 1853, flooding disaster)

1195

INDIA: Mohammed of Ghor takes Delhi 1193, Bihar 1197, Bengal 1199

1195 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn

+

1196

* N AMERICA: construction of temple mounds at Moundville, Alabama

1196 UR +tri NE Cn Pi

1195 UR Cn

+

1196 Sa OPPN PL Cp Cn

1197

GERMANY: civil war in Germany (1197-1214)

1196 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn

+

1197 UR +tri NE Cn Pi

1198

ROME: Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) elected (high point in history of Papacy)

1197 NE -sqt PL Pi Cn

+

* S AMERICA: rise of Chimu empire – Chimu conquer coastal valleys of Peru

1198 UR +tri NE Cn Pi

1199

BRITAIN: founding of Liverpool (to become world's greatest port by 1850)

+

GERMANY: German princes confirm their right to elect German king, at Diet of Speyer

 


Neptune opposition Pluto 1151-54
Rise of large Euro trade fairs & Hansa ports, prosperity, Gothic cathedral building (Chartres); end of Sultanate of Ghazni, Afghanistan; Inca culture founded by Manco Capac, Cuzco; zenith of Buddhist culture in Burma; low-point in Muslim world; decline of Toltecs in Mexico (prelude to Aztec rise); Angevin empire, Henry II, England & France


Uranus square Pluto 1170-72
First Muslim empire in N India; zenith of Hindu Srivijaya kgdm in Java; rise of Barbarossa (Germany) & Saladin (Egypt); beginning of English rule of Ireland (Henry II); fall of Toltecs, Byzantium expands into Balkans; Oxford univ founded; Waldensians, France (early Protestants)


Uranus square Neptune 1181-84
Zenith of Angkor kgdm, Cambodia; zenith of German power in Europe; fall of Crusader Jerusalem, Palestine & Syria to Saladin (failure of Crusade); civil war, Japan; zenith in Hungary (Ladislas I); suppression of heretics in Europe, starts (Cathars, Waldensians)

1200

* W AFRICA: RISE OF EMPIRE OF MALI (Niger, gold-trading) and HAUSA CITY-STATES (Nigeria)

+

* C AMERICA: Aztecs occupy the Valley of Mexico (prelude to becoming dominant nation)

+

BRITAIN: Cambridge university founded

1201

* IDEAS: development of Jewish Qabbalistic philosophy in Spain

1201 UR CONJ PL Cn Cn

1201 UR Le

+

E EUROPE: Teutonic Knights (Brethren of the Sword) found Riga, begin colonisation of Estonia

1201 PL Le

1202

EUROPE: Fourth Crusade, alliance of Franks & Venetians (starts badly, turns against Byzantium)

1202 UR +sqt NE Le Pi

1202 UR Le

+

* N AFRICA: Saharan state of Kanem-Bornu at zenith of development

1202 PL Le

1203

SCANDNVA: Snorri Sturlasson (1178-1241), historian & saga writer in Iceland, at work

1203 UR +sqt NE Le Pi

1203 PL Le

+

C ASIA: Genghiz Khan defeats his rival, Ongkan (prelude to dramatic Mongol expansion)

1204

BYZANTIUM: Crusaders take Byzantium, found Latin Empire (1204-61, Greece, Bosporus, Antioch)

1204 UR +sqt NE Le Pi

+

INDIA: Mohammed of Ghor completes conquest of N India

1205

E EUROPE: clashes between Bulgars (with Kumans) and Frankish crusaders around Byzantium

1205 UR +sqt NE Le Pi

+

BENELUX: founding of Amsterdam

1206

ASIA: Genghiz Khan unites Mongol tribes, begins the conquest of Eurasia (Hsia-Hsia kingdom falls)

1206 NE Ar

+

INDIA: SULTANATE OF DELHI FOUNDED after death of Mohammed of Ghor, by slave general Aibak

1207

E EUROPE: Bulgars overrun Thrace & Macedonia (exterminating many Greeks)

1207 NE Ar

+

* PACIFIC OCEAN: development of early Polynesian island chiefdom-states

1207 UR Vi

1208

FRANCE: Crusade against the anti-clerical Albigensians (Manichaean Cathars) in SW France (until 1213)

1208 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar

1208 UR Vi

+

MIDEAST: Theodore Lascaris creates empire of Nicaea out of Byzantine territories in W Anatolia

1209

BRITAIN: John, King of England (1199-1216) invades Scotland, is excommunicated by Pope

1209 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar

+

HRE: Otto IV crowned HRE in Rome; excommunicated 1210 by Pope Innocent III (1198-1216)

1210

IDEAS: the ministry of St Francis of Assisi; reform rules of Franciscan brotherhood issued

1210 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar

+

SCANDNVA: under Waldemar II the Conqueror (1202-41) Denmark gains Norway, Estonia, Courland

1211

C ASIA: EARLY CONQUESTS of GENGHIZ KHAN; N China invaded (1211-15, breaching Great Wall)

1211 Sa CONJ PL Le Le

+

1211 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar

1212

IBERIA: Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (Christians break Muslim power in much of Iberia)

1211 UR +ssx PL Vi Le

+

EUROPE: Children's Crusade (fails, children land up sold into slavery in Saracen Egypt)

1212 Sa CONJ PL Le Le

+

MED'N: expansive Venice conquers Crete (strategic Mediterranean base)

1213

IBERIA: Jaime I K of Aragon (1213-76) (strengthens Aragon, takes Balearic Isles, fights Islam)

+

BRITAIN: King John submits to Pope Innocent III (England & Ireland become papal fiefs)

1214

BRITAIN: Council of St Albans (precursor to English Parliament)

1214 NE -tri PL Ar Le

1214 UR Li

+

W EUROPE: Philip II of France (1180-1223) defeats both Germany & England at Battle of Bouvines

1215

BRITAIN: KING JOHN SIGNS MAGNA CARTA (permitting aristocratic oligarchy in England)

1215 NE -tri PL Ar Le

+

* INDIA: Islamic architecture & culture enter India (Sultanate of Delhi) ; Indian Buddhism gradually dies out

1216

BRITAIN: Henry III (1216-72); attempted French invasion, defeated 1217 at Lincoln & Sandwich

1216 NE -tri PL Ar Le

+

CHINA: Beijing falls to Genghiz Khan

1216 UR +ssq PL Li Le

1217

N AFRICA: failure of Christian Crusade against Sultanate of Egypt

1217 NE -tri PL Ar Le

+

C ASIA: Genghiz Khan vanquishes Kara-Khitai empire in Siberia

1217 UR +ssq PL Li Le

1218

MIDEAST: Fifth Crusade (1218-21) (disorganised and inconclusive)

1218 NE -tri PL Ar Le

1218 PL Vi

+

PERSIA: Mongols under Genghiz Khan conquer Persia (Khwarizm dominated)

1219

JAPAN: Hojo period; Hojo clan dominate Kyoto regency (efficient administration & justice)

1219 NE -tri PL Ar Le

1219 PL Vi

+

C ASIA: Bokhara, Samarkand & Khorasan taken by the Mongols

1219 NE Ta

1220

* SE ASIA: emergence of the first Thai kingdom of Siam

1220 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1220 NE Ta

+

EUROPE: Henry III K of Eng (1216-72); Frederick II HRE (1220-50); son Henry K of Ger (1220-35)

1220 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta

1220 PL Vi

+

RUSSIA: Mongols advance into Russia & Ukraine (1220-23)

1221

C EUROPE: Vienna becomes a city (to become great capital of Austrian empire)

1221 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1220 UR Sc

+

EUROPE: Pope surrenders 'Regalia' (markets, coinage, customs, legal autonomy) to HRE princes

1221 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta

1221 UR Sc

+

C AMERICA: end of Toltecs in Chichen Itza – conquest by Mayapan Mayans

1222

E EUROPE: powers & feudal privileges of nobility increase in Hungary (Golden Bull)

1222 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

GERMANY: Common Law, landowning & feudal laws recorded by von Repkow in 'Sachsenspiegel'

1222 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta

1223

E EUROPE: Mongols beat Russians & Kumans, but retire to C Asia until 1237 (overextended)

1222 HALLEY'S COMET

+

C EUROPE: Andreas II of Hungary (1205-35) (creates laws, rights, protection & nat'l assembly)

1223 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1224

W EUROPE: war between England & France (1224-27); ends in truce

1223 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta

+

GERMANY: Henry VII of Germany declares Public Peace at Wurzburg

1223 UR +sxt PL Sc Vi

+

* ROME: gradual decline in power of Papacy, and resurgence of secular forces in HRE

1224 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1225

* E EUROPE: German colonisation of towns & lands in E Europe reaching peak (slowing by 1300)

1225 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

ITALY: HRE reorganisation of S Italy (admin, taxation, law codification, 1221-31)

1226

E EUROPE: Teutonic Knights commissioned by Polish dukes to conquer & convert pagan Prussia

1226 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

* ASIA: Mongol invasions close Silk Roads, Eurasian traffic moves to Arabian sea lanes

1227

C ASIA: Genghiz Khan dies (warrior & administrator); Mongol emp div in four, capital Karakorum

1227 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1227 UR Sg

+

SCANDNVA: Bt of Bornhoeved, Danish Waldemar II loses all terr gains (Baltic trade grows)

1228

N AFRICA: Hafsid dynasty established in Tunisia

1228 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1228 UR Sg

+

MIDEAST: Sixth Crusade gains key areas in Palestine until 1244

1229

JAPAN: monk Dogen introduces Soto Zen Buddhism from China

1229 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

MIDEAST: HRE Frederick II crowned King of Jerusalem (makes treaty with Sultan of Egypt)

1230

HRE: Pope and Emperor resolve differences, Frederick II absolved as result of crusade

1230 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

C EUROPE: Wenceslas I, (Good) King of Bohemia (1230-53); EUROPE: leprosy imported by Crusaders

1230 Sa OPPN PL Pi Vi

+

IBERIA: union of kgdms of Castile and Leon (early formation of Spain)

1230 UR on S Node

1231

GERMANY: founding of Berlin; alliance of Hamburg & Luebeck (birth of Hansa League)

1231 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

1231 Sa OPPN PL Pi Vi

1232 PL Li

1232

ASIA: Ugudei Khan completes conquest & organisation of N China, Samarkand & Persia

1232 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

+

INDIA: Shamsuddin Iltutmish, Sultan of Delhi (1211-36) (intros Islamic architecture & culture)

1233

BRITAIN: rebellion in S Wales behind Earl of Pembroke

1233 NE -tri PL Ta Vi

1233 PL Li

+

EUROPE: Pope gives Dominican Order the task of carrying out Inquisition against heretics

1233 NE Ge

1234

CHINA: Mongols annex the Ch'in empire in N China, entering capital, Kaifeng

1234 NE -tri PL Ge Li

1234 NE Ge

+

INNOVN: earliest use of cast metal movable type for printing books, Korea

1234 UR Cp

1235

GERMANY: Public Peace of Mainz (germanisation and reorganisation of HRE law)

1235 NE -tri PL Ge Li

+

INDIA: Delhi Sultanate expands to stretch from Sind to Bengal

1235 UR -qcx NE Cp Ge

+

BRITAIN: plague & famine in England (20,000 die in London alone)

1236

E EUROPE: Mongols of Subutei & Batu conq Russia (1236-9); Kiev & Moscow fall, Novgorod tribute

1236 NE -tri PL Ge Li

+

RUSSIA: Aleksander Nevsky, Grand Duke of Novgorod (1236-63)

1236 UR +SQR PL Cp Li

+

IBERIA: Arabs lose great city of Cordoba to Castile (tips balance of power in Spain)

1236 UR -qcx NE Cp Ge

1237

CHINA: Mongols secure 4030 scholar mandarins for civilian administration in China

1237 UR +SQR PL Cp Li

+

HRE: Jews designated as servants of HRE (to give them protection and guarantee Imp solvency)

1237 UR -qcx NE Cp Ge

1238

W AFRICA: ascendancy of Mali, led by Sundiata Keita (gold wealth, trans-Saharan trade)

1238 UR +SQR PL Cp Li

+

N AMERICA: ZENITH OF MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURE (riverine trading temple-cities, Mississippi)

1239 UR +SQR PL Cp Li

1239

RUSSIA: Aleksander Nevsky beats attacking Swedes at Neva (Russian national growth)

1239 UR +SQR PL Cp Li

+

1240

BRITAIN: clear border & peace agreed between England & Scotland

+

MIDEAST: private, unsupported crusade of Simon de Montfort & Richard of Cornwall to Haifa

1241

C EUROPE: Bt of Liegnitz, MONGOLS INVADE CENTRAL EUROPE -- Poland, Hungary and Bohemia

+

E EUROPE: Europe saved from Mongol invasion by death of Ogedei Khan; Mongols retreat

1242

RUSSIA: Aleksander Nevsky of Novgorod defeats attacking German & Lithuanian Teutonic Knights

1242 UR Aq

+

RUSSIA: Mongol Batu Khan establishes Golden Horde (Kipchak Khanate) in Ukraine (threatening Russia)

1243

C EUROPE: collapse of Hungary (after Mongols) & friction with Bohemia; Arpad line dies 1301

1243 UR -sqt NE Aq Ge

1243 PL Sc

+

1244

MIDEAST: Jerusalem lost by Christians (to Egyptians, for last time until 1917)

1244 UR -sqt NE Aq Ge

1244 PL Sc

+

MIDEAST: Mongols beat Seljuks at Erzinjan in Anatolia (ravaging Mesopotamia, Armenia, Georgia)

1245

HRE: emperor Frederick II deposed by Council of Lyons; 1246 seizes Austria & Styria, dies 1250

1245 UR -sqt NE Aq Ge

+

EURASIA: travels of John of Pian to Mongolia (to build Euro-Mongol alliance against Islam)

1246

SE ASIA: downfall of Buddhist kgdm of Haripunjaya (Siam), overrun by migrating Shan peoples

1246 PL Peri 4Sc

1246 NE Cn

+

1246 UR -sqt NE Aq Cn

1247

* IDEAS: Roger Bacon (1214-94), philosopher, at work (stresses experimentation & experience)

1247 NE Cn

+

W AFRICA: founding of kingdom of Benin (Nigeria, artistic flowering)

1248

MIDEAST: Seventh Crusade (1248-54) fails in Egypt; Louis IX of France ransomed

1248 Sa CONJ PL Sc Sc

+

MED'N: expansive trading Genoa (rival to Venice) conquers Rhodos

1249

ITALY: growing commercial rivalry leads to long war between Venice & Genoa (1253-99)

1249 UR Pi

+

W AFRICA: Malinke becomes the dominant gold-trading state of W Africa

1250

HRE: collapse of imperial power in Germany and Italy, on death of Emp Frederick II

1250 UR Pi

+

SCANDNVA: Folkunga Birger Jarl, K of Sweden (1250-66) (builds towns, ests trade, laws & gov't)

1251

IBERIA: nascent Portugal (not yet a state) conquers Algarve

+

ASIA: Mongka, Great Khan (1251-9, son of a Nestorian); Kublai Khan governor of N China

1252

IBERIA: Castile becomes strong under Alfonso X the Wise (1252-84) (growth of towns & learning)

1252 UR -tri NE Pi Cn

+

EUROPE: the Inquisition begins to use torture (Christian intolerance growing)

+

CHINA: Mongol conquest of Song China (south China) starts (Kublai Khan)

1253

E EUROPE: Ottokar II K of Bohemia (1253-1278) (expansion & prosperity, 60 German towns est'd)

1253 UR -tri NE Pi Cn

+

INNOVN: linen first made in England; EURASIA: travels of William of Rubruck to Mongolia

1254

FRANCE: founding of Paris School of Theology (later the Sorbonne)

1254 UR -tri NE Pi Cn

+

HRE: decline of Hohenstaufen line (loss of power in Italy & France, political chaos in Germany)

1255

EUROPE: founding of Prague and Stockholm as cities (medieval Euro trade & culture network)

1255 UR -tri NE Pi Cn

+

N EUROPE: first Hansa League formed by Luebeck, Hamburg, Wismar, Rostock

1256

PERSIA: Ilkhan Mongols invade Persia (Hulagu Khan, initiating a line which lasts to 1349)

1256 UR +tri PL Pi Sc

1256 PL Sg

+

MED'N: start of 'Hundred Years War' between trading cities Genoa & Venice

1257

CHINA: Mongol capital moved to Shang-Tu (N of Beijing) (relig tolerance, Buddhism favoured)

1257 UR +tri PL Ar Sg

1257 UR Ar

+

SE ASIA: Volcano, Lombok, Indonesia, largest in millennia (dark skies, cold, famines worldwide)

+

BRITAIN: Llewellyn takes title Prince of Wales (ests peace between England & Wales 1259)

1258

ASIA: MONGOLS OVERCOME ABBASID CALIPHATE (fall of Baghdad & Damascus as great cities)

1258 UR +tri PL Ar Sg

1258 UR Ar

+

BRITAIN: establishment of the House of Commons at Westminster, by Provisions of Oxford

1259

* EUROPE: St Thomas Aquinas (1225-74) active (defining Christian dogma)

1259 UR +tri PL Ar Sg

+

MIDEAST: Islamic Asia saved from Mongols by death of Mongka Khan (end of Mongol unity)

1260

CHINA: YUAN DYNASTY established as part of Mongol empire, under Kublai Khan, under Chinese law

1260 UR +tri PL Ar Sg

1260 NE Le

+

CHINA: Kublai, Great Khan (1260-94) ests social welfare, roadbuilding, post services in China

+

ITALY: Joachim of Flore predicts arrival of Anti-Christ (growing religious paranoia in Europe)

1261

BYZANTIUM: Greek empire restored in Byzantium (until 1453); Latin empire dies

1261 NE Le

+

N AFRICA: Mamluks protect Islamic culture by stalling Mongols at Battle of Ain Jalut, Palestine

1262

* IDEAS: German Albertus Magnus (1193-1280) (scientist & philosopher) at work

1262 NE on N Node

+

PERSIA: HULAGU KHAN FOUNDS IL-KHAN EMPIRE (1262-1336)(Samarkand, Persia & Georgia)

1263

BRITAIN: Haakon of Norway defeated by Scots at Largs, ceding Hebrides to Scotland

+

N AFRICA: MAMLUK SULTANATE in Egypt (1260-1517, formed by Turkic palace guard from Ukraine)

1264

ASIA: Kublai Khan reunites Mongol empire; constructs Khanbalik (Beijing) from 1267

1264 UR Ta

+

IDEAS: Thomas Aquinas' 'Summa contra Gentiles' ('Against the Heathens')

1265

IDEAS: Roger Bacon's 'De Computo Naturali' & 'Opus Maius'

1265 UR +sqt PL Ta Sg

1265 UR Ta

+

1266

ITALY: Pope calls in Charles d'Anjou to clear Italy of Germans; Bt of Benevento (Germans lose)

1266 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg

+

ASIA: Mangu-Timur, Great Khan of Golden Horde (1266-80) (ind of Mongol Confed, declining)

1266 UR +sqt PL Ta Sg

1267

1267 Sa OPPN PL Ge Sg

+

1267 UR +sqt PL Ta Sg

1268

MIDEAST: earthquake kills 60,000, destroying city of Cieilia, Asia Minor

1268 UR -SQR NE Ta Le

+

1268 UR +sqt PL Ta Sg

1269

1269 UR -SQR NE Ta Le

1269 PL Cp

+

1270

EUROPE: Eighth Crusade (attacks Tunis, nothing accomplished)

1270 UR -SQR NE Ta Le

1270 PL Cp

+

E AFRICA: Solomonid dynasty comes to power in Coptic Ethiopia

1271

BRITAIN: Wales becoming ungovernable (national revival); rise of the Llewellyns of Snowdon

1271 UR -SQR NE Ta Le

1271 UR Ge

+

INNOVN: invention of the mechanical clock

1272

BRITAIN: Edward I, King of England (1272-1307) ('England's Justinian')

1272 UR +qcx PL Ge Cp

1272 UR Ge

+

1273

GERMANY: Rudolf, Count of Hapsburg, elected King of Germany (beginning of Hapsburg dynasty)

1273 UR +qcx PL Ge Cp

1273 NE Vi

+

IDEAS: Thomas Aquinas' 'Summa Theologica' (his main theological work)

1274

JAPAN: Kublai Khan attempts and fails to conquer Japan (beaten off by Samurai knights)

1274 UR on N Node

1274 NE Vi

+

CHINA: Kublai Khan confers power of a Tibetan Lama, Phags-pa, to be Chief Teacher to Mongols

1274 UR +qcx PL Ge Cp

1275

CHINA: Marco Polo (1254-1354, Venetian) arrives in China; Nestorian Archbishopric founded in Beijing

1275 PL on S Node

+

IDEAS: Moses de Leon's 'Zohar' (major work on Jewish faith)

1275 UR +qcx PL Ge Cp

1276

SCANDNVA: Magnus Ladulas, K of Sweden (1275-90) (ests nobility, knighthood, order in Sweden)

+

1277

BRITAIN: Roger Bacon imprisoned for heresy until 1292

+

1278

C EUROPE: Wenceslas II King of Bohemia (1278-1305); King of Poland 1300, Hungary 1301

1278 UR Cn

+

C EUROPE: Habsburgs establish themselves in Austria (on downfall of Bohemian Ottokar II)

1279

CHINA: MONGOLS INVADE SOUTH CHINA, at last ending the long-lived Sung (Song) dynasty

1279 UR Cn

+

1280

E EUROPE: Bulgarian Asen dynasty fails (Bulgaria encroached by Greeks, Serbs & Mongols)

+

CHINA: Kublai Khan (Emp Shih-Tsu) extends Yuan dynasty (1280-1368) throughout all of China

+

SE ASIA: Srivijaya (Sumatra) invaded by Singhasari (Java); dynasty lasts 12 years

1281

ASIA: disastrous attempted Mongol invasion of Japan (defeated by typhoon); decline of Hojo gov't

+

1282

ITALY: massacre of French in Sicily ('Sicilian Vespers') by local burghers seeking autonomy

+

GERMANY: Rudolf Hapsburg gives Austria & Styria to his sons (seeds of future Habsburg empire)

1283

E EUROPE: Teutonic Order completes its conquering of Prussia

1283 UR OPPN PL Cn Cp

+

BRITAIN: Edward I subdues Welsh revival (Llewellyns killed); Statute of Wales declared

1283 UR -sxt NE Cn Vi

1284

ITALY: Genoa defeats Pisa (end of Pisa's major influence); Florence Italy's leading trading city

1284 UR OPPN PL Cn Cp

+

GERMANY: 'Pied Piper of Hamelin'

1284 UR -sxt NE Cn Vi

1285

SE ASIA: abortive Mongol expeditions against Annam & Champa, Vietnam (becoming tributaries)

1284 Sa CONJ PL Cp Cp

1285 UR Le

+

MIDEAST: Osman I expands Osmanli (Ottoman) territory (NW Anatolia) taken from ailing Byzantium

1285 UR OPPN PL Cn Cp

1286

1286 UR OPPN PL Cn Cp

1286 UR Le

+

1286 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

1286 PL Aq

1287

EUROPE: first Persian Ilkhan embassy to W Europe (also 1289, 1290, 1307)

1287 NE -tri PL Vi Cp

1287 PL Aq

+

SE ASIA: Mongols of Kublai Khan pillage Pagan, capital of Burma

1287 NE Li

+

GERMANY: 'Public Peace' declared by Rudolf Hapsburg at Diet of Wurzburg

1288

MIDEAST: Osman I (1288-1326), founder of Turkish Ottoman empire

1288 NE -tri PL Li Aq

1288 NE Li

+

C AMERICA: Quiche Maya conquer the Pokomam Maya (Guatemala)

1289

INDIA: Khalji dynasty (1289-1320) of Delhi (minority Afghan regime, repressive, militaristic)

1289 NE -tri PL Li Aq

+

* INNOVN: block printing in use in Italy (learned from China via Mongols)

1289 UR -ssq NE Le Li

+

EURASIA: Pope sends John of Montecorvino to establish Catholic archbishopric in Beijing

1290

EURASIA: Expansion of trade & cultural relations across Eurasia (1290-1340) (big stable empires)

1290 NE -tri PL Li Aq

+

INNOVN: spectacles invented in Italy

1290 UR -ssq NE Le Li

+

BRITAIN: expulsion of Jews from England (jealousy over trading & moneylending rights)

1291

EUROPE: seed of Swiss Confederation: Eternal Union of Uri, Schwyz & Unterwalden (Wm Tell myth)

1291 NE -tri PL Li Aq

1291 UR Vi

+

MIDEAST: Mamluks conquer Acre, last Christian stronghold in Middle East (end of Crusading era)

+

MED'N: Knights of St John evacuate to Cyprus from Palestine

1292

SE ASIA: Mongol naval expedition attacks Srivijaya Java (partially successful, tribute gained)

1292 NE -tri PL Li Aq

1292 UR Vi

+

SE ASIA: Singhasari dynasty falls, Java-Sumatra taken over by Majapahit

+

* SE ASIA: Muslim traders begin to introduce Islam to Malaya & Indonesia

1293

BRITAIN: Edward I codifies English Common Law & precedent in the 'Yearbooks'

1293 NE -tri PL Li Aq

+

OTTOMANS: Osman I, Ottoman chief in W Anatolia, founds the Ottoman dynasty

1294

* N EUROPE: Hanseatic League of trading cities consolidates, with Luebeck as leading city

1294 NE -tri PL Li Aq

+

CHINA: death of Kublai Khan (becalming & kinesifying of the Mongols)

1294 UR -qcx PL Vi Aq

1295

W EUROPE: first of many alliances between France & Scotland (against England)

1295 UR -qcx PL Vi Aq

+

ITALY: return of Marco Polo to Italy (from court of Kublai Khan, later jailed in Genoa)

1295 UR -ssx NE Vi Li

+

PERSIA: Mongol Ilkhans convert to Islam, distancing from the Mongol Great Khan

1296

BRITAIN: John Baliol cedes Scottish crown to Edward I; Stone of Scone taken to Westminster

1296 UR -ssx NE Vi Li

+

INDIA: C Asian Mongols invade NW India (from Astrakhan & Afghanistan)

+

INDIA: Aladain Khalji, Sult of Delhi (96-16) (expands influence, beats Rajputs, repression)

1297

BRITAIN: Scots defeat English at Bt of Stirling Bridge (William Wallace)

1297 UR Li

+

MED'N: Genoese defeat Venetians in a sea battle (rivalry for Med'n trading primacy)

+

IDEAS: Marco Polo's 'Book of Various Experiences' (on Asia) widens European horizons

1298

* SE ASIA: Islam moves into Indonesia through Sultanate of Malacca (Malaya)

1298 UR -sqt PL Li Aq

1298 UR Li

+

BRITAIN: Parliament gains legislative initiative, right of taxation; Houses of Lords & Commons started

1299

MIDEAST: Ottomans expand in Anatolia & Bosporus (Venice makes treaty to preserve trade)

1299 UR -sqt PL Li Aq

+

W EUROPE: treaty between France & Germany (Germany currently weak)


Uranus conjunct Pluto 1201
Third Crusade; zenith for Papacy; Kamakura Shogunate, Japan; Aztecs take C Mexico; Teutonic Knights colonise Estonia; Sultanate of Delhi founded; Fourth Crusade, turns bad, takes Byzantium; rise of Genghiz Khan, Mongolia; rise of Muslim Mali & Hausa, W Africa; Jewish Qabalistic philosophy, Moorish Spain; Icelandic Sagas; founding of Amsterdam (rise of Holland); zenith of Saharan Kanem-Bornu


Uranus opposition Neptune 1220-23
Hojo period, Japan; Magna Carta, England; Spaniards reclaim much of Iberia from Moors; Saladin beats Crusaders - Ayyubid empire, Middle East; Genghiz Khan & Mongols invade N China, C Asia (Samarkand, Bokhara); decline of Papal power; founding of Vienna; German colonisation of E Europe at peak; final end of Toltecs, Mexico


Uranus square Pluto 1236-39
Mongols subdue Russia & Ukraine, invade C Europe, take N China; Moors lose Cordoba to Spaniards; rise of Inquisition in Europe; founding of Berlin; Delhi Sultanate grows (Bengal to Sindh); zenith of Mississippian culture; Russian revival (Alexander Nevsky)


Uranus opposition Pluto 1283-86
Kublai Khan reunites Mongol empire; Mongol Yuan dynasty, China; Edward I, lawmaker, England; Welsh rebellion, fails; birth of Habsburg dynasty; ascendancy in Florence; Mongol attacks, Persia, S China, SE Asia; Osman I founds Turkic Ottoman dynasty, Anatolia

1300

* W AFRICA: development of kingdom of Benin in Nigeria (artistic renaissance)

1300 Sa OPPN PL Le Aq

+

BRITAIN: Edward I of England invades Scotland (to reclaim his title as king of Scotland)

1300 UR -sqt PL Li Aq

+

* W EUROPE: major trade fairs at Bruges, Antwerpen, Lyons & Geneve

1301

MIDEAST: Ottoman Osman I defeats Byzantines (gaining full control of Bosporus, Byzantium's lifeline)

1301 HALLEY'S COMET

1301 NE Sc

+

BRITAIN: Edward I's son made Prince of Wales: beginning of final subjugation of Wales

1302

BRITAIN: truce between England & Scotland (seeds of united Britain being established)

1302 UR -tri PL Li Aq

1302 NE Sc

+

BENELUX: rebellion against landlords & burgher oligarchies at Bruges

1303

FRANCE: convening of first States General (parliament of nobility); French kidnap Pope

1303 UR -tri PL Li Aq

+

ITALY: founding of university of Rome ; RUSSIA: growth of Muscovy begins (to become Russia)

1304

IDEAS: Meister Eckhart (1260-1327) (theologian & philosopher) at work

1304 UR -tri PL Li Aq

1304 UR Sc

+

* N AMERICA: decline of the Anasazi and other cultures in Arizona (climate change?)

1305

BRITAIN: standardisation of imperial weights & measures by Edward I of England

+

C EUROPE: conflict in Hungary (1301-08) after fall of Arpad dynasty

1306

FRANCE: Jews exiled by Philip IV; 1307 Knights Templars in France persecuted & dissolved

+

BRITAIN: Robert Bruce crowned king of Scotland, defeated twice by English

1307

CHINA: end of Mongol Yuan dynasty; Nestorian Archbishopric of Beijing grows

1307 UR CONJ NE Sc Sc

1307 PL Pi

+

W AFRICA: zenith of Mandingo (1307-32) under Gongo Musa; annexing Songhai in 1325

1308

INDIA: conquest of Malwa & Deccan by Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khalji (raiding booty, anti-Hindu)

1308 PL Pi

+

1309

W EUROPE: Papacy moves from Rome to Avignon under French Pope Clement V (1305-9)

+

1310

MED'N: Knights of St John move from Cyprus to Rhodes (to stay there until 1522)

+

BRITAIN: Edward II (1307-27) appoints Lords Ordainers to improve governance of England

1311

C EUROPE: Karl I, K of Hungary (1310-42) (Anjou line) (restores order and remodels society)

1311 UR Sg

+

1312

ATLANTIC: Canary Islands rediscovered by Genoese sailors

1312 UR -SQR PL Sg Pi

+

1313

INNOVN: gunpowder invented by Friar Berthold Schwarz in Germany

1313 UR -SQR PL Sg Pi

+

RUSSIA: Mongol Golden Horde (Ukraine) converts to Islam

1314

BRITAIN: Scotland (Robert Bruce) defeats England at the Battle of Bannockburn

1314 UR on S Node

+

FRANCE: Grand Master of Knights Templars burned at stake for heresy

1315

C EUROPE: Swiss peasants beat Habsburg Leopold of Austria (strengthening Swiss League)

1315 NE Sg

+

EUROPE: disease & famine reduces popn of C & W Europe by 10% (1315-17)

1316

IRELAND: Edward Bruce crowned King of Ireland

1316 NE Sg

+

E EUROPE: Gedymin (1316-41), founder of Lithuania (largest territory in 1300s Europe)

1317

FRANCE: Salik law adopted in France (excluding women from throne of France)

+

E AFRICA: downfall of Christian Sahel kingdom of Makkura to Muslim Arab nomads

1318

IRELAND: Edward Bruce, King of Ireland, killed by English

1318 Sa CONJ PL Pi Pi

1318 UR Cp

+

C EUROPE: truce between nationalistic Swiss League & Austrian Habsburgs

1319

E EUROPE: final freeing & uniting of Poland by Vladislav IV of Krakow (1305-33)

+

* INDIA: DELHI SULTANATE AT ZENITH (trade, textiles, taxation, cosmopolitan)

1320

* ITALY: cultural revival in ITALY: Dante (1265-1321), Petrarch (1304-74) & Giotto (1266-1337)

+

* INDIA: Tughluk dynasty (1320-1413) inherits Delhi Sultanate (max extent of Delhi Sultanate, reforms)

1321

INNOVN: William of Occam (1285-1349) ('Occam's Razor', writes on facts, proof, knowledge)

1321 UR +ssx NE Cp Sg

+

BYZANTIUM: civil war (1321-54) in Byzantium (involving Greek, Latin & Orthodox groups)

1322

C EUROPE: Bavaria at war with Austria, Frederick of Austria loses

1322 UR -sxt PL Cp Pi

+

JAPAN: Emp Daigo II (1318-39) ends power of retired emperors, ends Kamakura shogunate 1333

1322 UR +ssx NE Cp Sg

1323

INNOVN: Marsilius of Padua's 'Defensor Pacis' (secular state, church-state sep'n, popular sovereignty)

1323 UR -sxt PL Cp Pi

+

BRITAIN: end of wars between England & Scotland (Treaty of Edinburgh, 1328)

1323 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

1324

W AFRICA: pilgrimage of Mansa Musa of Mali to Mecca (Mali source of 60% of world's gold)

1324 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

+

ROME: excommunication of Louis the Bavarian (last Papal intervention in HRE German succession)

1325

RUSSIA: Ivan I (1325-41) begins retrieval of Muscovy from Mongols (rise of Russian identity)

1325 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

+

* AMERICAS: ARRIVAL OF AZTECS in Valley of Mexico, Tenochtitlan founded (military & trading power)

+

CHINA: famine kills 8 million people (out of 45m), hastening Yuan disintegration

+

INDIA: Mohammed ibn Tughluk, Delhi Sultan (1325-51) (expands Sultanate; destroys Indian Buddhism)

+

EURASIA: travels of Moroccan Ibn Batuta to Africa, Arabia, India, Russia, China, Sahel (27-49)

1326

BRITAIN: Isabella (wife of Edward II) & Roger Mortimer invade England, capturing Edward II

1326 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

1326 UR Aq

+

MIDEAST: expansion of Ottoman lands in NW Anatolia ; EUROPE: first use of cannons, by Florence

1327

GERMANY: great fire of Munchen (city burnt down, later totally rebuilt

1327 NE -SQR PL Sg Pi

+

BRITAIN: Edward III, King of England (1327-1377); Justices of Peace appointed as law judges

1328

* AMERICAS: Aztecs establish Tenochtitlan (Mexico City, largest city in world in year 2000)

1328 UR -ssq PL Aq Pi

+

FRANCE: end of Capetian dynasty; rise of House of Valois (1328-1498) Philip VI ,K of France (1328-50)

+

HRE: Louis IV of Bavaria HRE (1328-47) crowned in Rome; deposes Pope John XXII for heresy

1329

RUSSIA: Ivan I, Grand Duke (1328-41) (makes Moscow his capital, moving from Novgorod)

1329 UR +ssq NE Aq Cp

1329 NE Cp

+

1330

BRITAIN: David II, King of Scotland (1329-71)

1330 UR +ssq NE Aq Cp

+

HRE: Habsburgs submit to Louis IV of Bavaria as HR Emperor (competitiveness for throne)

1331

JAPAN: imperial restoration of Ashikaga Daigo II, Emp of Japan (fall of Kamakura power)

1331 UR +ssq NE Aq Cp

+

E EUROPE: Stephan Dushan, king of Serbia (1331-55), unites most of Balkans (seeking Byzantine power)

1332

ASIA: beginning of BLACK DEATH bubonic plague in SW China (during a famine)

1332 Sa OPPN PL Vi Pi

+

SCANDNVA: anarchy in Denmark (1332-40) (German & Hansa meddling); Valdemar IV (1340-75)

1333

* IBERIA: ZENITH of ARAB GRENADAN CULTURE under Yusuf I Almohad Caliph (1333-54)

1333 Sa OPPN PL Li Ar

1333 UR Pi

+

INDIA: repression & overtaxation in India by Tughluk Sultan (cruelty, extortion, revenge)

1333 UR -ssx PL Aq Pi

1333 PL Ar

+

CHINA: great famine kills 6 million people (1333-7) (possible source of Black Death)

1334

* E EUROPE: Bohemia, Poland & Hungary become great states (1330s-80s) (universities & towns)

1334 UR Pi

+

CHINA: disastrous floods in Yangtze valley (stimulating revolts against Mongol Yuan dynasty)

1334 PL Ar

1335

PERSIA: dissolution of Il-Khan empire into local dynasties (lacking leadership)

+

INDIA: Vijayanagar created (1335-1565) (centre for Brahmin studies, Dravidian nat'lism, art)

1336

JAPAN: ASHIKAGA PERIOD (1336-1568) (restoration of feudalism, clan frictions, social changes,

+

war & instability yet trade & industry growth, freethinking & diffusion of culture)

1337

W EUROPE: HUNDRED YEARS' WAR between France & England (Edward III claims French throne)

1337 UR +sxt NE Pi Cp

+

INDIA: attempted Tughluk invasion of Tibet & China destroyed by rains in Himalayas

+

W EUROPE: coup d'etat in Ghent (by bourgeois movement with popular support)

1338

BRITAIN: French burn Portsmouth

1338 UR +sxt NE Pi Cp

+

W EUROPE: alliance between England's Edward III & HRE Louis IV against France

1339

RUSSIA: building of the Kremlin in Moscow by Ivan I

1339 UR +sxt NE Pi Cp

+

JAPAN: Kitabatake Chikafusa writes history of Japan (rising patriotic sentiments)

1340

* EURASIA: end of European-Asian trade & cultural contacts via Silk Roads (caused by plague)

+

* INDIA: growth of S Indian state of Vijayanagar as Hindu opposition to Delhi Sultanate

+

IDEAS: Florentine Pegalotti's 'Merchants' Handbook' (on travelling conditions worldwide)

1341

* ASIA: BLACK DEATH (bubonic plague) starts on large scale in Asia

1341 UR Ar

+

INDIA: Delhi Sultanate shrinks; Bengal breaks away, Deccan 1347, Gujerat 1396

1342

+

1343

* EURASIA: general disaster and major shrinkage of population; trade & internationalism die

1343 UR CONJ PL Ar Ar

1343 NE Aq

+

E EUROPE: revolt of Estonians against occupying Danes; Teutonic Knights take Estonia in 1346

1344

* GERMANY: pogroms against Jews: 350 Jewish communities destroyed; Jews move to Lith-Poland

1344 UR CONJ PL Ar Ar

+

INDIA: extermination, penal severity & resulting rebellion in Delhi Sultanate (loss of South)

1345

SCANDNVA: retaking of disintegrated Denmark (Funen, Jutland 1348, Scania 1360) by Waldemar IV

1345 NE on S Node

+

1346

W EUROPE: Bt of Crecy, English defeat French; Calais surrenders to Edward III

+

* IDEAS: work of Ibn Battuta, Arab geographer and traveller

1347

MIDEAST: BLACK DEATH DEVASTATES THE ISLAMIC WORLD

+

HRE: Charles IV of Luxembourg HRE (1347-78)

+

E EUROPE: Statutes of Casimir III the Great of Poland (1333-70) establish law & central gov't

+

ROME: coup d'etat by Cola di Rienzi (bourgeousie against papal power)

1348

EUROPE: BLACK DEATH in EUROPE (killing 25 million people in four years in Europe alone)

1348 UR Ta

+

GERMANY: false pretender takes throne of Brandenburg for two years

1349

* SE ASIA: Chinese first settle Singapore (starting Chinese overseas expansion)

1349 UR Ta

+

PERSIA: end of the Mongol Ilkhans of Persia (followed by local dynasties until Timurlenk)

+

GERMANY: persecution of Jews; E EUROPE: Dusanov Zakonik, legal code established in Serbia

1350

* JAPAN: Japanese cultural revival; * SE ASIA: golden age of Majapahit empire in Java-Sumatra

1350 Sa CONJ PL Ar Ar

+

* ASIA: CULTURAL & ECONOMIC ZENITH ACROSS EAST ASIA

1351

C EUROPE: strengthening of Swiss League, with new members joining (seed of independent Switz)

1351 NE -sxt PL Aq Ar

+

E EUROPE: Winrich of Kniprode greatest Grand Master (1351-82) of Teutonic Knights

+

INDIA: Firuz Tughluk, Delhi Sultan (1351-88) halts decline, restores sense (agric, irrigation)

+

SE ASIA: founding of state of Ayutthaya (root of modern Thailand)

1352

* SE ASIA: rise of Burmese Buddhist states of Ava, Tungu,Pegu, Luang Prabang on fall of temple cities

1352 NE -sxt PL Aq Ar

+

N AFRICA: Ibn Battuta explores Sahara desert, visits Timbuktu

1353

* SE AFRICA: rebuilding of Great Zimbabwe after bushfires (Zimbabweans trading with Arabia & China)

1353 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq

+

1353 UR +ssx PL Ta Ar

1354

MIDEAST: Ottomans take Gallipoli on the Bosporus (threatening Byzantium; bridge to Europe)

1354 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq

+

INNOVN: mechanical clock built for Strasbourg Cathedral

1354 UR +ssx PL Ta Ar

1355 UR Ge

1355

EUROPE: Black Death slowly dying out (tracts of Eurasia drastically changed)

1355 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq

+

* EUROPE: 'The Desolation': end of small villages, agrarian pop'n moves to towns after Black Death

1356

W EUROPE: Bt of Poitiers, English under Black Prince beat France (taking French king & son prisoner)

1356 UR +SQR NE Ta Aq

1356 UR Ge

+

GERMANY: Charles IV's Golden Bull weakens monarchy (Ger princes too weak to maintain peace)

1356 NE Pi

1357

FRANCE: bourgeois revolt in Paris under Etienne Marcel (against local rulership & clerics)

1357 UR +ssq PL Ge Ar

1357 NE Pi

+

1358

C EUROPE: Habsburgs sign treaty with nationalist Swiss League (after two defeats)

1358 UR on N Node

+

* N EUROPE: Hansa League of German trading towns thriving in Baltic & Europe (200 cities)

1358 UR +ssq PL Ge Ar

1359

W EUROPE: Treaty of London restores Angevin lands in France to Edward III of England

+

FRANCE: hailstorm & lightning ruin English army at Chartres (1000 men, 6000 horses killed)

1360

W EUROPE: first phase of Hundred Years War ends with the Peace of Bretigny

+

C ASIA: Timurlenk (1336-1405) proclaims himself Islamic renewer of Mongol empire at Samarkand

1361

E EUROPE: Ottoman Turks enter Europe, capturing Adrianople (Edirne, crossroads Asia-Europe)

+

BRITAIN: Black Death (bubonic plague) recurs in England & France (also 1367, 1369)

1362

IDEAS: William Langland's 'Piers Plowman'

1362 PL Ta

+

1362 UR Cn

1363

C EUROPE: Habsburg Rudolph of Austria obtains Tyrol (seeking to consolidate Habsburg power)

1363 NE -ssq PL Pi Ar

1363 UR Cn

+

C ASIA: TIMURLENK begins devastating MONGOL-TURKIC INVASIONS of Asia & Middle East

1363 PL Ta

1364

AMERICAS: Aztec expansion under Itzcoatl (from capital at Tenochtitlan, through C Mexico)

1364 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

1364 PL Ta

+

FRANCE: Charles V King of France (1364-80) and Burgundy (1365-80)

1364 NE -ssq PL Pi Ar

1365

1365 Sa OPPN PL Sc Ta

+

1366

OTTOMANS: Ottoman Turks make Adrianople their capital

+

BRITAIN: England's Parliament rebels against Pope

1367

N EUROPE: Denmark & Hansa League at war (over Baltic access & control of piracy)

1367 UR +tri NE Cn Pi

+

INDIA: massacre of 400,000 Hindus by Tughluk (Sultan of Delhi) on invasion of Vijayanagar (S India)

1368

CHINA: MING DYNASTY FOUNDED at Nanking by rebel Chu Yuan-chang, driving out Mongols by 1387

1368 UR +tri NE Cn Pi

+

SE ASIA: fall of Hindu Angkor kingdom to Thai attacks

1369

ASIA: Timurlenk becomes Great Khan of Samarkand (supported by Kipchak-Jagatai Mongols)

1369 UR +tri NE Cn Pi

1369 UR Le

+

ITALY: Venice repels invasion attempt by landlocked Hungarians

1370

* ARTS: early work of Chaucer (1340-1400), English poet

1370 UR +tri NE Le Ar

1370 NE Ar

+

IBERIA: Castilian monarchy fights out power with nobility, establishing control

1370 UR +SQR PL Le Ta

1371

BRITAIN: Robert II King of Scotland (1371-90) (beginning of House of Stuart)

1370 PL Aphn 6Ta

1371 NE Ar

+

* C ASIA: Timurlenk invades Khorezm empire (Khorasan, Bokhara, Afghanistan)

1371 UR +SQR PL Le Ta

+

CHINA: Ming Maritime Edict forbids all Chinese from travelling abroad, many foreign contacts withdrawn

1372

W EUROPE: French victories over English in Hundred Years' War

+

1373

W EUROPE: major conquests by English John of Gaunt in NW & W France

1373 UR +sqt NE Le Ar

+

* N EUROPE: zenith of the Hansa League as political & trading power

1374

* S INDIA: ZENITH OF HINDU STATE OF VIJAYANAGAR

1374 UR +sqt NE Le Ar

+

* RUSSIA: political predominance of Moscow over neighbouring Russian states

1375

MIDEAST: Mamluks invade Christian Armenia

1375 NE -ssx PL Ar Ta

1375 UR Vi

+

W EUROPE: Truce of Bruges between England & France

1375 UR +sqt NE Le Ar

1376

* IDEAS: emergence of story of Robin Hood

1376 NE -ssx PL Ar Ta

1376 UR Vi

+

1376 UR +sqt NE Le Ar

1377

E EUROPE: Jagiello of Lithuania (1377-1434) (Lith becomes Catholic; Moldavia-Wallachia gained)

+

W EUROPE: Pope Gregorius XI (1370-78) takes Papacy from Avignon back to Rome

+

ASIA: Mongol Golden & White Hordes unite (internal revival until Timurlenk)

1378

MIDEAST: Armenia & Azerbaijan taken over by Turkoman nomad rulers

1378 UR +tri PL Vi Ta

+

EUROPE: Great Schism between Rome & Avignon Churches, until 1417; two Popes elected

1378 HALLEY'S COMET

+

W EUROPE: renewal of Anglo-French Hundred Years' War

1379

* EUROPE: heated attention on witchcraft and heresy (persecution & burnings)

1379 UR +tri PL Vi Ta

+

GERMANY: Hans Fugger founds a bank in Augsburg (Europe's biggest bank by 1500)

1379 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar

1380

ASIA: Timurlenk begins his conquests of Khorasan, Afghanistan, S Russia, Persia

1380 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar

+

* IDEAS: work of Ibn Khaldun, Muslim historian

+

RUSSIA: Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow defeats Tatars at Bt of Kulikovo (turning the tide for Russians)

1381

* IDEAS: John Wyclif (1328-84) church reformer at work (expelled from Oxford 1382, condemned)

1381 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar

1381 UR Li

+

W EUROPE: truce between England & France for six years

+

BRITAIN: Wat Tyler's peasants' revolt in England (seeking reform of conditions & rights)

+

MED'N: Venice wins its 'Hundred Years' War' against Genoa (flowering of Venetian culture)

1382

E EUROPE: Ottoman Turks take Bulgaria and Sofia

1382 Sa CONJ PL Ta Ta

1382 UR Li

+

1382 UR +qcx NE Vi Ar

1383

IRELAND: population decimated by plague & famine

1383 NE Ta

+

1384

BRITAIN: Anglo-Scottish wars renewed

1384 NE Ta

+

1385

W EUROPE: Anglo-French wars renewed

+

PERSIA: Timurlenk invades Persia (many massacres), turns on Kipchak (Golden Horde) in S Russia

1386

E EUROPE: union of Poland & Lithuania under Jagiello line Vladislav II (Prussia outmatched)

+

1387

E EUROPE: Lithuania converts to Christianity (the last european pagan state)

+

C EUROPE: King Sigismund of Brandenburg becomes King of Hungary (by marriage)

+

SCANDNVA: Margareta of Denmark becomes queen of Den, Sweden, Norway, leading to union

+

CHINA: China finally cleared of Mongols by Nanking Ming dynasty

1388

ASIA: Mongols driven out of their capital Karakorum by Chinese, defeated at Kerulen

1388 UR Sc

+

ARTS: Chaucer's 'Canterbury Tales'

+

BRITAIN: Scots defeat the English at Bt of Otterburn

1389

E EUROPE: Ottomans (Murad I, 1359-89) beat Serbs, gaining control of Balkans at Bt of Kosovo

+

W EUROPE: truce between England, Scotland & France; William of Wykeham Engl Lord Chancellor

1390

+

1391

IBERIA: revolt in Spain against power of Jews (over social inequalities, some bigotry added)

1391 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta

+

1392

E ASIA: Korea ind of China; foundn of Li dynasty (1392-1910) (prosperity & culture 1392-1494)

1392 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta

+

JAPAN: end of civil wars (1336-92), Ashikaga Shoguns at low ebb (architecture & No dramas)

1393

MIDEAST: Timurlenk takes Baghdad and attacks Mesopotamia

1393 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta

+

* CHINA: Chinese population 60m, 40% less than in late Sung; 130m by 1580

1394

SE ASIA: Thais invade Cambodia, whereupon the Khmers move from Angkor to Phnom Penh

1394 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta

1394 PL Ge

+

W EUROPE: Richard II of England attacks Ireland (Irish rulers become tributary)

1394 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta

1395

INDIA: Gujerat prospers under Islamic Rajput dynasty (1396-1572) (trading power)

1395 UR OPPN PL Sc Ta

1395 UR Sg

+

EUROPE: FIRST STIRRINGS OF EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE (in Italian city-states & European cities)

1395 UR OPPN NE Sc Ta

1395 PL Ge

1396

BRITAIN: Richard II marries Isabella of France; truce between England & France extended

1396 UR OPPN PL Sg Ge

1396 PL Ge

+

E EUROPE: Ottomans defeat Crusader army under Sigismund of Hungary, at Nicopolis

1396 NE Ge

1397

SCANDNVA: Union of Kalmar unites Sweden, Denmark and Norway

1397 Sa OPPN PL Sg Ge

1397 NE Ge

+

1398

INDIA: Timurlenk invades India & sacks Delhi, retires (disease; Delhi Sultanate declines)

1398 NE CONJ PL Ge Ge

1398 NE Ge

+

C EUROPE: Jan Hus (1369-1415), Wyclifian reformer, lecturing on theology at Prague university

1398 UR on S Node

1399

BRITAIN: king deposed; Henry IV King of England (1399-1413) (suppresses rebellion of nobles)

1399 NE CONJ PL Ge Ge

+

* CHINA: great drainage & irrigation, reforestation & repopulation works by Ming dynasty


Uranus conjunct Neptune 1307


Uranus square Pluto 1312-13

Ottomans first defeat Byzantines; fall of Yuan dynasty, China; Mandingo zenith, W Africa, Mandingo annexes Songhai; peak of Nestorian Christian influence in Asia; consolidation of states & prosperity in Europe, though disease & famine follow; truce between England & Scotland; zenith of Delhi Sultanate; gunpowder invented, Germany; Knights Templars dissolved; formation of Switzerland, Canary Is discovered by Genoese


Neptune square Pluto 1323-27
Ascendancy of Aztecs, C Mexico, founding Tenochtitlan; zenith of Moorish Grenada; cultural florescence in Italy; gold-rich Mali becomes Muslim; unstable Ashikaga period, Japan; famine in China (roots of Black Death); Ottoman expansion, Anatolia & Balkans; civil war in declining Byzantium; travels of Ibn Battuta, Africa to China; end of Buddhism in India by Sultan of Delhi; growth of Serbia


Uranus conjunct Pluto 1343-44
Black Death spreads from China across Asia to Europe (disaster, population loss, economic shrinkage, cultural contacts die); persecution of Jews, Germany - many Jews move east; Chinese emigration abroad (Singapore, Indonesia); rebellion against Delhi Sultanate, Vijayanagar power grows in S India


Uranus square Neptune 1353-55
Zenith in Japan, Indochina and Java - Majapahit zenith in Java-Sumatra; desolation across Europe (Black Death); Turks surround Constantinople; Mongol-Turk revival in C Asia - Timurlenk; rebuilding of Great Zimbabwe after bushfires; major social change in Europe (urbanisation, revolts, war between England & France); Black Death dies down


Uranus square Pluto 1370-71
Founding of Ming dynasty, China; Timurlenk's invasions of C Asia, Persia & Middle East; cruelty in Muslim world (Timurlenk & Delhi Sultanate); zenith of Hansa trading league; zenith of Vijayanagar, S India; rise of Lithuania; witchcraft and heresy persecutions begin in Europe; slow revival from Black Death in Eurasia


Uranus opposition Neptune 1391-94


Neptune conjunct Pluto 1394-96

Timurlenk invades Iraq, Persia, N India (brings decline of Delhi Sultanate); Ottomans control Balkans (Bt of Kosovo); last pagan Euro state, Lithuania, converts to Catholicism; rebuilding in Ming China (after previous wars); Sweden, Denmark & Norway united; first stirrings of European Renaissance in Italy (Medicis in Florence); Henry the Navigator sponsors Portuguese exploration to Africa; Timurlenk defeats Ottomans - Ottoman revival under Suleiman I; fall of Timurlenk's empire on his death; ascendancy in Korea; most of Eurasia in intense transition

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The Historical Ephemeris © Copyright Palden Jenkins 1993-99


The Historical Ephemeris
by Palden Jenkins
Astro-historical tables for 2,500 years

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